Dame Agatha Mary Clarissa Christie, Lady Mallowan, was an English writer known for her 66 detective novels and 14 short story collections those revolving around fictional detectives Hercule Poirot and Miss Marple. She wrote the world's longest-running play The Mousetrap and six romances under the pen name Mary Westmacott. In 1971, she was appointed a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire for her contribution to literature. Christie was born into a wealthy upper-middle-class family in Devon, she served in a Devon hospital during the First World War, tending to troops coming back from the trenches. She was an unsuccessful writer with six consecutive rejections, but this changed when The Mysterious Affair at Styles was published in 1920 featuring Hercule Poirot. During the Second World War, she worked as a pharmacy assistant at University College Hospital, acquiring a good knowledge of poisons which feature in many of her novels. Guinness World Records lists Christie as the best-selling novelist of all time.
Her novels have sold 2 billion copies, her estate claims that her works come third in the rankings of the world's most-widely published books, behind only Shakespeare's works and the Bible. According to Index Translationum, she remains the most-translated individual author, having been translated into at least 103 languages, and Then There Were None is Christie's best-selling novel, with 100 million sales to date, making it the world's best-selling mystery and one of the best-selling books of all time. Christie's stage play, it opened at the Ambassadors Theatre in the West End on 25 November 1952, as of April 2019 was still running after more than 27,000 performances. In 1955, Christie was the first recipient of the Mystery Writers of America's Grand Master Award; the year, Witness for the Prosecution received an Edgar Award from the MWA for best play. In 2013, The Murder of Roger Ackroyd was voted the best crime novel by 600 writers of the Crime Writers' Association. On 15 September 2015, coinciding with her 125th birthday, And Then There Were None was named the "World's Favourite Christie" in a vote sponsored by the author's estate.
Most of her books and short stories have been adapted for television, video games, comics, more than 30 feature films have been based on her work. Agatha Mary Clarissa Miller was born on 15 September 1890 into a wealthy upper-middle-class family in Torquay, Devon, she was the youngest of three children born to Frederick Alvah Miller, "a gentleman of substance", his wife Clarissa Margaret Miller née Boehmer. Christie's mother Clara was born in Dublin in 1854 to Lieutenant Frederick Boehmer and his second wife Mary Ann Boehmer née West. Boehmer died aged 49 of bronchitis in Jersey in April 1863, leaving his widow to raise Clara and her three brothers alone on a meagre income. Two weeks after Boehmer's death, Mary's sister Margaret West married widowed dry goods merchant Nathaniel Frary Miller, a U. S. citizen. To assist Mary financially, the newlyweds agreed to foster nine-year old Clara; the family settled in Cheshire. Margaret and Nathaniel had no children together, but Nathaniel had a seventeen-year-old son, Fred Miller, from his previous marriage.
Fred was travelled extensively after leaving his Swiss boarding school. He and Clara formed a romantic attachment and were married in St Peter's Church, Notting Hill, in April 1878. Fred and Clara's first child, Margaret Frary, was born in Torquay in 1879, where the couple were renting lodgings, their second child, Louis Montant, was born in Morristown, New Jersey, in 1880 while they were making an extended visit to the United States. When Fred's father died in 1869, he left Clara £2000, it was here that their third and final child, was born in 1890. Christie described her childhood as "very happy", she was surrounded by a series of independent women from an early age. She lived in Devon, but made occasional visits to the homes of her step-grandmother/great-aunt Margaret Miller in Ealing and maternal grandmother Mary Boehmer in Bayswater. One year of her childhood was spent abroad with her family, in the French Pyrenees, Paris and Guernsey. Christie was raised in a household with various esoteric beliefs and, like her siblings, believed that her mother Clara was a psychic with the ability of second sight.
