Massachusetts the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west; the state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.
Plymouth was founded in 1620 by passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements.
In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance, the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative", it has been translated as "near the great hill", "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill, located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621; the official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".
While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has powers within the United States as other states, it may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. Massachusetts was inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food. Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles and leptospirosis.
Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed ap
The greater Hartford–Springfield area is an urban region and surrounding suburban areas that encompasses both north-central Connecticut and the southern Connecticut River Valley in western Massachusetts. The area is sometimes called the Knowledge Corridor employed as a 2012 rename for the Hartford–Springfield Economic Partnership, an interstate cooperative venture to foster an economic and civic partnership between the two major cities on the Connecticut River; the term Knowledge Corridor has gained a degree of currency with some government organizations as well as local businesses and universities using the name. The New Haven–Springfield Line and Conn River Line form the primary rail route through the region, are sometimes themselves called the Knowledge Corridor in planning documents; the Hartford–Springfield region is New England's most populous metropolitan area after Greater Boston, with 1.9 million residents and 160,000 university students. The region features "a dense concentration" of hospitals and over 29 universities and liberal arts colleges, including a large number of the United States' most prestigious higher-education institutions.
The Knowledge Corridor includes surrounding cities such as Northampton and Amherst in the north, New Britain and Middletown in the south. Hartford and Springfield's urban cores lie only 23.9 miles apart. Hartford's Bradley International Airport is the closest airport, which sits equidistant between them in Windsor Locks, Connecticut; the Hartford–Springfield Knowledge Corridor Partnership was formalized by regional civic and education leaders in 2000 at the Big E in West Springfield. Since their respective foundings in 1635 and 1636, Hartford and Springfield have possessed a common Connecticut River heritage – both were among the original four settlements of the Connecticut Colony. In 1638, Springfield founder William Pynchon became embroiled in a legal dispute with one of the Connecticut Colony's leading citizens, Captain John Mason. Mason charged Pynchon—and the settlement of Springfield—with dominating the corn and beaver pelt trade with the Natives, to the detriment of Hartford and the Connecticut Colony.
The dispute, which Pynchon and Springfield lost in 1638, led to Springfield's annexing itself to Massachusetts instead of aligning with its more geographically and ideologically compatible neighbor, Connecticut. Only since the early 2000s have Hartford and Springfield – the two great cities on the Connecticut River – started to collaborate i.e. as the Knowledge Corridor Partnership. Both Hartford and Springfield were prosperous from the early 19th century through the 1960s as cultural and industrial centers. Hartford became the center of the United States' insurance industry, while Springfield became the United States' first epicenter of precision manufacturing, producing innovations like America's first gasoline-powered car and commercial radio station, among many others. Both cities were wealthy – at one point in the late 1800s, they were the two wealthiest cities per capita in the United States. Both cities still feature Victorian architecture built during that period. During the mid-20th century, both Hartford and Springfield experienced a loss of manufacturing during economic restructuring.
The growth of the highway system—in particular Interstate 91—engendered white flight to the suburbs, where a disproportionate amount of both cities' wealthy citizens live. During the 1960s and 1970s, the Connecticut River was pollutedand Interstate 91 was built along both riverfronts – slicing through existing neighborhoods During this period, which had always been more populous than Springfield, hemorrhaged residents. By 1960, Springfield had become more populous than Hartford, remains more populous as of 2011. During the 1990s, Hartford and Springfield established a professional hockey partnership, as the Springfield American Hockey League team served as the development affiliate of the National Hockey League's Hartford Whalers. Since 2000, both cities have seen an increase in public and private investment, a general increase in culture and civic pride; the Knowledge Corridor high-speed intercity rail line is one such project, intended to unite the region and ease residents' dependence on Interstate 91.
Both cities are pursuing different strategies to reconnect with the Connecticut River for economic and recreational opportunities. For decades after the decline of New England manufacturing and Springfield competed for similar businesses. During the early 1990s, a former Springfield mayor went so far as to launch a campaign for Hartford businesses to "leave Hartford behind" for Springfield, touting Springfield's "quality of life". Since the two cities started to work collaboratively in 2000, both Hartford and Springfield have consciously defined themselves in different but complementary ways, like Raleigh-Durham, Minneapolis-St. Paul or Dallas-Ft. Worth. Both cities still feature many of the same strengths.
