click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Agar

Agar or agar-agar known as "China grass" is a jelly-like substance, obtained from red algae. Agar is a mixture of two components: the linear polysaccharide agarose, a heterogeneous mixture of smaller molecules called agaropectin, it forms the supporting structure in the cell walls of certain species of algae, is released on boiling. These algae are known as agarophytes, belong to the Rhodophyta phylum. Agar has been used as an ingredient in desserts throughout Asia, as a solid substrate to contain culture media for microbiological work. Agar can be used as a laxative, an appetite suppressant, a vegetarian substitute for gelatin, a thickener for soups, in fruit preserves, ice cream, other desserts, as a clarifying agent in brewing, for sizing paper and fabrics; the gelling agent in agar is an unbranched polysaccharide obtained from the cell walls of some species of red algae from tengusa and ogonori. For commercial purposes, it is derived from ogonori. In chemical terms, agar is a polymer made up of subunits of the sugar galactose.

Agar may have been discovered in Japan in 1658 by Mino Tarōzaemon, an innkeeper in current Fushimi-ku, Kyoto who, according to legend, was said to have discarded surplus seaweed soup and noticed that it gelled after a winter night's freezing. Over the following centuries, agar became a common gelling agent in several Southeast Asian cuisines. Agar was first subjected to chemical analysis in 1859 by the French chemist Anselme Payen, who had obtained agar from the marine algae Gelidium corneum. Beginning in the late 19th century, agar began to be used as a solid medium for growing various microbes. Agar was first described for use in microbiology in 1882 by the German microbiologist Walther Hesse, an assistant working in Robert Koch's laboratory, on the suggestion of his wife Fannie Hesse. Agar supplanted gelatin as the base of microbiological media, due to its higher melting temperature, allowing microbes to be grown at higher temperatures without the media liquefying. With its newfound use in microbiology, agar production increased.

This production centered on Japan, which produced most of the world's agar until World War II. However, with the outbreak of World War II, many nations were forced to establish domestic agar industries in order to continue microbiological research. Around the time of World War II 2,500 tons of agar were produced annually. By the mid-1970s, production worldwide had increased to 10,000 tons each year. Since production of agar has fluctuated due to unstable and sometimes over-utilized seaweed populations; the word "agar" comes from the Malay name for red algae from which the jelly is produced. It is known as Kanten, Japanese isinglass, Ceylon moss or Jaffna moss. Gracilaria lichenoides is referred to as agal-agal or Ceylon agar. Agar consists of a mixture of two polysaccharides: agarose and agaropectin, with agarose making up about 70% of the mixture. Agarose is a linear polymer, made up of repeating units of agarobiose, a disaccharide made up of D-galactose and 3,6-anhydro-L-galactopyranose. Agaropectin is a heterogeneous mixture of smaller molecules that occur in lesser amounts, is made up of alternating units of D-galactose and L-galactose modified with acidic side-groups, such as sulfate and pyruvate.

Agar exhibits hysteresis, melting at 85 °C and solidifying from 32–40 °C. This property lends a suitable balance between easy melting and good gel stability at high temperatures. Since many scientific applications require incubation at temperatures close to human body temperature, agar is more appropriate than other solidifying agents that melt at this temperature, such as gelatin. Agar-agar is a natural vegetable gelatin counterpart, it is white and semi-translucent when sold in packages as washed and dried strips or in powdered form. It can be used to make jellies and custards; when making jelly, it is boiled in water. Sweetener, coloring, fruits and or vegetables are added, the liquid is poured into molds to be served as desserts and vegetable aspics or incorporated with other desserts such as a layer of jelly in a cake. Agar-agar is 80% fiber, so it can serve as an intestinal regulator, its bulking quality has been behind fad diets for example the kanten diet. Once ingested, kanten triples in size and absorbs water.

