Agarose is a polysaccharide extracted from certain red seaweed. It is a linear polymer made up of the repeating unit of agarobiose, a disaccharide made up of D-galactose and 3,6-anhydro-L-galactopyranose. Agarose is one of the two principal components of agar, is purified from agar by removing agar's other component, agaropectin. Agarose is used in molecular biology for the separation of large molecules DNA, by electrophoresis. Slabs of agarose gels for electrophoresis are prepared by pouring the warm, liquid solution into a mold. A wide range of different agaroses of varying molecular weights and properties are commercially available for this purpose. Agarose may be formed into beads and used in a number of chromatographic methods for protein purification. Agarose is a linear polymer with a molecular weight of about 120,000, consisting of alternating D-galactose and 3,6-anhydro-L-galactopyranose linked by α- and β- glycosidic bonds; the 3,6-anhydro-L-galactopyranose is an L-galactose with an anhydro bridge between the 3 and 6 positions, although some L-galactose units in the polymer may not contain the bridge.
Some D-galactose and L-galactose units can be methylated, pyruvate and sulfate are found in small quantities. Each agarose chain contains ~800 molecules of galactose, the agarose polymer chains form helical fibres that aggregate into supercoiled structure with a radius of 20-30 nm; the fibers are quasi-rigid, have a wide range of length depending on the agarose concentration. When solidified, the fibres form a three-dimensional mesh of channels of diameter ranging from 50 nm to >200 nm depending on the concentration of agarose used - higher concentrations yield lower average pore diameters. The 3-D structure is held together with hydrogen bonds and can therefore be disrupted by heating back to a liquid state. Agarose is available as a white powder which dissolves in near-boiling water, forms a gel when it cools. Agarose exhibits the phenomenon of thermal hysteresis in its liquid-to-gel transition, i.e. it gels and melts at different temperatures. The gelling and melting temperatures vary depending on the type of agarose.
Standard agaroses derived from Gelidium has a gelling temperature of 34–38 °C and a melting temperature of 90–95 °C, while those derived from Gracilaria, due to its higher methoxy substituents, has a gelling temperature of 40–52 °C and melting temperature of 85–90 °C. The melting and gelling temperatures may be dependent on the concentration of the gel at low gel concentration of less than 1%; the gelling and melting temperatures are therefore given at a specified agarose concentration. Natural agarose contains uncharged methyl groups and the extent of methylation is directly proportional to the gelling temperature. Synthetic methylation however have the reverse effect, whereby increased methylation lowers the gelling temperature. A variety of chemically modified agaroses with different melting and gelling temperatures are available through chemical modifications; the agarose in the gel forms a meshwork that contains pores, the size of the pores depends on the concentration of agarose added.
On standing the agarose gels are prone to syneresis, but the process is slow enough to not interfere with the use of the gel. Agarose gel can have high gel strength at low concentration, making it suitable as an anti-convection medium for gel electrophoresis. Agarose gels; the agarose polymer contains charged groups, in particular sulfate. These negatively charged groups can slow down the movement of DNA molecules in a process called electroendosmosis, low EEO agarose is therefore preferred for use in agarose gel electrophoresis of nucleic acids. Zero EEO agaroses are available but these may be undesirable for some applications as they may be made by adding positively charged groups that can affect subsequent enzyme reactions. Electroendosmosis is a reason agarose is used preferentially over agar as agaropectin in agar contains a significant amount of negatively charged sulphate and carboxyl groups; the removal of agaropectin in agarose reduces the EEO, as well as reducing the non-specific adsorption of biomolecules to the gel matrix.
However, for some applications such as the electrophoresis of serum protein, a high EEO may be desirable, agaropectin may be added in the gel used. The melting and gelling temperatures of agarose can be modified by chemical modifications, most by hydroxyethylation, which reduces the number of intrastrand hydrogen bonds, resulting in lower melting and setting temperatures than standard agaroses; the exact temperature is determined by the degree of substitution, many available low-melting-point agaroses can remain fluid at 30–35 °C range. This property allows enzymatic manipulations to be carried out directly after the DNA gel electrophoresis by adding slices of melted gel containing DNA fragment of interest to a reaction mixture; the LMP agarose contains fewer sulphates which can affect some enzymatic reactions, is therefore preferably used for some applications. Hydroxyethylation may reduce the pore size by reducing the packing density of the agarose bundles, therefore LMP gel can have an effect on the time and separation during electrophoresis.
