South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 24th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 58 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Bantu ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth-highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to claim more rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in the mid-1980s. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 33rd-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income and the seventh-highest human development index in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English and Unie van Zuid-Afrika in Dutch, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long formal name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa" and Republiek van Suid-Afrika in Afrikaans. Since 1994, the country has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations displaced or ass
Chandika Nanayakkara ), is an actor in Sri Lankan cinema and television. Nanayakkara won the award for the most popular actor in Sumathi Awards in two consecutive years, 2009 and 2010, he is working in television serials. His father was the deputy principal as well as disciplinary teacher of his school and mother was a housewife, he has a brother. He completed A/L education from Pelmadulla. At school, he placed third in an all-island Creative Writing competition. At school stage, he became a regular visitor to watch weekly stage dramas held at school, he continued to attend drama seminars organized by renowned artists like Kaushalya Fernando and Mahendra Perera. In 2003, he won the ‘Tharumansala’ competition organised by Sirasa TV, his beginning into the acting was accidental. While enrolled into Open University of Sri Lanka he met a friend working on a film set, he asked from Nanayakkara to do a small part in his movie Mother Theresa. In 2006, he produced a tele series Suba Sihina with one of his friends.
His next tele production came through Haratha Hera. He involved for the first Russian television series filmed in Sri Lanka. On 11 November 2008, he took part in Tharu-Rayak show held in Dubai, he is the brand ambassador for Lak Salu Sala. After 17 years, he graduated with a degree in Mass Communication which he started in 1994 from Open University of Sri Lanka, his maiden cinematic experience came through a supportive role in 2008 film Hathara Denama Soorayo, a remake of the 1971 film by the same name directed by Neil Rupasinghe. Since he has acted in about 7 films in supportive characters, he has won several awards for the Best Actor, Supporting Actor and Popular Actor in many local television award festivals. Stars lend hand to worthy cause රථම ප්රේමය ඇරඹුවේ හැමදාටම දුක සැප බෙදා ගැනීමට ආරාධනා කරමින් STARS lend hand to worthy cause Comic story comes to miniscreen ගිනි අවිය අතහැර දැමූ ශාන්ති කුමාර් ගෝකුලන් දේශීය සිනමාවට එක් වෙයි මගේ පුද්ගලික ජීවිතේ ගැන මම නොදන්න දේවලුත් සමහර අය දන්නවා - චන්දික නානායක්කාර චන්දික නානායක්කාරට ගැහැනු ළමයින්ගෙන් ඇස් රතුවන විහිළුවක්
William Notman was a 19th-century Scottish architect. Early work assisting Playfair focussed on country houses, but his independent work was more commercial in nature, he was born in the small village of Kirkurd in Peebleshire in February 1809, the son of John Notman a clerk of works, his wife Margaret Kemp. The family moved to Northfield Cottage on Newhaven Road west of Leith in the 1820s where he was articled to William Henry Playfair to train as an architect in 1823, his cousin, John Notman joined him a few years later. All Notman’s works until 1842 are under the umbrella of Playfair’s office. Around 1850 he set up his own practice in Davidsons Mains on the western edge of Edinburgh, he is buried in Rosebank Cemetery in north Edinburgh. The fallen stone lies near the centre of the graveyard on an infilled north-south path, he was married to Barbara Graham. Their children included John Notman FFA FRA. Monument to Prof John Playfair on Calton Hill Minto Church and Manse Drumbanagher House, County Armagh, jointly with John Notman, demolished 1951 due to death duties Dalcrue Farmhouse, Perthshire Remodelling of the Royal Scottish Academy on Princes Street Sections of Lurgan House, County Armagh, Northern Ireland Remodelling the house of Andrew Rutherfurd, Lord Rutherfurd at 9 St Colme Street, Edinburgh Details at Spottiswoode House, Westruther Shop at 15 Princes Street, Edinburgh demolished Remodelling of Minto House and stables Details for Donaldson's Hospital Haymarket Mills in Edinburgh Caledonian Distillery, Edinburgh Wool Warehouse for W & F Wilson, Hawick Shopfront, 132 Princes Street, Edinburgh Villa in Greenhill, Edinburgh Tenement on India Place in Stockbridge, Edinburgh demolished Comiston Farmhouse Tenements on Barony Street taking over from the deceased Alexander Black Chemical Works for MacLean & Hope, Leith The “Star Inn” in Moffat Tenement on Montgomery Street off Leith Walk Tenement on Fort Street in Leith Alterations to Bernards Brewery in Edinburgh Corner block on Windsor Street/Montgomery Street Tenement on Maitland Street Villa on Park Road, Edinburgh for William Gifford Tenement on Grove Street