This results in the consumers feeling fuller. This diet has received some press coverage in the United States as well; the diet has shown promise in obesity studies. One use of agar in Japanese cuisine is anmitsu, a dessert made of small cubes of agar jelly and served in a bowl with various fruits or other ingredients, it is the main ingredient in mizu yōkan, another popular Japanese food. In Philippine cuisine, it is used to make the jelly bars in the various gulaman refreshments or desserts such as sago gulaman, buko pandan, agar flan, halo-halo, the black and red gulaman used in various fruit salads. In Vietnamese cuisine, jellies made of flavored layers of agar agar, called thạch, are a popular dessert, are made in ornate molds for special occasions. In Indian cuisine, agar agar is used for making desserts. In Burmese cuisine, a sweet jelly known as kyauk kyaw is made from agar. Agar jelly is used in Taiwanese bubble tea; the bubble teahouses such as Gong Cha and Chatime can be seen in Australia, the United Sta

Danny Orlis series

Danny Orlis is a Christian fiction series for youth by American author Bernard Palmer and published predominantly by Moody Press of Chicago. Created in 1954, for many years the series was a regular feature on the weekly Back to the Bible radio broadcasts for youth in the 1950s–1980s. In early books, the title character was a high school student living in the Northwest Angle of Minnesota, whose Christian faith was tested by peer pressure amidst his adventures living on the Lake of the Woods and in meeting various characters in northern Minnesota communities such as Baudette and Warroad. A 1970 advertisement for the series gives the following description: "Adventure, suspense - these make up every Danny Orlis story. From the northern Canadian wilderness to the steaming jungles of Guatemala, Danny meets danger and mystery as well as everyday problems in the homeland, he is a skilled athlete -- and above all a consistent Christian. Quick action, quiet courage, level-headed thinking save the day as Danny uses his resources to the fullest.

His ability to apply biblical solutions to every situation makes him a unique personality whose experiences provide realistic guidelines for Christian youth facing similar difficulties." The ad continues: "In the earlier stories in the series Danny himself is central, growing up amid the complications arising out of school life, sporting events, outdoor dangers and other interesting settings and happenings. In the books, Danny as an adult influences other young people in exciting lifelike situations. Together with his wife, they offer wise counsel and a meaningful example to young people who face choices of lasting consequence." The series consists of over fifty titles. Two other key publishing companies who published the books are Tyndale Publishers and Back to the Bible Publications. Palmer's works published by Moody Press include: Danny Orlis and the Charging Moose Danny Orlis and the Storm Danny Orlis and the Silver-Cross Fox Danny Orlis and the Angle Inlet Mystery Danny Orlis and the Strange Forest Fires Danny Orlis and the Hunters Danny Orlis Goes to School Danny Orlis on Superstition Mountain Danny Orlis Makes the Team Danny Orlis and the Wrecked Plane Danny Orlis and the Big Indian Danny Orlis Changes Schools Danny Orlis and the Rocks that Talk Danny Orlis Plays Hockey Danny Orlis and the Point Barrow Mystery Danny Orlis and the Boy Who Would Not Listen Danny Orlis, Star Back Danny Orlis and His Big Chance Danny Orlis and the Terrible Mistake - original title Danny Orlis and the Contrary Mrs. Forester Danny Orlis and the Man from the Past Danny Orlis, Big Brother Danny Orlis on the "Valient" Danny Orlis and Marilyn's Great Trial Danny Orlis and the Mystery of the Sunken Ship Danny Orlis in Mysterious'Zandeland Danny Orlis and the Time of Testing Danny Orlis, Bush Pilot Danny Orlis and Hal's Great Victory Danny Orlis and the Drugstore Mystery Danny Orlis and the Ordeal at Camp Danny Orlis and Ron's Call to Service Danny Orlis and the Headstrong Linda Penner Danny Orlis and Linda's Struggle Danny Orlis and the Ice Fishing Escapade Danny Orlis and the Defiant Kent Gilbert Danny Orlis and Linda's New Mother Danny Orlis and Robin's Big Battle Danny Orlis and Robin's Big Mistake Danny Orlis and Kent's Encounter With the Law Danny Orlis and the Old Mine Mystery Danny Orlis and Robin's Rebellion Danny Orlis and Jim's Northern Adventure Danny Orlis and a Teen-Age Marriage Danny Orlis and Kent Gilbert's Tragedy Danny Orlis and Trouble on the Circle R Ranch Danny Orlis and Fritz McCloud, High School Star Danny Orlis and Jim Morgan's Scholarship Danny Orlis and the Accident that Shook Fairview Danny Orlis and the Guatemala Adventure Danny Orlis and the Dry Gulch Mystery Danny Orlis and the Bid for Victory Danny Orlis and Johnny's New Life Danny Orlis and DeeDee's Best Friend Danny Orlis and DeeDee's Defiance Danny Orlis and the Mysterious Visitors Danny Orlis and the Bewildered Runaway Danny Orlis and the Football Feud Danny Orlis and the Mexican Kidnapping Danny Orlis and Excitement at the Circle R Danny Orlis and the Live-In Tragedy Danny Orlis and the Colorado Challenge Danny Orlis and the Alaskan Highway Adventure Danny Orlis and the Canadian Caper Danny Orlis and the Ski Slope Emergency Danny Orlis and the Mystery at Northwest High Danny Orlis and Doug's Big Disappointment Danny Orlis and the Rock Point Rebel Danny Orlis and the Girl Who Dared Danny Orlis and the Mysterious Intruder Danny Orlis and the Live-In Tragedy Danny Orlis Stalks the Poachers Danny Orlis and the Mystery at Smuggler's Point Danny Orlis and the School Computer Break-In Danny Orlis Resists the Witch Doctor Danny Orlis and the Mysterious Neighbor Danny Orlis Stories: Danny Makes a Trip to Mexico Danny Orlis and the Final Touchdown - original title Danny Orlis Makes the Team Danny Orlis and the Last Minute Miracle - original title Danny Orlis Changes Schools Danny Orlis and the Race Against Time - original title Danny Orlis and the Boy Who Would Not Listen Danny Orlis and the Showdown - original title Danny Orlis Star Back Danny Orlis and the Case of the Talking Rocks - original title Danny Orlis and the Rocks that Talk Danny Orlis and the Sacred Ruins Dann