Christie's sister Madge had been sent to Roedean School in Sussex for her education, but their mother insisted that Christie receive a home education. As a result, her parents were responsible for teaching her to read and write and to master basic arithmetic, a subject she enjoyed, they taught her music, she learned to play both the piano and the mandolin. According to one biographer, Clara believed that Christie should not learn to read until she was eight. However, thanks to her own curiosity, Christie taught herself to read much earlier. One of the earliest known photographs of Christie depicts her as a little girl with her first dog, named George Washington by her patriotic father but which she called Tony. Christie was a voracious reader from an early age. Among her earliest memories were those of reading the children's books written by Mrs Molesworth, including The Adventures of Herr Baby, Christmas Tree Land, The Magic Nuts, she read the work of Edith Nesbit, including The Story of the Treasu
Corporate Accountability is a non-profit organization, founded in 1977. Their campaign headquarters are in Boston and they have offices in Oakland, Seattle and Bogotá, Colombia, their most prominent campaign is their climate campaign to kick Big Polluters out of climate policy. Since 1977 Corporate Accountability has waged a number of high-profile campaigns to protect public health, the environment and democracy from abuse by transnational corporations. From 1977 to 1986 the Infant Formula Campaign and Nestlé Boycott brought about significant reforms in the life-threatening marketing of infant formula in developing countries; the work of Corporate Accountability International and allies contributed to the passage of the World Health Organization's International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes in 1981. From 1984 to 1993 the Nuclear Weaponmakers Campaign and General Electric Boycott helped push industry leader GE out of the nuclear weapons business and exposed the human and environmental costs of the corporation's nuclear weapons production and promotion.
The international boycott of GE products cost the company over $19 million in lost medical equipment sales and $100 million in overall sales. Major retail stores including Safeway and Target began stocking light bulbs made by other companies. In 1991, Corporate Accountability International commissioned the Academy Award-winning documentary Deadly Deception: General Electric, Nuclear Weapons, Our Environment that juxtaposed "GE's rosy'We Bring Good Things To Life' commercials with the true stories of workers and neighbors whose lives have been devastated by the company's involvement in building and testing nuclear bombs." In 1993, GE moved out of the nuclear weapons business. In 1994 Corporate Accountability launched the Challenging Big Tobacco Campaign. In 2003, years of campaigning culminated in the adoption of the world's first public health and corporate accountability treaty—the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, they spent the fall of 2005 working alongside other organizations to get a number of African countries to ratify the treaty and gained notice for their attempts to get the US to ratify the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.
In 2009 they gained notice for instigating the removal of tobacco company representatives from a UN-backed meeting on tobacco smuggling. The Challenging Big Tobacco Campaign is focused on expanding implementation and enforcement of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. In 2004 Corporate Accountability launched the Think Outside the Bottle Campaign to promote and ensure public funding for public water systems and challenge corporations who undermine public confidence in tap water. Corporate Accountability’s Think Outside The Bottle Campaign has garnered international notice; the campaign has been supported by Salt Lake City mayor Rocky Anderson, who has begun his own “Knock Out Bottled Water” website,San Francisco mayor Gavin Newsom, more. The campaign played a major role in the July 2007 decision by PepsiCo to change the label on their Aquafina bottled water to more plainly state it is sourced from public water; the campaign was featured on NBC Nightly News in October 2007. On World Water Day March 22, 2010 Corporate Accountability released the film Story of Bottled Water with the Story of Stuff project.
In 2009 Corporate Accountability launched the Value Meal Campaign challenging corporate abuse of food by the fast food industry. The campaign demands to the fast food industry include: stop fast food marketing and sponsorship that appeals to children and teenagers. On a similar tack, in April 2010 the nonprofit began calling for the'retirement' of Ronald McDonald, saying the venerable mascot fuels childhood obesity. In 2014, Corporate Accountability launched its climate campaign, it began to organize with people around the world to hold fossil fuel corporations accountable and remove them from the policymaking process. Corporate Accountability's climate campaign has turned what was once an untouchable subject — the fossil fuel industry’s conflicts of interest in climate policy — into a hotly debated issue at the U. N. climate treaty negotiations and in national policymaking. Corporate Accountability has supported policymakers from former President Obama to Massachusetts Attorney General Maura Healey to take decisive action on climate change and hold the fossil fuel industry accountable.
