Detective fiction is a subgenre of crime fiction and mystery fiction in which an investigator or a detective—either professional, amateur or retired—investigates a crime murder. The detective genre began around the same time as speculative fiction and other genre fiction in the mid-nineteenth century and has remained popular in novels; some of the most famous heroes of detective fiction include C. Auguste Dupin, Sherlock Holmes, Hercule Poirot. Juvenile stories featuring The Hardy Boys, Nancy Drew, The Boxcar Children have remained in print for several decades; some scholars, such as R. H. Pfeiffer, have suggested that certain ancient and religious texts bear similarities to what would be called detective fiction. In the Old Testament story of Susanna and the Elders, the account told by two witnesses broke down when Daniel cross-examines them. In response, author Julian Symons has argued that "those who search for fragments of detection in the Bible and Herodotus are looking only for puzzles" and that these puzzles are not detective stories.
In the play Oedipus Rex by Ancient Greek playwright Sophocles, the protagonist discovers the truth about his origins after questioning various witnesses. Although "Oedipus's enquiry is based on supernatural, pre-rational methods that are evident in most narratives of crime until the development of Enlightenment thought in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries", this narrative has "all of the central characteristics and formal elements of the detective story, including a mystery surrounding a murder, a closed circle of suspects, the gradual uncovering of a hidden past." The One Thousand and One Nights contains several of the earliest detective stories, anticipating modern detective fiction. The oldest known example of a detective story was "The Three Apples", one of the tales narrated by Scheherazade in the One Thousand and One Nights. In this story, a fisherman discovers a heavy, locked chest along the Tigris river, which he sells to the Abbasid Caliph, Harun al-Rashid; when Harun breaks open the chest, he discovers the body of a young woman, cut into pieces.
Harun orders his vizier, Ja'far ibn Yahya, to solve the crime and to find the murderer within three days, or be executed if he fails in his assignment. Suspense is generated through multiple plot twists. With these characteristics this may be considered an archetype for detective fiction, it anticipates the use of reverse chronology in modern detective fiction, where the story begins with a crime before presenting a gradual reconstruction of the past. The main difference between Ja'far and fictional detectives, such as Sherlock Holmes and Hercule Poirot, is that Ja'far has no actual desire to solve the case; the whodunit mystery is solved. This in turn leads to another assignment in which Ja'far has to find the culprit who instigated the murder within three days or else be executed. Ja'far again fails to find the culprit before the deadline, but owing to chance, he discovers a key item. In the end, he manages to solve the case through reasoning. On the other hand, two other Arabian Nights stories, "The Merchant and the Thief" and "Ali Khwaja", contain two of the earliest fictional detectives, who uncover clues and present evidence to catch or convict a criminal known to the audience, with the story unfolding in normal chronology and the criminal known to the audience.
The latter involves a climax where the titular detective protagonist Ali Khwaja presents evidence from expert witnesses in a court. Gong'an fiction is the earliest known genre of Chinese detective fiction; some well-known stories include the Yuan Dynasty story Circle of Chalk, the Ming Dynasty story collection Bao Gong An and the 18th century Di Gong An story collection. The latter was translated into English as Celebrated Cases of Judge Dee by Dutch sinologist Robert Van Gulik, who used the style and characters to write the original Judge Dee series; the hero/detective of these novels was a traditional judge or similar official based on historical personages such as Judge Bao or Judge Dee. Although the historical characters may have lived in an earlier period most stories are written in the Ming or Qing Dynasty period; these novels differ from the Western style tradition in several points as described by Van Gulik: The detective is the local magistrate, involved in several unrelated cases simultaneously.
Van Gulik chose Di Gong An to translate because in his view it was closer to the Western literary style and more to appeal to non-Chinese readers. One notable fact is that a number of Gong An works may have been lost or destroyed during the Literary Inquisitions and the wars in ancient China. Moreover, in the traditional Chinese culture, this genre was low-prestige, therefore was less worthy of preservation than works such as philosophy
Thomas Pavel is a literary theorist and novelist teaching at the University of Chicago. Thomas Pavel received an MA in Linguistics from the University of Bucharest in 1962 and a Doctorat 3e cycle from the Écoles des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, Paris, in 1971, after defecting to France in 1969, he taught at the University of Ottawa from 1971 to 1981, the University of Québec at Montréal from 1981 to 1986, the University of California Santa Cruz from 1986 to 1990, Princeton University from 1990 to 1998. He was a visiting professor at the University of Amsterdam, Harvard University, University of California and the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales. Since 1998, he has been teaching at the University of Chicago, where he is now Gordon J. Laing Distinguished Service Professor in the Committee on Social Thought and the Departments of Romance Languages and Comparative Literature. In 1999, he was elected to the American Academy of Sciences, he was named Chevalier des Arts et des Lettres in France in 2004 and received the Romanian Order of Cultural Merit in 2011.