Koho language

Koho is a South Bahnaric language spoken by the Koho people in the Lâm Đồng Province of Vietnam. The autonym of the Koho people is kon chau. There are at least twelve Kơho dialect groups for the area: Chil. Although Mạ/Maa is a Koho dialect group, the Mạ people identify as a separate ethnic group. Data below are from Olsen; the phoneme /r/ is a voiced alveolar trill but often reduces to a flap when it occurs as the second segment in a consonant cluster. Before the palatal finals /c/ and /ɲ/, there is an audible palatal offglide after the vowel, so that /pwac/ ‘flesh’ is pronounced as and /ʔaɲ/ ‘I ’ as. Vowels contrast in length. Compounding is a common way of coining new words in Koho; some examples: muh mat ‘face’ < muh ‘nose’ + mat ‘eye’ phe mbar ‘sticky rice’ < phe ‘husked rice’ + mbar ‘sticky’ oui ao ‘clothes’ < oui ‘blanket’ + ao ‘shirt’ One of the more productive prefixes in Sre is the causative tön-, converts intransitive verbs to causative verbs. If the prefixed verbs have a nasal initial the nasal cluster avoidance rule applied.

Olsen, Neil H.. A descriptive grammar of Koho-Sre: a Mon-Khmer language. University of Utah

Skalkaho Pass

The Skalkaho Pass, 7,258 feet above sea level, is a pass in the Sapphire Mountains in southwest Montana traversed by Montana Highway 38. The road over the pass connects the towns of Hamilton in the Bitterroot Valley and Philipsburg in Flint Creek Valley and remains the only direct route between these two important agricultural areas. An Indian route, Highway 38 was built in 1924 to link mountainous mining areas with the agricultural settlements in the valleys; the route is closed during winter due to heavy snowfall. Skalkaho Falls is near the top of the pass. Mountain passes in Montana "Skalkaho Pass". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-05-31. "The Skalkaho Highway Scenic Byway in Southwest Montana: Information and Maps". Going over Skalkaho Pass... Anaconda to Hamilton, YouTube

