A Gallus was a eunuch priest of the Phrygian goddess Cybele and her consort Attis, whose worship was incorporated into the state religious practices of ancient Rome. Under Claudius, this ban was lifted, eventually Domitian reaffirmed that Roman citizens were forbidden to practice eviratio. The Galli castrated themselves during a celebration called the Dies sanguinis, or Day of Blood. At the same time put on womens costume, mostly yellow in colour. They wore their long, and bleached, and wore heavy make-up. They wandered around with followers, begging for charity, in return for which they were prepared to tell fortunes, on the day of mourning for Attis they ran around wildly and disheveled. They performed dances to the music of pipes and tambourines, and, in an ecstasy, stephanus Byzantinus said that the name came from King Gallus. Ovid says that the name is derived from the Gallus river in Phrygia, the term Gallus is a multiple pun in Latin, meaning a Gaul, or a rooster, as well as a castrated priest.
They originally seem to have been consecrated to the god Enki, by coincidence there was a category of Mesopotamian priests called kalu, in Sumerian gala. These priests played the tympanum and were involved in bull sacrifice, another category of Mesopotamian priests called assinnu and kurgarru had a sacred function. These transgender or eunuch priests participated in liturgical rites, during which they were costumed and masked and they played music and danced, most often in ceremonies dedicated to the goddess Ishtar. Fundamental to understanding the meaning and the function of the myth, the role of prototype of the mythical castration of Attis for the institution of the priesthood of the Galli has almost always been emphasised, even if to different degrees. This kind of appears to be too simplistic as, to some extent. The earliest references to the Galli come from the Anthologia Palatina although they dont explicitly mention emasculation, more interesting is the fragment attributed to Callimachus, in which the term Gallai denotes castration that has taken place.
The high priests are well-documented from archaeology, at Pessinus, the centre of the Cybele cult, there were two high priests during the Hellenistic period, one with the title of Attis and the other with the name of Battakes. The high priests had considerable influence during this period, and letters exist from a high priest Attis to the kings of Pergamon, Eumenes II and Attalus II. Later, during the Flavian period, there was a college of ten priests, not castrated, and now Roman citizens, in Rome, the head of the galli was known as the archigallus, at least from the period of Claudius on. A number of archaeological finds depict the archigallus wearing luxurious and extravagant costumes, the archigallus was always a Roman citizen chosen by the quindecimviri sacris faciundis, whose term of service lasted for life
The almond is a species of tree native to the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent and North Africa. Almond is the name of the edible and widely cultivated seed of this tree, within the genus Prunus, it is classified with the peach in the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by corrugations on the shell surrounding the seed. The fruit of the almond is a drupe, consisting of a hull and a hard shell with the seed. Shelling almonds refers to removing the shell to reveal the seed, almonds are sold shelled or unshelled. Blanched almonds are shelled almonds that have been treated with hot water to soften the seedcoat, the almond is a deciduous tree, growing 4–10 m in height, with a trunk of up to 30 cm in diameter. The young twigs are green at first, becoming purplish where exposed to sunlight, the leaves are 3–5 inches long, with a serrated margin and a 2.5 cm petiole. The flowers are white to pink, 3–5 cm diameter with five petals, produced singly or in pairs. Almond grows best in Mediterranean climates with warm, dry summers and mild, the optimal temperature for their growth is between 15 and 30 °C and the tree buds have a chilling requirement of 300 to 600 hours below 7.2 °C to break dormancy.
Almonds begin bearing an economic crop in the year after planting. Trees reach full bearing five to six years after planting, the fruit matures in the autumn, 7–8 months after flowering. The almond fruit measures 3. 5–6 cm long, in botanical terms, it is not a nut but a drupe. The outer covering or exocarp, fleshy in other members of Prunus such as the plum and cherry, is instead a thick, grey-green coat, inside the hull is a reticulated, woody shell called the endocarp. Inside the shell is the seed, commonly called a nut. Generally, one seed is present, but occasionally two occur, the almond is native to the Mediterranean climate region of the Middle East, eastward as far as the Yamuna River in India. The wild form of domesticated almond grows in parts of the Levant, the fruit of the wild forms contains the glycoside amygdalin, which becomes transformed into deadly prussic acid after crushing, chewing, or any other injury to the seed. Selection of the type from the many bitter types in the wild marked the beginning of almond domestication.
