The afghani is the currency of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, issued by the nation's central bank called Da Afghanistan Bank. It is nominally subdivided into 100 puls, although there are no pul coins in circulation. In 2019, one U. S. dollar was exchanged for 75 afghanis. The original afghani was introduced in 1925, replacing the Afghan rupee, used from 1891 and other currencies. In addition to being subdivided into 100 puls, 20 afghanis were equal to one amani; the rate of conversion from the rupee is sometimes quoted as 1 afghani = 1 rupee 6 paisas, based on the silver contents of the last rupee coins and the first afghani coins. The afghani contained 9 grams of silver. Except during World War I Afghanistan's foreign exchange rate has been determined by market forces. However, for some periods, a dual exchange rate regime existed in Afghanistan: an official exchange rate, fixed by the Afghan Central Bank, a free market exchange rate, determined by the supply and demand forces in Kabul's money bazaar called Saraye Shahzada.
For example, in order to avoid the seasonal fluctuations in the exchange rate, a fixed exchange rate was adopted in 1935 by the Bank-e-Millie, responsible for the country's exchange rate system and official reserves. Bank-e Milli agreed to exchange afghani at 4 Afs against 1 Indian rupee in 1935. After the establishment of Da Afghanistan Bank as the Central Bank of Afghanistan, such a preferential official fixed exchange rate continued to be practiced. Although Da Afghanistan Bank tried to keep its official rate close to the Sarai Shahzada exchange rate, the gap between the official and free-market exchange rates widened in the 1980s and during the civil war thereafter; the afghani traded at 67 Afs to one U. S. dollar in 1973. After the start of a civil war in 1992, the same U. S. dollar bought 16,000 Afs. Banknotes from the period of Zahir Shah's monarchy ceased to be legal tender by 1991. After the creation of a dysfunctional government and the start of the civil war, different warlords and factions, foreign powers and forgers each made their own afghani banknotes to support themselves financially, with no regard to standardization or honoring serial numbers.
In December 1996, shortly after the Taliban took control of Afghanistan's institutions, Ehsanullah Ehsan, the chairman of the Taliban's Central Bank, declared most afghani notes in circulation to be worthless and cancelled the contract with the Russian firm, printing the currency since 1992. Ehsan accused the firm of sending new shipments of afghani notes to ousted president Burhanuddin Rabbani in northern Takhar province; the exchange rate at the time of Ehsan's announcement was 21,000 afghanis to one U. S. dollar. It was devalued to 43,000 afghanis to the dollar. Abdul Rashid Dostum, who controlled a self-declared autonomous region in northern Afghanistan until 1998 printed his own money for his region. Following the United States invasion of Afghanistan, the currency became destabilized; the afghani traded at 73,000 Afs per one U. S. dollar in September 2001, steeply soaring to 23,000 Afs after the fall of the Taliban regime in November 2001, before plunging again to 36,000 Afs in January 2002.
Around seven different versions of the currency were in circulation by that time. A former governor said at the time that maybe "trillions" of banknotes are in circulation as a result. In 2002, the afghani was denominated, it received new ISO 4217 code AFN. No subdivisions were issued, it replaced the previous afghani at two distinct rates - issues of the government of former President Rabbani were replaced at a rate of 1,000 to the new afghani, whilst the issues of warlord Dostum were replaced at a rate of 2,000 to the new afghani. It was created in an effort to stop the rapid inflation; the notes were printed in Germany. The new currency was announced by President Hamid Karzai on September 4, 2002, was introduced to the market on October 8, 2002; this monetary reform was well received by the public as it was a sign of security and stability the country's rebuilding effort. People no longer had to carry many bags of money for ordinary things, it was the first time in many years that a sole currency was under the control of the central bank instead of warlords.
Most old banknotes were destroyed by the end of 2002. Da Afghanistan Bank has adopted a floating exchange rate regime and has let the exchange rate to be determined by market forces; the new afghani was valued at 43 afghanis to one U. S. dollar. After depreciating during the last quarter of 2003/04, the afghani has been appreciating gaining 8 percent against the U. S. dollar between March 2004 and July 2004. This appreciation, at a time of increasing inflation, appears to reflect a greater willingness by the population to use the afghani as a medium of exchange and as a store of value; this trend appears to be attributable to the relative stability of the exchange rate since the introduction of the new currency, administrative measures aimed at promoting its use, such as the requirement that shopkeepers must price goods in afghani. Donors are making payments in afghanis instead of U. S. dollars and this appears to be accepted. By 2009, the afghani was valued at 45 afs per one U. S. dollar. In 2019, the afghani reached 75 afs to a U.