Ultra-low melting or gelling temperature agaroses may gel only at 8–15 °C. Agarose is a preferred matrix for work with proteins and nucleic acids as it has a broad range of physical and thermal stability, its lower degree of chemical complexity makes it less to interact with biomo
Angel Chang is an American fashion designer and early pioneer in the cross-over between fashion and technology. She received the Ecco Domani Fashion Foundation Award and Cartier Women's Initiative Award in 2007; the revival of endangered traditional Chinese hand-craftsmanship translated into modern designs is the philosophy behind her current womenswear label ANGEL CHANG. Chang is of Chinese descent, her parents were born in Shanghai and Fujian, came to the United States in the mid-1950s. As a teenager in Indiana, she wrote a long letter seeking career advice to Anna Sui, who responded by inviting Chang to an internship at her studio in New York City. A year Chang moved to New York City to begin her internship at Anna Sui while studying art history at Barnard College, she trained in the design studios of Marc Jacobs and Viktor & Rolf. Chang received an M. A. in Modern Art: Critical Studies from Columbia University, where she studied with fashion historians Richard Martin and Valerie Steele. As a graduate student, she published articles in Encyclopedia of Clothing & Fashion and Fashion Theory.
She wrote online runway reviews for French Vogue and was a freelance journalist to various fashion magazines. In 2004, she was Editor-in-Chief of downtown New York indie quarterly Me Magazine. Chang began her design career as a Design Assistant for Womenswear at Donna Karan Collection in New York, her eponymous collection ANGEL CHANG launched in 2006 in New York and became known for its innovative use of future fabrics like color-changing prints light-up fabrics, self-heating linings. She was an early pioneer in the cross-over between fashion and technology and received the Ecco Domani Fashion Foundation Award and Cartier Women's Initiative Award within the first year of launching. Chang was featured in PAPER magazine's 10th Annual "Beautiful People" Issue as one of the top emerging talents influencing the fashion field. In 2009, Chang appeared as a contestant on The Fashion Show, a design competition reality television show on Bravo network, she was the first contestant on an American reality television show to use Twitter as a real-time live-chat platform to speak directly with TV audiences.
Since 2009, Angel has worked with fabric masters in the rural mountain villages of Guizhou Province, China where ethnic minority tribes have maintained 1000-year-old fabric-making traditions using all-natural processes. The Atelier ANGEL CHANG collection mixes traditional fabrics with modern silhouettes and is produced with a nearly zero carbon footprint, its aims are to create employment opportunities in impoverished rural villages and to promote global appreciation for endangered indigenous craftsmanship. She has designed internationally for luxury fashion brands Donna Karan Collection and Chloe, most as Head Designer of Lululemon Lab, the innovation incubator of Lululemon Athletica. In 2016, she became a TED Resident at TED headquarters in New York, she is taking what she’s learned about indigenous crafts and applying that knowledge to make the fashion industry more sustainable. Cartier Women's Initiative Award, 2007 Ecco Domani Fashion Foundation Award, 2007 Chinese Americans in New York City Foreman, Liza.
"Inspiration From China's Villages". International New York Times. Foreman, Liza. "时装设计师到中国下乡觅得灵感". T: The New York Times Style Magazine Shleh, Selena. "Angel Chang's Miao style". Time Out Shanghai. Official Site Official Tumblr
The 58.com 2018 Chinese Football Association China League was the 15th season of the China League One, the second tier of the Chinese football league pyramid, since its establishment in 2004. The league's title sponsor is the e-commerce website 58.com. Dalian Transcendence, Heilongjiang Lava Spring, Meizhou Hakka, Meizhou Meixian Techand and Nei Mongol Zhongyou failed to submit the application for the Chinese Super League before deadline, thus ineligible for promotion. A total of 16 teams are contesting in the league, including 12 sides from the 2017 season, two relegated from the 2017 Chinese Super League and two promoted from the 2017 China League Two. Hangzhou Greentown F. C. changed their name to Zhejiang Greentown F. C. in January 2018. ^1 Zhejiang Yiteng didn't appoint a new manager after Maurício Copertino's departure. Team leader Hu Zhaojun took charge of the club in fact. A total of four foreign players can be registered in a season. Maximum of two foreign players can be fielded in one match.
