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Hampden County, Massachusetts

Hampden County is a non-governmental county located in the Pioneer Valley of the state of Massachusetts, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, Hampden County's population was 463,490; as of 2018, Hampden County's estimated population was 470,406. Its traditional county seat is Springfield, the Connecticut River Valley's largest city, economic and cultural capital. Hampden County was split from Hampshire County in 1812, because Northampton, was made Hampshire County's "shire town" in 1794, it was named for parliamentarian John Hampden. To the north of Hampden County is modern-day Hampshire County. Hampden County is part of MA Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is the most urban county in Western Massachusetts. The Knowledge Corridor surrounding Springfield-Hartford is New England's second most populous urban area with 1.9 million people. As with most Massachusetts counties, Hampden County exists today only as a historical geographic region, has no county government. All former county functions were assumed by state agencies in 1998.

The sheriff and some other regional officials with specific duties are still elected locally to perform duties within the county region, but there is no county council, county commission or other county governing body. Communities are now granted the right to form their own regional compacts for sharing services. Hampden County and Hampshire County together are part of the Pioneer Valley Planning Commission. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 634 square miles, of which 617 square miles is land and 17 square miles is water. Hampshire County Worcester County Tolland County, Connecticut Hartford County, Connecticut Litchfield County, Connecticut Berkshire County Agawam Chicopee Holyoke Palmer Springfield West Springfield Westfield Blandford Chester Holland Monson Center Russell Wilbraham The following are neighborhoods located in Springfield or West Springfield; the following are neighborhoods located in Chicopee. The following are neighborhoods located in Holyoke.

Springfield Armory National Historic Site As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 463,490 people, 179,927 households, 115,961 families residing in the county. The population density was 751.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 192,175 housing units at an average density of 311.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 76.5% white, 9.0% black or African American, 2.0% Asian, 0.4% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 9.2% from other races, 2.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 20.9% of the population. The largest ancestry groups were: 17.9% Puerto Rican 17.4% Irish 12.7% French 11.0% Polish 10.8% Italian 8.8% English 6.0% German 5.5% French Canadian 2.6% American 2.2% Portuguese 2.0% Scottish 1.6% Russian 1.4% West Indian 1.3% Scotch-Irish 1.1% SwedishOf the 179,927 households, 32.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.9% were married couples living together, 17.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.6% were non-families, 29.2% of all households were made up of individuals.

The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.09. The median age was 38.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $47,724 and the median income for a family was $61,061. Males had a median income of $50,207 versus $37,765 for females; the per capita income for the county was $24,718. About 13.2% of families and 17.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.5% of those under age 18 and 11.2% of those age 65 or over. The ranking of unincorporated communities that are included on the list are reflective if the census designated locations and villages were included as cities or towns. Data is from the 2007–2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates. Agawam Public Schools Chicopee Public Schools East Longmeadow Public Schools Gateway Regional School District Hampden-Wilbraham Regional School District Holyoke Public Schools Longmeadow Public Schools Monson Public Schools Palmer Public Schools Southwick-Tolland-Granville Regional School District Springfield Public Schools Westfield Public Schools West Springfield Public Schools Although no county government exists in Hampden County, a number of private associations around trades remain identified with Hampden County.

To maintain current training among municipal inspectors, in 2005 the nongovernmental Hampden County Plumbing & Gas Inspectors Association was formed. The Hampden County Bar Association provides support and resources to the legal community and those seeking such representation. In part a legacy of the Eastern States Exposition, the Hampden County Improvement League, Hampden County Beekeepers Association, both provide agricultural education and outreach; the Hampden County Radio Association, an affiliate of the ARRL, offers training in amateur radio and related technology. National Register of Historic Places listings in Hampden County, Massachusetts Registry of Deeds Tofu Curtain USS Hampden County Carvalho III, Joseph. "Black Families in Hampden County, Ma

RKO Radio Network

The RKO Radio Networks, a subsidiary of RKO General, were the first commercial radio networks to distribute programming by satellite. When it began operations on October 1, 1979, the initial RKO network was the first new full-service American radio network in 40 years. Satellite distribution allowed high-fidelity stereo programming to its affiliates; the newscasts, aimed at a young adult audience, had a conversational, high-energy style developed by co-founders Vice President and News Director Dave Cooke, Vice President of Programming Jo Interrante. RKO was popular from the start, its base was the RKO General-owned radio stations in New York, Los Angeles, San Francisco and other large markets. RKO purchased downlink satellite dishes for its affiliates, creating the nation's first satellite-delivered commercial radio network; the original network, which fed newscasts at:50 repeated at:00, became known as RKO 1 when RKO 2 debuted on September 1, 1981. RKO 2 was aimed at an older audience. Both networks offered sportscasts, public affairs programming and closed-circuit affiliate feeds of news and sports correspondent reports and news-maker actualities.