Members of the campaign advisory board include: Frances Moore Lappé, author of Diet for a Small Planet. D. M. P. H; the Paulette Goddard Professor of Nutrition, Food Studies, Public Health at New York University. Corporate Accountability Climate campaign Water campaign Tobacco campaign Food campaign
This is a list of the first women lawyer and judge in Iowa. It includes the year. Included are women who achieved other distinctions such becoming the first in their state to obtain a law degree or become a political figure. Arabella Mansfield: First female lawyer in Iowa Judith Ellen Foster: First female lawyer to practice in Iowa Gertrude Rush: First African American female lawyer in Iowa Lynne Brady Neuhaus: First female judge in Iowa Romonda Belcher-Ford: First African American female judge in Iowa Margaret Briles: First female appointed as a Judge of the Seventh Judicial District in Iowa Linda R. Reade: First female appointed as a Judge of the Fifth Judicial District in Iowa Bobbi M. Alpers: First female appointed as the Chief Judge of the Seventh Judicial District in Iowa Stephanie Marie Rose: First female appointed as a Judge of the U. S. District Court for the Southern District of Iowa Mary Sokolovske: First female appointed as a Judge of District 3B of Iowa Dusti Relph: First female appointed as a Judge of Iowa District 5B Janet Johnson: First female appointed as a Judge of the Iowa Court of Appeals Linda K. Neuman: First female appointed as a Justice of the Iowa Supreme Court Marsha K. Ternus: First female to serve as the Chief Justice of the Iowa Supreme Court Stephanie Marie Rose: First female appointed as a Judge of the U.
S. District Court for the Southern District of Iowa Bonnie Campbell: First female Attorney General of Iowa Emily L. Newbold: First female to serve as a County Attorney in Iowa Carroll J. Reasoner: First female to serve as the President of the Iowa State Bar Association Alphabetized by county name Nancy Whittenburg: First female appointed as a district county judge in District 3A of Iowa Nancy Whittenburg: First female appointed as a district county judge in District 3A of Iowa Rosemary Shaw Sackett: First female to practice law in Spencer, Iowa, she would become a judge. Margaret Kolarik: First female lawyer in Clinton, Iowa Mary Sokolovske: First female appointed as a district county judge in District 3B of Iowa Virginia Bedell: First female to serve as the County Attorney for Dickinson County, Iowa Nancy Whittenburg: First female appointed as a district county judge in District 3A of Iowa Nancy Whittenburg: First female appointed as a district county judge in District 3A of Iowa Mary Sokolovske: First female appointed as a district county judge in District 3B of Iowa Mary B. Hickey Wilkinson: First female to earn a law degree from the University of Iowa Anna Harvat Holbert: First female lawyer in Iowa City, Iowa Nancy Whittenburg: First female appointed as a district county judge in District 3A of Iowa Ann Gales: First female district associate judge in Kossuth County, Iowa Imogen B.
Emery: First female lawyer in Cedar Rapids, Iowa Nancy Whittenburg: First female appointed as a district county judge in District 3A of Iowa Mary Sokolovske: First female appointed as a district county judge in District 3B of Iowa Nancy Whittenburg: First female appointed as a district county judge in District 3A of Iowa Nancy Whittenburg: First female appointed as a district county judge in District 3A of Iowa Nancy Whittenburg: First female appointed as a district county judge in District 3A of Iowa Mary Sokolovske: First female appointed as a district county judge in District 3B of Iowa Willie Stevenson Glanton: First female to become an Assistant Polk County Attorney Linda K. Neuman: First female to serve as a part-time magistrate in Scott County, Iowa Mary Sokolovske: First female appointed as a district county judge in District 3B of Iowa Ruth Harkin: First female to serve as the County Attorney for Story County, Iowa Emily L. Newbold: First female to serve as a County Attorney in Van Buren County, Iowa Mary Sokolovske: First female appointed as a district county judge in District 3B of Iowa Sherry Raduenz: First female lawyer in Decorah, Iowa List of first women lawyers and judges in the United States Timeline of women lawyers in the United States Women in law List of first minority male lawyers and judges in the United States List of first minority male lawyers and judges in Iowa