It is unclear as to which wild ancestor of the created the domesticated species. Zohary and Hopf believe that almonds were one of the earliest domesticated fruit trees due to the ability of the grower to raise attractive almonds from seed
Rhamnous, Ramnous or Rhamnus, was an ancient Greek city in Attica situated on the coast, overlooking the Euboean Strait. Its impressive ruins lie northwest of the town of Agia Marina in the municipality of Marathon. The site was best known in antiquity for its sanctuary of Nemesis, Rhamnous is the best-preserved Attic deme site. It was strategically significant on the sea routes and was fortified with an Athenian garrison of ephebes, understanding of the history of Rhamnous was greatly improved by the work of Jean Pouilloux, who studied the fortress and the inscriptions from the site. The sanctuary of Nemesis lies on the road between Rhamnous and Marathon, around 630m south of the city, two temples to Nemesis and Themis can be seen at the site situated very close together. In modern times, John Peter Gandys admirable work to document the site was the first in 1813. The earliest temple dates from the late 6th century BC, made of Poros stone and known from a few Laconian roof tiles, the former was the personification of Right Order and the latter the avenger of Orders transgressors.
There are several cuttings on the steps of this temple for the insertion of stelai, the temple was built of local dark marble and roofed with terracotta tiles. The walls of the cella and the terrace of the platform are built in the Lesbian polygonal style of masonry. This temple probably served as a treasury of the temple for its cult statues. A statue of Themis and several dedications, unearthed in the cella, are at the National Archaeological Museum. This structure survived until the 4th century AD, construction of the larger temple to Nemesis began around 460-450 BC and continued until 430-420. It was built as a Doric peripteral temple during the reign of Pericles when the Parthenon was built in Athens, and on a platform with a massive polygonal terrace wall. It is believed that it was designed by the architect Callicrates who designed the Temple of Hephaestus in Athens, the Poseidon Temple at Cape Sounion, the euthynteria and lowest level of the crepidoma were made from local dark marble, while the rest was constructed of white marble.
There were no pedimental sculptures, nor were the metopes decorated with sculpture, the roof was decorated with sculptural acroteria, however. At some point after the construction, the Temple of Nemesis was severely damaged at its eastern end. The damage to this and other temples in the region and the destruction of monuments in Athens is thought to be caused by the armies of Philip V of Macedon during his raids in 200 BC. The central block of the architrave on the east end of the bears a inscription of rededication to the goddess Livia by the Demos
Dionysus is the god of the grape harvest and wine, of ritual madness, fertility and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth. Wine played an important role in Greek culture, and the cult of Dionysus was the religious focus for its unrestrained consumption. He may have been worshipped as early as c, 1500–1100 BC by Mycenean Greeks, traces of Dionysian-type cult have been found in ancient Minoan Crete. His origins are uncertain, and his cults took many forms, some are described by ancient sources as Thracian, in some cults, he arrives from the east, as an Asiatic foreigner, in others, from Ethiopia in the South. He is a god of epiphany, the god that comes and his festivals were the driving force behind the development of Greek theatre. The earliest cult images of Dionysus show a male and robed. He holds a staff, tipped with a pine-cone and known as a thyrsus. Later images show him as a beardless, naked or half-naked androgynous youth, in its fully developed form, his central cult imagery shows his triumphant, disorderly arrival or return, as if from some place beyond the borders of the known and civilized.
His procession is made up of female followers and bearded satyrs with erect penises, some are armed with the thyrsus. The god himself is drawn in a chariot, usually by exotic beasts such as lions or tigers and this procession is presumed to be the cult model for the followers of his Dionysian Mysteries. He is known as Bacchus, the adopted by the Romans. His thyrsus, sometimes wound with ivy and dripping with honey, is both a beneficent wand and a used to destroy those who oppose his cult and the freedoms he represents. As Eleutherios, his wine and ecstatic dance free his followers from self-conscious fear and care and those who partake of his mysteries are possessed and empowered by the god himself. The cult of Dionysus is a cult of the souls, his maenads feed the dead through blood-offerings and he is sometimes categorised as a dying-and-rising god. Some scholars believe that Dionysus is a syncretism of a local Greek nature deity, Dionysus had a strange birth that evokes the difficulty in fitting him into the Olympian pantheon.
