Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent and Zimbabwe. It evolved from the Dutch vernacular of Holland spoken by the Dutch settlers in the south-west of what is now South Africa, where it began to develop distinguishing characteristics in the course of the 18th century. Hence, it is a daughter language of Dutch. Although Afrikaans has adopted words from other languages, including German and the Khoisan languages, an estimated 90 to 95% of the vocabulary of Afrikaans is of Dutch origin. Therefore, differences with Dutch lie in the more analytic-type morphology and grammar of Afrikaans, a spelling that expresses Afrikaans pronunciation rather than standard Dutch. There is a large degree of mutual intelligibility between the two languages—especially in written form. With about 7 million native speakers in South Africa, or 13.5% of the population, it is the third-most-spoken language in the country. Estimates of the total number of Afrikaans speakers range between 23 million.
It has the widest geographical and racial distribution of all the 11 official languages of South Africa, is spoken and understood as a second or third language. It is the majority language of the western half of South Africa—the provinces of the Northern Cape and Western Cape—and the first language of 75.8% of Coloured South Africans, 60.8% of White South Africans. The term is derived from the Dutch term Afrikaans-Hollands meaning "African Dutch", it was referred to as "Cape Dutch" or "kitchen Dutch". However, it has been variously described as a Dutch-based creole or as a creolised language; the Afrikaans language arose in the Dutch Cape Colony, through a gradual divergence from European Dutch dialects, during the course of the 18th century. As early as the mid-18th century and as as the mid-20th century, Afrikaans was known in standard Dutch as a "kitchen language", lacking the prestige accorded, for example by the educational system in Africa, to languages spoken outside Africa. Other early epithets setting apart Kaaps Hollands as putatively beneath official Dutch standards included geradbraakt and onbeschaafd Hollands, as well as verkeerd Nederlands.
Den Besten theorizes that modern Standard Afrikaans derives from two sources: Cape Dutch, a direct transplantation of European Dutch to Southern Africa, and'Hottentot Dutch', a pidgin that descended from'Foreigner Talk' and from the Dutch pidgin spoken by slaves, via a hypothetical Dutch creole. Thus in his view Afrikaans is neither a creole nor a direct descendant of Dutch, but a fusion of two transmission pathways. A relative majority of the first settlers whose descendants today are the Afrikaners were from the United Provinces, though up to one-sixth of the community was of French Huguenot origin, a seventh from Germany. African and Asian workers and slaves contributed to the development of Afrikaans; the slave population was made up of people from East Africa, West Africa, India and the Dutch East Indies. A number were indigenous Khoisan people, who were valued as interpreters, domestic servants, labourers. Many free and enslaved women married, cohabited with, or were victims of sexual violence from the male Dutch settlers.
M. F. Valkhoff argued that 75% of children born to female slaves in the Dutch Cape Colony between 1652 and 1672 had a Dutch father; some consider this the origin of the ethnic group, the Cape Coloureds, who adopted various forms of speech utilising a Dutch vocabulary. Sarah Grey Thomason and Terrence Kaufman argue that Afrikaans' development as a separate language was "heavily conditioned by nonwhites who learned Dutch imperfectly as a second language."Beginning in about 1815, Afrikaans started to replace Malay as the language of instruction in Muslim schools in South Africa, written with the Arabic alphabet: see Arabic Afrikaans. Afrikaans, now written with the Latin script, started to appear in newspapers and political and religious works in around 1850. In 1875, a group of Afrikaans-speakers from the Cape formed the Genootskap vir Regte Afrikaanders, published a number of books in Afrikaans including grammars, religious materials and histories. In 1925, Afrikaans was recognised by the South African government as a real language, rather than a slang version of Dutch proper.