Night Call

"Night Call" is episode 139 of the American television anthology series The Twilight Zone. The story follows an elderly woman, directed by Jacques Tourneur and played by Gladys Cooper, who receives persistent disturbing phone calls from an anonymous caller, it is based on Richard Matheson's short story, "Long Distance Call", although it ends much differently. An elderly woman, Elva Keene, receives strange anonymous phone calls in the middle of a stormy night. During the first calls she hears only static, she hears a man moaning and she demands to know, calling. The man continues to call and keeps repeating "Hello?" over and over. He says, "Hello? Where are you? I want to talk to you." Elva, screams at the man to leave her alone. The phone company traces the calls to a telephone line. Elva and her housekeeper, who believes the calls are the result of a bad connection, visit the cemetery where she finds that the line is resting on the grave of her long-deceased fiancé, Brian Douglas. Elva says that she always insisted on having her own way, Brian always did what she said.

Brian died a week. That day, she lost control of the car and hit a tree; the accident caused Brian to fly through the windshield, killing him. Now that she can talk to him again, she won't have to be alone. At home, she calls to Brian's ghost, pleading with him to answer, he replies that he always does what she says. The line goes dead, leaving Elva alone and crying in her bed; the original short story ends. The caller is never identified; the voice says: "Hello, Mrs. Keene. I'll be right over." The premiere of "Night Call" was scheduled for Friday, November 22, 1963. Hours before it was to air, President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas, it was rescheduled. "Night Call" premiered on February 7, 1964. DeVoe, Bill.. Trivia from The Twilight Zone. Albany, GA: Bear Manor Media. ISBN 978-1-59393-136-0 Grams, Martin.. The Twilight Zone: Unlocking the Door to a Television Classic. Churchville, MD: OTR Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9703310-9-0 Zicree, Marc Scott: The Twilight Zone Companion. Sillman-James Press, 1982 "Night Call" on IMDb "Night Call" at TV.com An urban legend that may have inspired Matheson's story

Irene Sänger-Bredt

Irene Reinhild Agnes Elisabeth Sänger-Bredt was a German engineer and physicist. She is co-credited with the design of a proposed intercontinental spaceplane/bomber prior to and during World War II. Sänger-Bredt received her doctorate in natural science in 1936, her thesis was entitled X-rays from Rare Earths. For her first job she was attracted by a tender with few details of the little-known Research Center for Aviation at Trauen, Germany. Bredt began her research work as an assistant of Eugen Sänger at this rocket research centre, her field of activities became thermodynamic and gas kinetics problems related to liquid-propelled rockets. She became the head of the Physics Department there in 1941 and the following year became a First Assistant at the German Research Institute for Gliding Flight at Ainring, her task was the analysis of ramjet test flights. In 1945, Bredt moved to Paris and worked there as a researcher in the same area as before but now for the Arsenal de l'Aéronautique known as SNECMA.

At the same time she acted as consultant to MATRA in Paris Billancourt as well as the Institute of Technology in Madras, South India. In 1954, after her marriage to Eugen Sänger and the birth of their son, Sänger-Bredt returned to Germany, she became deputy scientific director of the Research Institute for the Physics of Jet Propulsion, founded by Eugen Sänger in Stuttgart. In 1960 Sänger-Bredt became one of the founder members — the only woman — of the International Academy of Astronautics. From 1963, she acted as a consultant engineer on space matters for the companies Bölkow. Irene Sänger-Bredt died in 1983 in Stuttgart, Germany, by which time she had published 88 papers on topics relating to natural science and the science of culture. In 1970 Bredt was honored by the German Rocket Society with the Hermann Oberth Gold Medal, for her impressive scientific accomplishments. Zaganescu, Nicolae-Florin. "Dr. Irene Sänger-Bredt, a Life for Astronautics". Acta Astronautica. 55: 889–894. Bibcode:2004AcAau..55..889Z.

Doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2004.03.003