The networks were home to three groundbreaking long-form programs. NightTime America with Bob Dearborn was the first live, satellite-delivered music show in radio history. Dearborn produced and hosted the five-hour adult contemporary show from January 9, 1981, until 1984. January 9, 1981, was the premier of America Overnight, a six-hour interview and call-in show hosted by Eric Tracey in Los Angeles and Ed Busch from Dallas, it was the first national talk show delivered by satellite. It marked the first time a network offered simultaneous overnight programs. Dick Bartley created and hosted the first live national oldies radio show, Solid Gold Saturday Night; the RKO Radio Networks were headquartered at 1440 Broadway in New York City the home of co-owned WOR. The offices were the former headquarters of the Mutual Broadcasting System when RKO General owned Mutual. RKO staffed news bureaus in Washington, D. C. and London. The network aired the last interview with John Lennon, recorded at The Dakota just hours before his death on December 8, 1980, by Dave Sholin, a San Francisco DJ, with radio producer Ron Hummel, who put together many music specials for RKO.

After advertising billing scandals involving RKO's television stations and the radio networks came to light, the RKO Radio Networks were sold in 1985 to the United Stations Radio Networks. Dick Clark Productions, owner of United Stations, sold the RKO Radio Network entity to Tom Ficara in 1990. United Stations was merged with Transtar Radio Networks to form Unistar Radio Networks in 1987. Unistar was absorbed by Westwood One in 1994 and its affiliates were switched to the Mutual Broadcasting System. Among RKO Radio Network alumni are Les Coleman - White House correspondent DECEASED Diane Dimond - Washington correspondent Gil Gross - news anchor Keith Olbermann - sports anchor Steve Powers - news anchor Charley Steiner - sports anchor Nick Young - news anchor Kevin Gordon - news anchor RKO General Transtar Radio Networks United Stations Radio Networks

Catholic Boy (horse)

Catholic Boy, is an American Thoroughbred racehorse who has won major races on both turf and dirt. As a juvenile in 2017 he won three of his four races including the With Anticipation Stakes and the Remsen Stakes. In the following year he was one of the best colts of his generation in America, winning the Pennine Ridge Stakes and Belmont Derby on turf before switching to dirt to take the Travers Stakes; as a four-year-old in 2019 he won the Dixie Stakes. Catholic Boy is a bay horse with a white star bred in Kentucky by Fred W. Hertrich III & John D. Fielding; as a yearling in January 2016 he was put up for auction at Keeneland but failed to reach his reserve price of $170,000. He subsequently entered the ownership of a partnership headed by Robert LaPenta which included Madaket Stables, Siena Farm and Twin Creeks Racing Stables, he was sent into training with Jonathan Thomas. He was sired by More Than Ready, a top-class American sprinter who won the King's Bishop Stakes in 2000, his other progeny have included Roy Verrazano.

Catholic Boy's dam Song of Bernadette showed negligible ability on the track, failing to win in five starts. She was a female-line descendant of the Argentinian mare La Sevillana, making her a relative of La Lorgnette and Hawk Wing. Catholic Boy made his track debut in a maiden race over seven and a half furlongs on turf at Gulfstream Park on July 20, 2017. Ridden by Carlos Monsalvo he won by two lengths from Discovered; the colt was stepped up in class and distance for the Grade III With Anticipation Stakes on turf at Saratoga Race Course on August 30. After being hampered he accelerated through a gap in the closing stages and won by a length at odds of 11.2/1. His rider Manny Franco commented "I was trying to find my way out. I had to wait a little longer than I wanted, but the hole opened, I had a lot of horse left and we won". In the Grade I Breeders' Cup Juvenile Turf at Del Mar Racetrack on November 3 Catholic Boy finished fourth behind Mendelssohn, Untamed Domain and Voting Control with Masar and Sands of Mali among those running unplaced.

The colt was switched to the dirt for the Grade II Remsen Stakes over nine furlongs at Aqueduct Racetrack on December 2. With Franco in the saddle he tracked the leaders before moving up to take the lead on the final turn and drawing away to win by four and three quarter lengths from the favourite Avery Island. After the race Jonathan Thomas said "We came over confident he would show us a little something, but we never expected that". On his three-year-old debut Catholic Boy started odds-on favourite for the Grade III Sam F. Davis Stakes on dirt at Tampa Bay Downs in February but was beaten half a length by the Mark Casse-trained Flameaway. Irad Ortiz took over the ride from Franco when the colt contested the Grade I Florida Derby at Gulfstream on March 31 and came home fourth of the nine runners, twelve lengths behind the winner Audible; the colt returned to the turf at Belmont on June 2 for the Grade III Pennine Ridge Stakes and started second favourite behind the Transylvania Stakes winner Analyze It.