His mother was a woman, the daughter of king Cadmus of Thebes, and his father was Zeus. Zeus wife, discovered the affair while Semele was pregnant, appearing as an old crone, Hera befriended Semele, who confided in her that Zeus was the actual father of the baby in her womb. Hera pretended not to believe her, and planted seeds of doubt in Semeles mind, Semele demanded of Zeus that he reveal himself in all his glory as proof of his godhood
Strabo was a Greek geographer and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. Strabo was born to an affluent family from Amaseia in Pontus, Strabos life was characterized by extensive travels. He journeyed to Egypt and Kush, as far west as coastal Tuscany and as far south as Ethiopia in addition to his travels in Asia Minor and the time he spent in Rome. Travel throughout the Mediterranean and Near East, especially for scholarly purposes, was popular during this era and was facilitated by the relative peace enjoyed throughout the reign of Augustus. He moved to Rome in 44 BC, and stayed there and writing, in 29 BC, on his way to Corinth, he visited the island of Gyaros in the Aegean Sea. Around 25 BC, he sailed up the Nile until reaching Philae and it is not known precisely when Strabos Geography was written, though comments within the work itself place the finished version within the reign of Emperor Tiberius. Some place its first drafts around 7 BC, others around 17 or 18 AD, the latest passage to which a date can be assigned is his reference to the death in AD23 of Juba II, king of Maurousia, who is said to have died just recently.
He probably worked on the Geography for many years and revised it steadily, on the presumption that recently means within a year, Strabo stopped writing that year or the next, when he died. The first of Strabos major works, Historical Sketches, written while he was in Rome, is completely lost. Strabo studied under several prominent teachers of various specialties throughout his life at different stops along his Mediterranean travels. His first chapter of education took place in Nysa under the master of rhetoric Aristodemus, Strabo was an admirer of Homers poetry, perhaps a consequence of his time spent in Nysa with Aristodemus. At around the age of 21, Strabo moved to Rome, where he studied philosophy with the Peripatetic Xenarchus, despite Xenarchuss Aristotelian leanings, Strabo gives evidence to have formed his own Stoic inclinations. In Rome, he learned grammar under the rich and famous scholar Tyrannion of Amisus. Although Tyrannion was a Peripatetic, he was more relevantly a respected authority on geography, the final noteworthy mentor to Strabo was Athenodorus Cananites, a philosopher who had spent his life since 44 BC in Rome forging relationships with the Roman elite.
Athenodorus endowed to Strabo three important items, his philosophy, his knowledge, and his contacts, from his own first-hand experience, Athenodorus provided Strabo with information about regions of the empire which he would not otherwise have known. Strabo is most notable for his work Geographica, which presented a history of people. Although the Geographica was rarely utilized in its antiquity, a multitude of copies survived throughout the Byzantine Empire. It first appeared in Western Europe in Rome as a Latin translation issued around 1469, the first Greek edition was published in 1516 in Venice
Piraeus is a port city in the region of Attica, Greece. Piraeus is located within the Athens urban area,12 kilometres southwest from its city center, the municipality of Piraeus and several other suburban municipalities within the regional unit of Piraeus form the greater Piraeus area, with a total population of 448,997. Piraeus has a recorded history, dating to ancient Greece. During the Golden Age of Athens the Long Walls were constructed to connect Athens with Piraeus, the port of Piraeus is the chief port in Greece, the largest passenger port in Europe and the second largest in the world, servicing about 20 million passengers annually. With a throughput of 1.4 million TEUs, Piraeus is placed among the top ten ports in container traffic in Europe, the city hosted events in both the 1896 and 2004 Summer Olympics held in Athens. The University of Piraeus is one of the largest universities in Greece, which roughly means the place over the passage, has been inhabited since the 26th century BC.