He held the International Chair at the Collège de France, Paris in 2005-2006 and was a fellow at the Institute of Advanced Studies in Berlin in 2010-2011. Pavel began his scholarly career as a contributor to structuralism and semiotics, two movements that experimented with linguistic techniques in the study of literature, his books La Syntaxe narrative des tragédies de Corneille and The Poetics of Plot, sketched out a transformational grammar of literary plots inspired by Noam Chomsky's linguistics. A story or a play, he argued, is not a mere succession of pre-established moves, but involves the passage from an initial problem to a series of successful or unsuccessful solutions. Pavel's model used tree-like structures to represent the links between the challenges faced by the characters and the actions they take. To explain these actions, Pavel's plot-grammar included "maxims" expressing the right or wrong ideals that guide the characters; the plot of Shakespeare's historical tragedies, for instance, wouldn't make sense if the main characters didn't follow the maxim according to which "an earthly crown is the highest good".
Pavel criticized period-style notions, e.g. baroque, showing that they do not always account for the way in which narrative and dramatic plots are structured. While interested in the experimental use of linguistic models in literature, Pavel was opposed to the dogmatic use of structuralism as a universal method for the study of culture. In Le Mirage linguistique and expanded as The Spell of Language, he argued that several major French thinkers used linguistic notions in a metaphorical rather than rigorous fashion. In the same vein, in Inflexions de voix, Pavel describes language as the privileged site of ideals and, at the same time, as the existential proof that humans can fulfill them. Seeking to account, beyond narrative syntax, for the content of literary works, Pavel became interested in the logic of possible worlds, as well as in the philosophy of art and literature. In Fictional Worlds, Pavel pointed out that the general truth of a literary text is not dependent upon the truth of the individual propositions belonging to that text.
Reflection on literary fiction doesn't need to identify and eliminate false propositions – as it is necessary to do in history or in science. Literary works are salient structures in which a secondary, fictional world includes entities and states of affairs that lack a correspondent in the basic, primary world. By dividing the universe into sacred and profane areas, the religious mind posits such salient structures. Literary texts, Fictional Worlds argues, do not depend on one and only one salient fictional world: they may as well refer to alternative fictional worlds, to the actual world, to active religions or to discarded mythologies. Since literature involves cultural habits and traditions, obeys specific genre and style constraints, Pavel recommended that fictionality be examined from three points of view: the semantics of salient structures, the pragmatics of cultural traditions, the stylistics of textual constraints. Like The Poetics of Plot, Fictional Worlds is critical of historicist generalizations.
Discussing the notion of mimetic modes which, according to Northrop Frye, replaced one another during the history of European fiction, Pavel argued that these three modes – and other modes as well – can be found in all cultures and historical periods. In L'Art de l'éloignement, his position became more nuanced; the book explores the multiple imaginary worlds put forth by French 17th-century literature, thus rejecting the idea of a homogeneous period-style, sometimes called Zeitgeist or episteme. Pavel claimed, that by emphasizing the distance between its fictional worlds and the actual world, 17th-century literature is different from the 19th -and 20th- century literature, which most tries to stay as close as possible to its public's experience. De Barthes à Balzac, co-authored with Claude Bremond, includes a study of Balzac's short story Sarrasine which brings together close reading, structural analysis, historicist considerations. In his Comment écouter la littérature, Pavel turned his attention to the direct, unproblematic appeal of litera
Somogyaracs is a village in Somogy county, Hungary. It lies 15 km northwest between Csokonyavisonta and Babócsa; the village is famous for its forests and wildlife. Somogyaracs was first mentioned in 1269 as Arach in 1397 as Aracha, it was owned by the Török family of Enying in 1467 in 1512 it came into the hands of the three sons of Imre Perneszi, Miklós, Pál and István. Its last landlord was the Somssich family, its first school opened in 1839. According to the 1870 census the village had 424 residents. There was a huge conflagration in 1877. According to the 1910 census out of its 428 inhabitants there were 338 Hungarians, 83 Croats and 7 Germans. By religion there were 3 Calvinists. Street map
John Morris Dorsey was an author and professor of psychiatry at Wayne State University. Born in Clinton, Dorsey earned his M. D. from the University of Iowa in 1925. From 1930 to 1935 he taught in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. In 1935, Dorsey moved with his family to Vienna, Austria, to study under Sigmund Freud, a course of study which included psychoanalysis by Freud personally. In 1940 Dorsey accepted a position as psychiatrist and head of Mental Hygiene Services at Wayne University in Detroit. In 1946 he was appointed Chairman of Psychiatry. In 1960, Dorsey became the first professor at Wayne State to be honored with the title “University Professor”. A bronze portrait relief by sculptor Marshall Fredericks honoring Dorsey is located on the Wayne State campus. Dorsey continued to teach at Wayne State until his death in 1978. Dorsey served as president of the Michigan Society of Neurology and Psychiatry, the Michigan Association for Psychoanalysis, he wrote more than ten books during his career, including "American Government Conscious Self Sovereignty", “Psychology of Ethics”, “An American Psychiatrist in Vienna, 1935-1937, His Sigmund Freud”.