Ridden by Javier Castellano he led soon after the start and after being headed by the favourite in the stretch he rallied to regain the advantage and won by a neck. Thomas commented "He's been nothing but reliable. We have asked him a lot of questions. I'm proud of his effort and his tenacity". On 9 July Catholic Boy again faced Analyze It in the Grade I Belmont Derby and started at odds of 5.1/1 in a nine-runner field which included Hunting Horn from Ireland, Kingstar from France, My Boy Jack and Hawkish. In a near replica of the Pennine Ridge Stakes he led for most of the way and after being overtaken by Analyze It he regained the lead in the final strides to win by a head. After the race Thomas, winning his first Grade I race said "It was a hell of a horse race, he has a lot of heart. I didn't expect him to fight back this time. I thought we were going to finish a real good second... somehow he got it done."At Saratoga Race Course on August 25, with Castellano again in the saddle, Catholic Boy was one of ten three-year-olds to contest the 149th edition of the Grade I Travers Stakes over ten furlongs on dirt.

He started the 7.1/1 third choice in the betting behind Good Magic and Gronkowski while the other contenders included Vino Rosso, Bravazo and the Canadian filly Wonder Gadot. After tracking the front-running Mendelssohn Catholic Boy went to the front inside the last quarter mile and drew away in the final furlong to win "readily" by four lengths. Robert LaPenta commented "They should make a movie about this... I've been coming to Saratoga since I was 18; this race has always been my dream. More than the Kentucky Derby."For his final run of 2018, Catholic Boy was matched against older horses in the Breeders' Cup Classic at Churchill Downs on November 2. He was made the 6/1 third choice in the betting but never looked to win and came home thirteenth of the fourteen runners behind Accelerate. In the 2018 World's Best Racehorse Rankings Catholic Boy was rated the third best three-year-old colt in the world behind Roaring Lion and Justify and the twentieth best horse of any age or sex. Catholic Boy began his third campaign in the Dixie Stakes over eight and a half furlongs on turf at Pimlico Race Course on May 18 and went off 1.4/1 favourite against nine opponents.

He settled in second place behind Real Story before taking the lead a furlong out and held off the late challenge of Admission Office to win by half a length. Castellano commented "He's a super horse. You can do, he can be on pace, he ca

USS Edgar F. Coney (SP-346)

USS Edgar F. Coney was an armed tug that served in the United States Navy from 1917 to 1919. Edgar F. Coney was built as a commercial steam tug of the same name in 1904 by John B. Dialogue & Sons at Camden, New Jersey, for the South Atlantic Towboat Company. On 22 September 1917, the U. S. Navy chartered her from her owner - by Philip Shore of Tampa, Florida - for use during World War I, she was commissioned the same day as USS Edgar F. Coney. Assigned to the 3rd Naval District, Edgar F. Coney was based at Tompkinsville, Staten Island, New York, she carried out towing duties in the New York City area for the remainder of World War I and into 1919. Edgar F. Coney was returned to her owner the same day, she returned to commercial service. The Tug sank 28 January, 1930 in the Gulf of Mexico in rough seas and high winds between the Sabine River and Pensacola, Florida. Lost with all 14 hands.}} This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here.

Department of the Navy Naval History and Heritage Command Online Library of Selected Images: Civilian Ships: Edgar F. Coney. Served as USS Edgar F. Coney in 1917-1919 NavSource Online: Section Patrol Craft Photo Archive: Edgar F. Coney

The arts and politics

A strong relationship between the arts and politics between various kinds of art and power, occurs across historical epochs and cultures. As they respond to contemporaneous events and politics, the arts take on political as well as social dimensions, becoming themselves a focus of controversy and a force of political as well as social change. A widespread observation is. For instance Pushkin, who some scholars regard as Russia's first great writer, attracted the mad irritation of the Russian officialdom and of the Tsar, since he "instead of being a good servant of the state in the rank and file of the administration and extolling conventional virtues in his vocational writings, composed arrogant and independent and wicked verse in which a dangerous freedom of thought was evident in the novelty of his versification, in the audacity of his sensual fancy, in his propensity for making fun of major and minor tyrants." According to Groys, "Art has its own power in the world, is as much a force in the power play of global politics today as it once was in the arena of cold war politics."Pertaining to such politically-intractable phenomena as the Modern conflicts in the Middle East, some artists and social critics believe that "art is useless as a tool for political change."