Consequently, it was called the Halipedon, meaning the salt field, through the centuries, the area was increasingly silted and flooding ceased, and thus by early classical times the land passage was made safe. In the late 6th century BC, the area caught attention due to its advantages, in 511 BC, the hill of Munichia was fortified by Hippias and four years Piraeus became a deme of Attica by Cleisthenes. The Athenian fleet played a role in the battle of Salamis against the Persians in 480 BC. From on Piraeus was permanently used as the navy base, the citys fortification was farther reinforced by the construction of the Long Walls under Cimon and Pericles, with which Piraeus was connected to Athens. Meanwhile, Piraeus was rebuilt to the grid plan of architect Hippodamus of Miletus, known as the Hippodamian plan. As a result, Piraeus flourished and became a port of high security and great commercial activity, during the Peloponnesian War, Piraeus suffered its first setback. In the second year of the war, the first cases of the Athens plague were recorded in Piraeus, in 404 BC, the Spartan fleet under Lysander blockaded Piraeus and subsequently Athens surrendered to the Spartans, putting an end to the Delian League and the war itself.
As a result, the tattered and unfortified port city was not able to compete with prosperous Rhodes, the destruction was completed in 395 AD by the Goths under Alaric I. Piraeus was led to a period of decline which lasted for fifteen centuries. During the Byzantine period the harbour of Piraeus was occasionally used for the Byzantine fleet and it was called Porto Drako by Greeks, drako meaning not just dragon, but any monster. When Piraeus was taken by the Ottoman Empire in 1456, it known as Aslan Liman. The Piraeus Lion itself was looted in 1687 by Francesco Morosini during his expedition against Athens and was carried to the Venetian Arsenal, a copy of the lion statue is on display at the Archaeological Museum of Piraeus
Cybele is an Anatolian mother goddess, she may have a possible precursor in the earliest neolithic at Çatalhöyük, where statues of obese women, sometimes sitting, have been found in excavations. She is Phrygias only known goddess, and was probably its state deity and her Phrygian cult was adopted and adapted by Greek colonists of Asia Minor and spread to mainland Greece and its more distant western colonies around the 6th century BC. In Greece, Cybele met with a mixed reception and she was partially assimilated to aspects of the Earth-goddess Gaia, her Minoan equivalent Rhea, and the Harvest-Mother goddess Demeter. Uniquely in Greek religion, she had a eunuch mendicant priesthood, many of her Greek cults included rites to a divine Phrygian castrate shepherd-consort Attis, who was probably a Greek invention. In Greece, Cybele is associated with mountains and city walls, fertile nature, in Rome, Cybele was known as Magna Mater. The Roman State adopted and developed a form of her cult after the Sibylline oracle recommended her conscription as a key religious component in Romes second war against Carthage.
Roman mythographers reinvented her as a Trojan goddess, and thus an ancestral goddess of the Roman people by way of the Trojan prince Aeneas, with Romes eventual hegemony over the Mediterranean world, Romanised forms of Cybeles cults spread throughout the Roman Empire. The meaning and morality of her cults and priesthoods were topics of debate and dispute in Greek and Roman literature, no contemporary text or myth survives to attest the original character and nature of Cybeles Phrygian cult. Cybele may have evolved from an Anatolian Mother Goddess of a type found at Çatalhöyük, in Phrygian art of the 8th century BC, the cult attributes of the Phrygian mother-goddess include attendant lions, a bird of prey, and a small vase for her libations or other offerings. She is ancient Phrygias only known goddess, and was probably the highest deity of the Phrygian State, in the 2nd century AD, the geographer Pausanias attests to a Magnesian cult to the Mother of the Gods, whose image was carved into a rock-spur of Mount Sipylus.
This was believed to be the oldest image of the goddess and this was the aniconic stone that was removed to Rome in 204 BC. In this view, the desire to harness her power led to her installation as a goddess of the city by Anatolian elites. To show her role as protector of cities, or city states, she was shown wearing a Mural Crown. At the same time, her power transcended any purely political usage, over time, her Phrygian cults and iconography were transformed, and eventually subsumed, by the influences and interpretations of her foreign devotees, at first Greek and Roman. The Greeks called her Mātēr or Mētēr, or from the early 5th century Kubelē, in Pindar, walter Burkert places her among the foreign gods of Greek religion, a complex figure combining the Minoan-Mycenaean tradition with the Phrygian cult imported directly from Asia Minor. In Greece, as in Phrygia, she was a Mistress of animals, with her mastery of the world expressed by the lions that flank her. She was readily assimilated to the Minoan-Greek earth-mother Rhea, Mother of the gods, whose raucous, as an exemplar of devoted motherhood, she was partly assimilated to the grain-goddess Demeter, whose torchlight procession recalled her search for her lost daughter, Persephone.