Players name in bold indicates. ^1 A club could register one non-naturalized player from the Hong Kong Football Association, Macau Football Association or Chinese Taipei Football Association as native player. For special, Beijing Enterprises could register both Chen Hao-wei and Wen Chih-hao as native player before their current contracts end. ^2 Foreign players who left their clubs or were sent to reserve team after the first half of the season. To preserve chronological evolvements, any postponed matches are not included to the round at which they were scheduled, but added to the full round they were played afterwards. For example, if a match is scheduled for round 7, but played between rounds 8 and 9, it will be added to the standings for round 8. Meizhou Meixian Techand won 3–2 on aggregate and therefore both clubs remain in their respective leagues; the awards of 2018 China League One were announced on 15 November 2018. Official website
Bolletjes Blues is a 2006 Dutch musical film with Negativ as the main character, Spike. Spike is a young black man from Suriname, he drops out. In order to have enough money to impress his white girlfriend Rosalie he joins a gang led by Delano and commits various robberies. A related gang operates a cocaine smuggling route from Suriname to the Netherlands with mules swallowing cocaine pellets; as a mule, Spike is arrested on departure from Johan Adolf Pengel International Airport near Paramaribo, incarcerated at Santo Boma prison. Rosalie volunteers as mule in order to be able to visit Spike; the film ends after this visit, it does not show whether she swallows and smuggles cocaine pellets. Negativ as Spike Sophie van Oers as Rosalie SugaCane as Delano Raymzter as Musu Mr. Probz as Jimmy Adigun Arnaud as Shed Block Thug Kimo as Fred Derenzo Sumter as Melvin Goldie as Zamira Salah Edin as Abid Tounssi MC Aldrin as Beatboxer Verginia Olijfveld as Tante Jennifer Reina Linger as Manuela Mike Reus as Meester Kees Glenn Durfort as Ome edje The film debuted at #8, grossing over €63,196 in its first week.
The second week, it dropped to # 10. A total of €104,752 in the Netherlands. Bolletjes Blues on IMDb
Jorge Velásquez is a thoroughbred horse racing Hall of Fame jockey. Jorge Velasquez's career in thoroughbred racing began in his native Panama but as a teenager moved to the United States. In 1967 he in 1969 was tops in money-winning. In 1978 he became nationally famous for being one of the jockeys involved in the greatest rivalry in racing history, he finished second aboard Alydar to Affirmed in all three of the 1978 American Triple Crown races, losing by a combined total of less than two lengths. Velasquez and Alydar achieved a small measure of satisfaction when they beat Affirmed in the 1978 Travers Stakes. In 1981 he rode Pleasant Colony to victory in the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes but missed winning the Triple Crown when they finished third to Summing in the Belmont Stakes. Velasquez won the Breeders' Cup Classic. In 1986, he was voted the George Woolf Memorial Jockey Award by his peers and in 1990 was inducted in the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame, he retired as a jockey in 1997 having won 6,795 races.
He worked as an official in racing and became an agent for other jockeys. Jorge Velasquez at the United States' National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame
Edward Alexander Panelli is a former Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of California who served from December 24, 1985, to May 3, 1994. Panelli was born in Santa Clara, received his B. S. Degree from Santa Clara University and J. D. degree from Santa Clara University School of Law. After graduation, he engaged in private practice with Panelli. In 1972, Panelli was named judge of the Santa Clara County Superior Court, serving until 1983, he was made Associate Justice, First District Court of Appeal, 1983–1984, Presiding Justice, Sixth District Court of Appeal, 1984–1985. In 1985, Panelli was appointed to the California Supreme Court by Governor George Deukmejian, his notable opinions include Moore v. Regents of the University of California, which held by that a person's discarded blood and tissue taken for medical tests are not one's personal property, researchers do not need to share profits from their use in research or commercialization. Another notable case opinion is Jolly v. Eli Lilly, in which the court held a one-year statute of limitations began running on the date of discovery of the injury.
In 1989, Panelli voted with the majority in Thing v. La Chusa, in 1992 concurred in the results in Knight v. Jewett and Mexicali Rose v. Superior Court. Following his retirement from the bench in 1994, he became an mediator. In 1986, he was awarded an Honorary Doctor of Laws by his alma mater, Santa Clara University, where he serves on the Board of Trustees. There is an annual golf tournament in his name to raise money for law school scholarships. Edward Panelli videos on C-SPAN. Edward A. Panelli. California Supreme Court Historical Society. Supreme Court opinions written by Edward A. Panelli. Courtlistener.com. Past & Present Justices. California State Courts. Justices and Former Justices. California Court of Appeal, Sixth District. List of Past and Present Justices. California Court of Appeal, First District. List of Justices of the Supreme Court of California