S. dollar. In 1925, bronze and brass 2, 5 and 10 pul, billon 20 pul, silver 1⁄2 and 1 afghani, gold 1⁄2 and 1 amani coins were introduced, followed by silver 2 1⁄2 afghani and gold 2 1⁄2 amani in 1926. In 1930, bronze and brass
Russula delica is a mushroom that goes by the common name of milk-white brittlegill, is a member of the genus Russula, all of which are collectively known as brittlegills. It is white, with ochraceous or brownish cap markings, a short robust stem, it is edible, but poor in taste, grows in coniferous, broadleaved, or mixed woods. It can be confused with certain white Lactarius species. First described by the Swedish mycologist Elias Magnus Fries in 1838, its specific epithet delica is Latin for "weaned". Older names include Christian Hendrik Persoon's Lactarius piperatus var. exsuccus. This species has undergone many taxonomic changes over the years. Russula chloroides is now considered a distinct species because of the dense lamellae and blue/green zone at the stem apex of some specimens. Gill spacing, gill depth, spore colour and spore ornamentation have thrown many finds into doubt, a number of varieties have been described throughout the years. Mycologist John Burton Cleland collected a form he described in 1935 as R. delica from under eucalypts in the Mount Lofty Ranges in South Australia, this was reclassified as a new species R. marangania in 1997 by Cheryl Grgurinovic.
The basidiocarps of Russula delica seem loath to leave the soil, are found half buried, or sometimes growing hypogeously. As a result, the caps trap the surrounding leaf debris and soil on their rough surfaces; the cap can be 16 cm in diameter. It is white tinged with ochre or brown, with an inrolled margin, which remains white. At first it is convex, but flattens, is funnel shaped; the firm, white stipe is short and stout, measuring 2–6 cm high and 2–4 cm wide. The gills are decurrent, are quite spaced initially; the spore print is creamy white, the warty oval spores measure 8–12 x 7–9 μm. The flesh is white, does not change colour on cutting, it has a pleasant, fruity smell when young, but at maturity it may develop a faintly fishy or unpleasant smell. It has a tangy taste. Russula chloroides is similar and confused with R. delica. It can be separated by the turquoise band by its unpleasant, peppery smell. Russula pallidospora is another similar species, which has tough flesh, more distant gills and an ochraceous spore deposit.
Russula flavispora is similar but rare, has dense gills and a deep ochraceous spore deposit. Similar whitish milk-cap species, such as Lactifluus piperatus all exude milk from the gills, the cut flesh. Russula delica is widespread in the northern temperate zones, including Asia, it is common in the Eastern Mediterranean. It is a thermophylic species, appearing during hot spells in summer and autumn in broadleaved and coniferous woods. In North America Russula delica is rare and is replaced by R. brevipes, similar, but not found in Europe. This mushroom is edible but poor, having an unpleasant taste, leading some to classify it as inedible. However, in Cyprus, as well as certain Greek islands such as Lesvos, huge numbers of Russula delica are collected and consumed every year, they are pickled and preserved in olive oil, vinegar or brine, after prolonged boiling. List of Russula species
The Cascade Mountains wolf is an extinct subspecies of the gray wolf, once found in the Pacific Northwest. The wolf became extinct in 1940, it was identified as a separate species by Richardson in 1839 and from other wolves in the area by Edward Goldman in 1945. This wolf is recognized as a subspecies of Canis lupus in the taxonomic authority Mammal Species of the World, it was described as a cinnamon-coloured wolf, weighing 36 -- 49 kg. Another subspecies, the British Columbia wolf, has established itself in the Cascade mountain wolf's past territory by following the Cascade Range through Washington and is now west of the Cascade crest, expanding across Oregon, into northern California to Lassen Peak, where in 2019 the Lassen pack produced 3 wolf pups