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
The Connecticut River is the longest river in the New England region of the United States, flowing southward for 406 miles through four states. It rises at the U. S. border with Quebec and discharges at Long Island Sound. Its watershed encompasses five U. S. states and one Canadian province, 11,260 square miles via 148 tributaries, 38 of which are major rivers. It produces 70 % of Long Island Sound's fresh water; the Connecticut River Valley is home to some of the northeastern United States' most productive farmland, as well as a metropolitan region of two million people surrounding Springfield and Hartford, Connecticut. The word "Connecticut" is a French corruption of the Mohegan word quinetucket, which means "beside the long, tidal river"; the word came into English during the early 1600s to name the river, called "The Great River". Prior to Dutch exploration beginning in 1614, numerous indigenous tribes lived throughout the fertile Connecticut River valley. Information concerning how these tribes lived and interacted stems from English accounts written during the 1630s.
The Pequots dominated a territory in the southernmost region of the Connecticut River valley, stretching from the river's mouth at Old Saybrook, Connecticut northward to just below the Big Bend at Middletown. They warred with and attempted to subjugate neighboring agricultural tribes such as the Western Niantics, while maintaining an uneasy stand-off with their rivals the Mohegans; the Mattabesset tribe takes its name from the place where its sachems ruled at the Connecticut River's Big Bend at Middletown, in a village sandwiched between the territories of the aggressive Pequots to the south and the more peaceable Mohegans to the north. The Mohegans dominated the region due north, where Hartford and its suburbs sit after allying themselves with the Colonists against the Pequots during the Pequot War of 1637, their culture was similar to the Pequots, as they had split off from them and become their rivals some time prior to European exploration of the area. The agricultural Pocomtuc tribe lived in unfortified villages alongside the Connecticut River north of the Enfield Falls on the fertile stretch of hills and meadows surrounding Springfield, Massachusetts.
The Pocomtuc village of Agawam became Springfield, situated on the Bay Path where the Connecticut River meets the western Westfield River and eastern Chicopee River. The Pocomtuc villagers at Agawam helped Puritan explorers settle this site and remained friendly with them for decades, unlike tribes farther north and south along the Connecticut River; the region stretching from Springfield north to the New Hampshire and Vermont state borders fostered many agricultural Pocomtuc and Nipmuc settlements, with its soil enhanced by sedimentary deposits. These villages endured invasions from more aggressive confederated tribes living in New York, such as the Mohawk and Iroquois tribes; the Pennacook tribe mediated many early disagreements between colonists and other Indian tribes, with a territory stretching from the Massachusetts border with Vermont and New Hampshire, northward to the rise of the White Mountains in New Hampshire. The Western Abenaki tribe lived in the Green Mountains region of Vermont but wintered as far south as the Northfield, Massachusetts area.
They merged with members of other Algonquin tribes displaced by wars and famines. In 1614, Dutch explorer Adriaen Block became the first European to chart the Connecticut River, sailing as far north as Enfield Rapids, he called it the "Fresh River" and claimed it for the Netherlands as the northeastern border of the New Netherland colony. In 1623, Dutch traders constructed a fortified trading post at the site of Hartford, Connecticut called the Fort Huys de Hoop. Four separate Puritan-led groups settled the fertile Connecticut River Valley, they founded the two large cities that continue to dominate the Valley: Hartford and Springfield; the first group of pioneers left the Plymouth Colony in 1632 and founded the village of Matianuck several miles north of the Dutch fort. A group left the Massachusetts Bay Colony from Watertown, seeking a site where they could practice their religion more freely. With this in mind, they founded Wethersfield, Connecticut in 1633, several miles south of the Dutch fort at Hartford.
In 1635, Reverend Thomas Hooker led settlers from Cambridge, where he had feuded with Reverend John Cotton, to the site in Connecticut of the Dutch Fort House of Hope, where he founded Newtowne. Shortly after Hooker's arrival, Newtowne annexed Matianuck based on laws articulated in Connecticut's settlement charter, the Warwick Patent of 1631; the patent, had been physically lost, the annexation was certainly illegal. The fourth English settlement along the Connecticut River came out of a 1635 scouting party commissioned by William Pynchon to find the most advantageous site for commerce and agriculture, hoping to found a city there, his scouts located the Pocumtuc village of Agawam, where the Bay Path trade route crossed the Connecticut River at two of its major tributaries—the Chicopee River to the east and Westfield River to the west—and just north of Enfield Falls, the river's first unnavigable waterfall. Pynchon surmised that traders using any of these routes would have to dock and change ships at his site, thereby granting the settlement a commercial advantage.