Afrikaans was considered a Dutch dialect in South Africa until the early 20th century, when it became recognised as a distinct language under South African law, alongside Standard Dutch, which it replaced as an official language. Before the Boer wars, "and indeed for some time afterwards, Afrikaans was regarded as inappropriate for educated discourse. Rather, Afrikaans was described derogatorily as "a kitchen language" or "a bastard jargon," suitable for communication between the Boers and their servants."On 8 May 1925, twenty-three years after the Second Boer War ended, the Official Languages of the Union Act of 1925 was passed—mostly due to the efforts of the Afrikaans language movement—at a joint sitting of the House of Assembly and the Senate, in which the Afrikaans language was declared a variety of Dutch. The Constitution of 1961 reversed the position of Afrikaans an
Patrick Olusegun Odegbami shortened to Segun Odegbami is a retired Nigerian footballer who played as a forward. Patrick Olusegun Odegbami was born on August 27, 1952 in Lagos, Nigeria to Jacob Adebola Odegbami and Beatrice Bintu Abeke Odegbami, one of their seven children, his father was an older half-brother of Nigerian author Amos Tutuola. Odegbami was brought up in the northern city of Jos, Plateau State along with many other members of his extended family, he won 46 caps and scored 23 goals for the National Team, guided Nigeria to its first Africa Cup of Nations title at the 1980 tournament in his homeland. Nicknamed Mathematical, he was famous for his skill on the ball and precision of his crosses from the right wing, he played for IICC Shooting Stars of Ibadan his entire career, from 1970 to 1984. His last game was the 1984 African Champions Cup final defeat to Zamalek of Egypt; the original source of the nickname "Mathematical" was because Segun Odegbami attended and graduated from Nigeria's premier technical institution.
His 2 other brothers were involved with football at other levels. His older brother Dele Odegbami played football in the old Western Region for his school, the West Academicals, his university, UNN Nsukka, for Stationery Stores football club of Lagos, his other brother, Wole Odegbami, is a former national team player, playing on the Nigerian national team for 11 years. He is a columnist in Nigeria. In 2007 Chief Segun Odegbami appeared on Nigerian Who Wants To Be A Millionaire hosted by Frank Edoho, he played a game for charity with the much loved Zebrudaya and donated all his winnings to The Little Saints’ Orphanage on the Strong Tower Mission. In September 2015, former Nigeria national football team captain Segun Odegbami stated his intention to run for FIFA presidency. Shooting StarsNigerian Premier League: Champion 1976, 1980, 1983 Nigerian FA Cup: 1977, 1979 African Cup Winners' Cup: Champion 1976 All-Africa Games: Silver medal 1978 Africa Cup of Nations: Champion 1980 Africa Cup of Nations goalscorer: 1980 with 3 goals Africa Cup of Nations Team of the Tournament: 1980 Segun Odegbami – FIFA competition record
Drip or Drown 2 is the debut studio album by American rapper Gunna, released on February 22, 2019, through YSL Records. It serves as Drown with American producer Wheezy; the album features guest appearances from Lil Baby, Young Thug, Playboi Carti. It features production by Wheezy and Turbo, among others. At Metacritic, which assigns a weighted mean rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream publications, the album received a score of 76, based on 6 reviews. Drip or Drown 2 debuted at number three on the US Billboard 200 with 90,000 album-equivalent units in its first week; this is Gunna's highest-peaking album in his second top 10 album there. In its second week, the album dropped to number eight on the chart, earning an additional 42,000 album-equivalent units that week. In its third week, the album remained at number eight on the chart, earning another 31,000 album-equivalent units that week. In its fourth week, the album dropped to number ten on the chart, earning an additional 27,000 units that week, bringing its four-week total to 190,000 album-equivalent units.
On November 13, 2019, the album was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America, for combined sales and album-equivalent units of 500,000 total units, including more than 10,000 copies in pure album sales in the United States. Credits adapted from Tidal and BMI Notes ^ signifies an uncredited co-producer Credits adapted from Tidal. Gunna – primary artist Lil Baby – featured artist Young Thug – featured artist Playboi Carti – featured artist Turbo – engineer, mixer Arin "DJ AJ" Fields – engineer Fabian Maraciullo – mixer Bainzz – engineer Nia "Ivy" Mills – assistant engineer Colin Leonard – mastering enginneer Gunna - executive producer Young Thug – executive producer Turbo - executive producer Wheezy – executive producer