There are examples where artists employ art in the service of political change. Poets are the unacknowledged legislators of the world; the Italian poet Ungaretti, when interviewed on transgression by director Pasolini for the 1964 Love Meetings documentary, said that the foundation of poetry is to transgress all laws: "I am a poet and as such I begin transgressing all the laws by doing poetry". The Situationist International, a small group of international political and artistic agitators with roots in Marxism and the early 20th-century European artistic and political avant-gardes formed in 1957, aspired to major social and political transformations. In the works of the situationists, Italian scholar Mirella Bandini observes, there is no separation between art and politics. Revolutionary ideas have emerged first among artists and intellectuals. That's why a precise mechanism to defuse the role of artists and intellectuals is to relegate them into specialized, compartmentalized disciplines, in order to impose unnatural dichotomies as the "separation of art from politics".

Once artistic-intellectual works are separated from current events and from a comprehensive critique of society, they are sterilized and can be safely integrated into the official culture and the public discourse, where they can add new flavours to old dominant ideas and play the role of a gear wheel in the mechanism of the society of the spectacle. "Not content with claiming leftwing music", posters for the Conservative Party in the UK recycled iconic art styles of "socialist revolution" to communicate its political message in 2008. Czech sculptor David Černý's Entropa, a sculpture commissioned to mark the Czech presidency of the European Union Council during the first semester of 2009, illustrates how art can come into conflict with politics, creating various kinds of controversy in the process, both intentionally and unintentionally. Entropa attracted controversy both for its stereotyped depictions of the various EU member states and for having been a creation of Černý and two friends rather than, as Černý purported, a collaboration of 27 artists from each of the member states.

Some EU members states reacted negatively to the depiction of their country, with Bulgaria, for instance, deciding to summon the Czech Ambassador to Sofia in order to discuss the illustration of the Balkan country as a collection of squat toilets. This "Europe-wide hoax … reveals deeper truths" not only about the countries but "about art itself". According to Esti Sheinberg, a lecturer in music at the University of Edinburgh, in her book Irony, Satire and the Grotesque in the Music of Shostakovich, in "the traditional Russian perception of the arts", an "interrelationship between artistic technique and ideological content is the main aesthetic criterion". Ludwig van Beethoven did not use the original title "Ode to Freedom" of Friedrich Schiller's lyric, known in English as "Ode to Joy", in setting it to music in the final movement of his Ninth Symphony, which "Napoleonic censors had forced the poet to change to'Ode to Joy'." After the fall of the Berlin Wall, on 9 November 1989, that Christmas Day, when Leonard Bernstein conducted a performance of Beethoven's Ninth at the site of the former East German–West German border in Berlin, a concert telecast nationally in the United States, he substituted Freedom for Joy to reflect his own "personal message".

In February 1952, the United States Customs Service seized the passport of Paul Robeson, preventing him from leaving the United States to travel to the Fourth Canadian Convention of the International Union of Mine and Smelter Workers, in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. According to the account of the "Paul Robeson Centennial Celebration": "Robeson sang and spoke for 45 minutes, he introduced his first song stat

Boston Repertory Theatre

The Boston Repertory Theatre was founded in Hyannis, on Cape Cod, in the summer of 1971 by Esquire Jauchem. Jauchem recruited a group of local theater artists to form a true repertory acting company, their first season was presented as a summer stock company in Hyannis, Massachusetts performing William Saroyan's The Beautiful People, Edmond Rostand's The Romantics, Jean Cocteau's The Knights of the Round Table in weekly performances that summer. The company moved to Boston where they performed for the next decade becoming the most popular local theater ensemble, presenting over 40 productions varying from classics to world premieres of new works including successful productions of St. Exupery's The Little Prince, Harry Nilsson's The Point!, Kurt Vonnegut's Player Piano, James Kirkwood's P. S. Your Cat is Dead. At times, the company had productions running in three theaters and The Rep converted the Ace Recording Studio into the first new theater in the historic Boston Theater District in over 25 years.

The Rep became the only resident Actor's Equity company in Boston with as many as four different plays being performed by the same group of actors on a weekly basis. It was the only American theater company in a major city carrying on the British tradition of true rotating repertory with a company of actors on a year-round basis; the company toured across America as far east as Nantucket, west to San Francisco, North to Maine and south to Florida. The entire company was featured in the Opera Company of Boston's American premiere of Prokofiev's epic War and Peace conducted and directed by Sarah Caldwell; the original founders of the Boston Rep were Esquire Jauchem, Pierre Vuilleumier, Wendy Krauss, Judy Truncer, David Zucker, Virginia Feingold, David Morse, Tom Bower, George Winn-Abbott, Minerva Grey. The first four who were considered the core people, were in school together at Defiance College in Ohio; the company grew to include Gerald Bernstein, Martha Burtt, Joe Wilkins, Dorothy Meyer, Robin Brecker, Greg Meeh, Susan Palmer-Person, scores of local actors.

Guest artists included Tommy Tune, Viveca Lindfors, Dick Shawn, Kris Tabori, Ted Davis, Mary-Ann Plunkett, Elizabeth Swados