It was named Agawam Plantation and was allied with the settlements to the south that became the state of Connecticut, but it switched allegiances in 1641 and was renamed S
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
This topic is about the footpath located in Massachusetts and New Hampshire. It should not be confused with the named Metacomet Trail of Connecticut; the Metacomet-Monadnock Trail is a 114-mile-long hiking trail that traverses the Metacomet Ridge of the Pioneer Valley region of Massachusetts and the central uplands of Massachusetts and southern New Hampshire. Although less than 70 miles from Boston and other large population centers, the trail is considered remarkably rural and scenic and includes many areas of unique ecologic and geologic interest. Notable features include waterfalls, dramatic cliff faces, exposed mountain summits, swamps, river floodplain, significant historic sites, the summits of Mount Monadnock, Mount Tom and Mount Holyoke; the Metacomet-Monadnock Trail is maintained through the efforts of the Berkshire Chapter of the Appalachian Mountain Club. Much of the trail is a portion of the New England National Scenic Trail; the Metacomet-Monadnock Trail extends from the Connecticut/ Massachusetts border through Hampden, Hampshire and northwestern Worcester counties in Massachusetts, Cheshire County in New Hampshire.
The southern terminus of the trail is located in southeast Southwick, Massachusetts, at Rising Corner Road and is identified with a kiosk. Geographically it begins near the gap between West Suffield Mountain and Provin Mountain, southwest of the city of Springfield; the Metacomet Trail in Connecticut and the Monadnock-Sunapee Greenway Trail in New Hampshire continue where the Metacomet-Monadnock Trail leaves off. These trails extend the overall hiking possibilities another 101 miles to the south, 50 miles farther north into central New Hampshire. Other long hiking trails that intersect the M&M Trail include the 47-mile Robert Frost Trail in the Pioneer Valley region, the 22-mile Tully Trail in the Royalston area. Significant networks of shorter hiking trails intersect the M&M trail, most notably on the Holyoke and Mount Tom ranges, in Wendell and Erving State Forests, on Northfield Mountain, on Mount Monadnock; the M&M trail is used for hiking, in the winter, snowshoeing. Portions of the trail are suitable for, are used for, trail running, mountain biking, cross-country skiing.
Site specific activities enjoyed along the route include hunting, horseback riding, bouldering, rock climbing, swimming. The southernmost 40 miles of the M&M Trail traverse a northern section of the trap rock Metacomet Ridge which extends from Long Island Sound to the Massachusetts/ Vermont border; this ridge, rising hundreds of feet above the Connecticut River Valley in Massachusetts, is a prominent landscape feature. Mount Tom, at 1,202 feet above sea level and with vertical cliff faces of several hundred feet, is the high point. From south to north, the M&M Trail uses the ridges of Provin Mountain, East Mountain, the Mount Tom Range, the Holyoke Range. Abrupt vertical cliffs with visible talus slopes and frequent viewpoints are common throughout. Views are to the west on Provin Mountain, East Mountain, the Mount Tom ranges; the Connecticut River cuts through the ridgeline between the Mount Tom and Holyoke ranges in Holyoke and the Westfield River separates Provin Mountain from East Mountain in Westfield.
Historic features along the trail include the Horse Caves on Mount Norwottuck, the ruins of the 19th-century hotel Eyrie House on Mount Nonotuck, the refurbished Mount Holyoke Summit House on Mount Holyoke. The Mount Holyoke Summit House has been restored as a museum, open during weekends in the summer; the trap rock ridges and talus slopes are home to several unique microclimate ecosystems that support species of plants that are unusual or endangered in this part of New England, are a seasonal migration path for raptors. Viewsheds from the ledges include agrarian land, small towns, river corridors, the eastern Berkshires ridgeline, metropolitan Springfield, the skyline of the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Where open to public access, the remaining 66 miles of trail follows an elevated plateau of 400 million year old metamorphic rock punctuated by occasional monadnocks; the terrain is a rural and wooded, post-glacial landscape with sparse viewpoints, deep ravines, a few bare mountain summits.