As with other deities viewed as foreign introductions, the spread of Cybeles cult was attended by conflict and her cults most often were funded privately, rather than by the polis, and her vivid and forceful character and association with the wild set her apart from the Olympian gods
Incest is sexual activity between family members or close relatives. The incest taboo is and has one of the most widespread of all cultural taboos. Most modern societies have laws regarding incest or social restrictions on closely consanguineous marriages, in societies where it is illegal, consensual adult incest is seen by some as a victimless crime. Some cultures extend the incest taboo to relatives with no consanguinity such as milk-siblings, third-degree relatives on average share 12. 5% genes, and sexual relations between them is viewed differently in various cultures, from being discouraged to being socially acceptable. The children of incestuous relationships were regarded as illegitimate, and are still so regarded in some societies today, in most cases, the parents did not have the option to marry to remove that status, as incestuous marriages were, and are, normally prohibited. A common justification for prohibiting incest is avoiding inbreeding, a collection of genetic disorders suffered by the children of parents with a genetic relationship.
But inbreeding is not the basis for the incest taboo for two reasons. First, most prohibitions on incest cover affinity relationships—that is, relationships created by marriage —as well as created by adoption. And second, the incest taboo applies to non-procreative sex—for example, some societies, such as the Balinese and some Inuit tribes, have different views about what constitutes illegal and immoral incest. However, sexual relations with a first-degree relative are almost universally forbidden, the English word incest is derived from the Latin incestus, which has a general meaning of impure, unchaste. It was introduced into Middle English, both in the generic Latin sense and in the modern sense. The derived adjective incestuous appears in the 16th century, before the Latin term came in, incest was known in Old English as sib-leger or mǣġhǣmed but in time, both words fell out of use. In ancient China, first cousins with the surnames were not permitted to marry. Several of the Egyptian Pharaohs married their siblings and had children with them.
For example, Tutankhamun married his half-sister Ankhesenamun, and was himself the child of an union between Akhenaten and an unidentified sister-wife. It is now accepted that sibling marriages were widespread among all classes in Egypt during the Graeco-Roman period. Numerous papyri and the Roman census declarations attest to many husbands and wives being brother and sister, in the sequel to Oedipus, his four children are punished for their parents incestuousness. Incest appears in the accepted version of the birth of Adonis
Hittite mythology and religion
Hittite mythology and Hittite religion were the religious beliefs and practices of the Hittites, who created an empire centered in what is now Turkey from c.1,600 BC to 1,180 BC. Thus, there are no canonical scriptures, no theological disquisitions or discourses, some religious documents formed part of the corpus with which young scribes were trained, and have survived, most of them dating from the last several decades before the final burning of the sites. Gods were often depicted standing on the backs of their respective beasts, though drawing on ancient Mesopotamian religion, the religion of the Hittites and Luwians retains noticeable elements of reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion. His consort is the Hattic solar deity and this divine couple were presumably worshipped in the twin cellas of the largest temple at Hattusa. The city of Arinna, a march from Hattusa, was perhaps the major cult center of the Hittites. The Hittites referred to their own gods, of whom a staggering number appear in inscriptions.
The multiplicity is doubtless an artifact of a level of social-political localization within the Hittite empire not easily reconstructed, the weather god was identified there with Mount Zaliyanu near Nerik, responsible for assigning rain to the citys croplands. Among the crowd a few stand out as more local, Tarhun has a son, Telipinu. Inara is a deity involved with the Puruli spring festival. Ishara is a goddess of the oath, lists of witnesses to treaties seem to represent the Hittite pantheon most clearly. In the 13th century some explicit gestures toward syncretism appear in inscriptions, queen and a priestess, worked on organizing and rationalizing her peoples religion. In an inscription she invokes, Sun-Goddes of Arinna, my lady, in the land of Hatti you have assumed the name of Sun-Goddess of Arinna, but in respect to the land which you made of cedars, you have assumed the name Hebat. Kumarbi is the father of Tarhun, his role in the Song of Kumarbi is reminiscent of that of Cronus in the Theogony of Hesiod, ullikummi is a stone monster fathered by Kumarbi, reminiscent of Hesiods Typhon.