John Dorsey and Psychoanalysis by Marvin Hyman, Ph. D.for the'Academy for the Psychoanalytic Arts'
The Old Sebastian County Jail is a historic former jail in Greenwood, Arkansas. It is a two-story stone building, located just east of the Sebastian County Courthouse on the south side of Arkansas Highway 10 in the city center, it was built 1889-91 by Ike Kunkel, a local master mason, is one of the city's finest examples of cut stone masonry. It is believed to be the oldest county government building, it was used as a holding jail for detainees awaiting transport to facilities in Fort Smith, is now operated by the South Sebastian County Historical Society as a local history museum known as the Old Jail Museum. The building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1994. National Register of Historic Places listings in Sebastian County, Arkansas Old Jail Museum
The General Electric GAU-8/A Avenger is a 30 mm hydraulically driven seven-barrel Gatling-style autocannon, mounted in the United States Air Force's Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II. Designed for the anti-tank role, the Avenger delivers powerful rounds at a high rate of fire; the GAU-8/A is used in the Goalkeeper CIWS ship weapon system, which provides defense against short-range threats such as maneuverable missiles and fast maneuvering surface vessels. The GAU-8 was created as a parallel program with the A-X competition that produced the A-10; the specification for the cannon was laid out in 1970, with General Electric and Philco-Ford offering competing designs. Both of the A-X prototypes, the YA-10 and the Northrop YA-9, were designed to incorporate the weapon, although it was not available during the initial competition. Once completed, the entire GAU-8 assembly represents about 16% of the A-10 aircraft's unladen weight; because the gun plays a significant role in maintaining the A-10's balance and center of gravity, a jack must be installed beneath the airplane's tail whenever the gun is removed for inspection in order to prevent the aircraft from tipping rearwards.
The gun is mounted to the port side so that the active firing cannon barrel is at the 9 o'clock position and on the aircraft's center line. The gun is loaded using Syn-Tech's linked tube carrier GFU-8/E 30 mm Ammunition Loading Assembly cart; this vehicle is unique to the A-10 and the GAU-8. The A-10 and its GAU-8/A gun entered service in 1977, it was produced by General Electric, though General Dynamics Armament and Technical Products has been responsible for production and support since 1997 when the division was sold by Lockheed Martin to General Dynamics. The GAU-8 itself weighs 620 pounds, but the complete weapon, with feed system and drum, weighs 4,029 pounds with a maximum ammunition load, it measures 19 ft 5 1⁄2 in from the muzzle to the rearmost point of the ammunition system, the ammunition drum alone is 34.5 inches in diameter and 71.5 inches long. Power for operating the gun is provided by twin hydraulic motors pressurized from two independent hydraulic systems; the magazine can hold 1,174 rounds.
Muzzle velocity when firing armor-piercing incendiary rounds is 1,013 m/s the same as the lighter M61 Vulcan's 20 mm round, giving the gun a muzzle energy of just over 200 kilojoules. The standard ammunition mixture for anti-armor use is a five-to-one mix of PGU-14/B Armor Piercing Incendiary, with a projectile weight of about 14.0 oz and PGU-13/B High Explosive Incendiary rounds, with a projectile weight of about 13.3 oz. The PGU-14/B's projectile incorporates a lightweight aluminum body, cast around a smaller caliber depleted uranium penetrating core; the Avenger proved lethal when tested against M47 Patton tanks in 1979. An innovation in the design of the GAU-8/A ammunition is the use of aluminum alloy cases in place of the traditional steel or brass; this alone adds 30% to ammunition capacity for a given weight. The projectiles incorporate a plastic driving band to improve barrel life; the cartridges weigh 1.53 pounds or more. The Avenger's rate of fire was selectable, 2,100 rounds per minute in the low setting, or 4,200 rpm in the high setting.
This was changed to a fixed rate of 3,900 rpm. At this speed it would take 18 seconds of sustained fire to empty the magazine. In practice, the cannon is limited to one and two-second bursts to avoid overheating and conserve ammunition. There is no technical limitation on the duration the gun may be continuously fired, a pilot could expend the entire ammunition load in a single burst with no damage or ill effects to the weapons system itself. However, this constant rate of fire would shorten the barrel life and require added barrel inspections and result in shorter intervals between replacement; each barrel is a simple non-automatic design having its own breech and bolt. Like the original Gatling gun, the entire firing cycle is actuated by cams and powered by the rotation of the barrels; the seven-barrel carriage assembly itself is driven by the aircraft's dual hydraulic system. The GAU-8/A ammunition feed is linkless, reducing weight and avoiding a great deal of potential for jamming; the feed system is double-ended, allowing the spent casings to be recycled back into the ammunition drum, instead of ejected from the aircraft, which would require considerable force to eliminate potential airframe damage.
The feed system is based on that developed for M61 installations, but uses more advanced design techniques and materials throughout, to save weight. The GAU-8/A is accurate and can fire 4,200 rounds per minute without complications; the 30-mm shell has twice the range, half the time to target, three times the mass of projectiles fired by guns mounted in comparable close air support aircraft. The muzzle velocity of the GAU-8/A is about the same as that of the M61 Vulcan cannon, but the GAU-8/A uses heavier ammunition and has superior ballistics; the time of flight of its projectile to 4,000 feet is 30 percent less than that of an M61 round. The