The trail follows the western edge of this plateau in a northerly direction jogs east along the Massachusetts/New Hampshire border before turning north again to reach Mount Monadnock. Prominent features on or accessible from this part of the M&M Trail include, from south to north, Rattlesnake Gutter, Ruggles Pond in Wendell State Forest, the Millers River, Farley Ledges, Briggs Brook Falls, Northfield Mountain and reservoir, the historic Hermit Cave, Crag Mountain, Mount Grace, Highland Falls, Royalston Falls. In New Hampshire, the trail crosses the summits of Little Monadnock Mountain, Gap Mountain, Mount Monadnock. All three of these peaks have exposed summit ledges. Mount Monadnock is the most prominent peak of southeast New England. At 3,165 feet high, it is 1,000 feet higher than any mountain peak within 30 miles and rises 2,000 feet above the surrounding landscape, its bare, rocky summit provides expansive views. The M&M Trail passes through land located wit
Longmeadow is a town in Hampden County, Massachusetts, in the United States. The population was 15,784 at the 2010 census. Longmeadow was first settled in 1644, incorporated October 17, 1783; the town was farmland within the limits of Springfield. It remained pastoral until the street railway was built c. 1910, when the population tripled over a fifteen-year period. After Interstate 91 was built in the wetlands on the west side of town, population tripled again between 1960 and 1975. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, Longmeadow was best known as the site from which Longmeadow brownstone was mined. Several famous American buildings, including Princeton University's Neo-Gothic library, are made of Longmeadow brownstone. In 1894, the more populous and industrialized "East Village" portion of the town containing the brownstone quarries split off to become East Longmeadow. Designed by famed golf course architect Donald Ross in 1922, the Longmeadow Country Club was the proving ground for golf equipment designed and manufactured by the Spalding Co. of Chicopee.
Bobby Jones, a consultant for Spalding, was a member in standing at LCC and made a number of his instructional films at LCC in the 1930s. Longmeadow is located in the western part of the state, just south of the city of Springfield, is bordered on the west by the Connecticut River and Agawam, to the east by East Longmeadow, to the south by Enfield, Connecticut, it extends 3 miles north to south and 4 miles east to west. It is 20 miles north of Hartford. More than 30% of the town is permanent open space. Conservation areas on the west side of town include more than 750 acres bordering the Connecticut River; the area supports a wide range of wildlife including deer, wild turkeys and eagles. Springfield's Forest Park, which at 735 acres is the largest city park in New England, forms the northern border of the town; the private Twin Hills and public Franconia golf courses, plus town athletic fields and conservation land, cover nearly 2/3 of the eastern border of the town. Two large public parks, the Longmeadow Country Club, three conservation areas account for the bulk of the remaining formal open space.
20% of the houses in town are in proximity to a "dingle", a tree-lined steep-sided sandy ravine with a wetland at the bottom that provides a privacy barrier between yards. Longmeadow has a town common referred to as "The Green", located along U. S. Route 5 on the west side of town, it is about 0.5 miles long. 100 houses date back before 1900, most of which are in the historic district, are located near the town green. Longmeadow’s Town Green is a historic district on the National Register of Historic Places, it is surrounded by a number of buildings dating back to the 18th and 19th centuries. Longmeadow is unique as the town green has maintained its residential purpose and has resisted commercial pressure; the current function as listed by the National Register of Historic Places is domestic and landscape. The current sub-function as listed by the National Register of Historic Places is park and single dwelling. Houses along the photogenic main street are set back farther than in most towns of similar residential density.
The town has three remodeled elementary schools, two secondary schools, one high school. The commercial center of town is an area called "The Longmeadow Shops", including restaurants and clothing stores. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 9.7 square miles, of which 9.1 square miles are land and 0.50 square miles, or 5.34%, are water. As of the census of 2000, there were 15,633 people, 5,734 households, 4,432 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,732.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,879 housing units at an average density of 651.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 95.42% White, 0.69% African American, 0.05% Native American, 2.90% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.26% from other races, 0.62% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.09% of the population. There were 5,734 households out of which 37.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 69.1% were married couples living together, 6.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.7% were non-families.
20.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.09. In the town, the population was spread out with 26.8% under the age of 18, 4.6% from 18 to 24, 22.0% from 25 to 44, 28.7% from 45 to 64, 17.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $109,586, the median income for a family was $115,578. Males had a median income of $68,238 versus $40,890 for females; the per capita income for the town was $48,949. About 1.0% of families and 2.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 0.3% of those under age 18 and 8.3% of those age 65 or over. The town government consists of a Select Board with five members, elected by the town; the public school system is governed by the School Committee.
The School Committee is made up of seven voting members elected by the town, the superintendent of schools, two assistant-superintendents, a secretary, a student representative. The Longmeadow public school system operates six schools. Blueberry Hill School, Center School, Wolf Swamp Road School are K−5 elementary schools. Williams Middle School a