The Luwian god of weather and lightning, may be at the origin of Greek Pegasus, depictions of hybrid animals are typical for the Anatolian art of the period. In the Telipinu myth, the disappearance of Telipinu, god of agriculture and fertility causes all fertility to fail and this results in devastation and despair among gods and humans alike. In order to stop the havoc and devastation, the gods seek Telipinu, only a bee sent by the goddess Hannahannah finds Telipinu, and stings him in order to wake him up. However this infuriates Telipinu further and he diverts the flow of rivers and shatters the houses, in the end, the goddess Kamrusepa uses healing and magic to calm Telipinu after which he returns home and restores the vegetation and fertility. In other references it is a mortal priest who prays for all of Telipinus anger to be sent to bronze containers in the underworld, of which nothing escapes
Zeus /ˈzjuːs/ is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who ruled as king of the gods of Mount Olympus. His name is cognate with the first element of his Roman equivalent Jupiter and his mythologies and powers are similar, though not identical, to those of the Indo-European deities such as Indra, Perun and Odin. Zeus is the child of Cronus and Rhea, the youngest of his siblings to be born, in most traditions, he is married to Hera, by whom he is usually said to have fathered Ares and Hephaestus. At the oracle of Dodona, his consort was said to be Dione, Zeus was infamous for his erotic escapades. These resulted in many godly and heroic offspring, including Athena, Artemis, Persephone, Perseus, Helen of Troy and the Muses. He was equated with many foreign weather gods, permitting Pausanias to observe That Zeus is king in heaven is a common to all men. His symbols are the thunderbolt, eagle and oak, in addition to his Indo-European inheritance, the classical cloud-gatherer derives certain iconographic traits from the cultures of the Ancient Near East, such as the scepter.
Zeus is frequently depicted by Greek artists in one of two poses, striding forward with a thunderbolt leveled in his right hand. The gods name in the nominative is Ζεύς Zeús and it is inflected as follows, vocative, Ζεῦ Zeû, accusative, Δία Día, genitive, Διός Diós, dative, Διί Dií. Diogenes Laertius quotes Pherecydes of Syros as spelling the name, Ζάς, Zeus is the Greek continuation of *Di̯ēus, the name of the Proto-Indo-European god of the daytime sky, called *Dyeus ph2tēr. The god is known under this name in the Rigveda, Zeus is the only deity in the Olympic pantheon whose name has such a transparent Indo-European etymology. The earliest attested forms of the name are the Mycenaean Greek
Castration is any action, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles. Surgical castration is bilateral orchiectomy, and chemical castration uses pharmaceutical drugs to inactivate the testes, castration causes sterilization, it greatly reduces the production of certain hormones, such as testosterone. Surgical castration in animals is often called neutering, the term castration is sometimes used to refer to the removal of the ovaries in the female, otherwise known as an oophorectomy or, in animals, spaying. Estrogen levels drop precipitously following oophorectomy, and long-term effects of the reduction of sex hormones are significant throughout the body, castration of non-human animals is intended to favour a desired development of the animal or of its habits or to prevent overpopulation. Castration was frequently used for religious or social reasons in certain cultures in Europe, South Asia, after battles in some cases, winners castrated their captives or the corpses of the defeated to symbolize their victory and seize their power.
Castrated men — eunuchs – were often admitted to special classes and were used particularly to staff bureaucracies and palace households, in particular. Castration figured in a number of religious castration cults, other religions, such as Judaism, were strongly opposed to the practice. The Leviticus Holiness code, for example, specifically excludes eunuchs or any males with defective genitals from the priesthood, Eunuchs in China had been known to usurp power in many eras of Chinese history, most notably in the Later Han, late Tang and late Ming dynasties. There are similar recorded Middle Eastern events, in ancient times, castration often involved the total removal of all the male genitalia. This involved great danger of death due to bleeding or infection and, in some states, removal of only the testicles had much less risk. Either surgical removal of both testicles or chemical castration may be carried out in the case of prostate cancer, castration in humans has been proposed, and sometimes used, as a method of birth control in certain poorer regions.
Castration has used in the United States for sex offenders to ensure they will not commit such crimes ever again. Trans women often undergo orchiectomy, as do some other transgender people, orchiectomy may be performed as part of a more general sex reassignment surgery, either before or during other procedures. It may be performed on someone who does not desire, or cannot afford, involuntary castration appears in the history of warfare, sometimes used by one side to torture or demoralize their enemies. It was practiced to extinguish opposing male lineages and thus allow the victor to sexually possess the defeated groups women, edward Gibbons famous work Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire reports castration of defeated foes at the hands of the Normans during their invasions of Sicily and Italy. In the medieval kingdom of Georgia, the pretender Demna was castrated by his uncle George III of Georgia to ensure the supremacy of Georges branch of the family, another famous victim of castration was the medieval French philosopher, scholar and monk Pierre Abélard.
He was castrated by relatives of his lover, Héloïse, bishop Wimund, a 12th-century English adventurer and invader of the Scottish coast, was castrated. In medieval England those found guilty of treason were hanged and quartered
In Greek mythology, Hermaphroditus or Hermaphroditos /hərˌmæf. rəˈdaɪ. təs/ was the son of Aphrodite and Hermes. According to Ovid, he was born a remarkably handsome boy with whom the water nymph Salmacis fell in love, a god, in answer to her prayer, merged their two forms into one and transformed them into an androgynous form. His name is compounded of his parents names and Aphrodite and he was one of the Erotes. Because he was a son of Hermes, and consequently a great-grandson of Atlas, Hermaphroditus father, was called Atlantiades because his mother, Maia was the daughter of Atlas. His name is the basis for the word hermaphrodite, the two-sexed child of Aphrodite and Hermes had long been a symbol of androgyny or effeminacy, and was portrayed in Greco-Roman art as a female figure with male genitals. Theophrastuss account suggests a link between Hermaphroditus and the institution of marriage, the reference to the fourth day of the month is telling, this is the luckiest day to have a wedding.
Hermaphrodituss association with marriage seems to have been that, by embodying both masculine and feminine qualities, he symbolized the coming together of men and women in sacred union, another factor linking Hermaphroditus to weddings was his parents role in protecting and blessing brides. Hermaphrodituss name is derived from those of his parents Hermes and Aphrodite, all three of these gods figure largely among erotic and fertility figures, and all possess distinctly sexual overtones. Sometimes, Hermaphroditus is referred to as Aphroditus, the phallic god Priapus was the son of Hermes in some accounts, and the youthful god of desire Eros of Hermes and Aphrodite. Ovids account relates that Hermaphroditus was nursed by naiads in the caves of Mount Ida, at the age of fifteen, he grew bored with his surroundings and traveled to the cities of Lycia and Caria. It was in the woods of Caria, near Halicarnassus that he encountered the nymph and she was overcome by lust for the boy, who was very handsome but still young, and tried to seduce him, but was rejected.
When he thought her to be gone, Hermaphroditus undressed and entered the waters of the empty pool, Salmacis sprang out from behind a tree and jumped into the pool. She wrapped herself around the boy, forcibly kissing him and touching his breast, while he struggled, she called out to the gods that they should never part. Her wish was granted, and their bodies blended into one form, Hermaphroditus prayed to Hermes and Aphrodite that anyone else who bathed in the pool would be similarly transformed, and his wish was granted. In this form the story was not ancient, Karl Kerenyi noted. He compared the myth of the beautiful ephebe with Narcissus and Hyacinthus, who had an archaic hero-cult, the oldest traces of the cult in Greek countries are found in Cyprus. Here, according to Macrobius, there was a statue of a male Aphrodite. Philochorus in his Atthis further identified this divinity, at whose sacrifices men and women exchanged garments, a terracotta plaque from the 7th century BC depicting Aphroditos was found in Perachora, which suggests it was an archaic cult