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Age of Discovery

The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration, is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and, the beginning of globalization. It marks the rise of the widespread adoption of colonialism and mercantilism as national policies in Europe. Many lands unknown to Europeans were discovered by them during this period, though most were inhabited. From the perspective of many non-Europeans, the Age of Discovery marked the arrival of invaders from unknown continents. Global exploration started with the Portuguese discoveries of the Atlantic archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores in 1419 and 1427, the coast of Africa after 1434 and the sea route to India in 1498; these discoveries led to numerous naval expeditions across the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, land expeditions in the Americas, Asia and Australia that continued into the late 19th century, followed by the exploration of the polar regions in the 20th century.

European overseas exploration led to the rise of global trade and the European colonial empires, with the contact between the Old World and the New World producing the Columbian exchange, a wide transfer of plants, food, human populations, communicable diseases and culture between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. The Age of Discovery and European exploration allowed the mapping of the world, resulting in a new worldview and distant civilizations coming into contact, but led to the propagation of diseases that decimated populations not in contact with Eurasia and Africa and to the enslavement, military conquest and economic dominance by Europe and its colonies over native populations, it allowed for the expansion of Christianity throughout the world: with the spread of missionary activity, it became the world's largest religion. The Portuguese began systematically exploring the Atlantic coast of Africa from 1418, under the sponsorship of Prince Henry. Under the direction of Henry the Navigator, the Portuguese developed a new, much lighter ship, the caravel, which could sail farther and faster, above all, was manoeuvrable and could sail much nearer the wind, or into the wind.

In 1488 Bartolomeu Dias reached the Indian Ocean by this route. In 1492 the Catholic Monarchs of Castile and Aragon funded Christopher Columbus's plan to sail west to reach the Indies by crossing the Atlantic, he seen as a new world, the Americas. To prevent conflict between Portugal and Castile, the Treaty of Tordesillas was signed dividing the world into two regions of exploration, where each had exclusive rights to claim newly discovered lands. In 1498, a Portuguese expedition commanded by Vasco da Gama reached India by sailing around Africa, opening up direct trade with Asia. While other exploratory fleets were sent from Portugal to northern North America, in the following years Portuguese India Armadas extended this Eastern oceanic route, touching sometimes South America and by this way opening a circuit from the New World to Asia, explored islands in the South Atlantic and Southern Indian Oceans. Soon, the Portuguese sailed further eastward, to the valuable Spice Islands in 1512, landing in China one year later.

In 1513, Spanish Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached the "other sea" from the New World. Thus, Europe first received news of the eastern and western Pacific within a one-year span around 1512. East and west exploration overlapped in 1522, when a Castilian expedition, led by Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan and by Spanish Basque navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano, sailing westward, completed the first circumnavigation of the world, while Spanish conquistadors explored the interior of the Americas, some of the South Pacific islands. Since 1495, the French and English and, much the Dutch entered the race of exploration after learning of these exploits, defying the Iberian monopoly on maritime trade by searching for new routes, first to the western coasts of North and South America, through the first English and French expeditions, into the Pacific Ocean around South America, but by following the Portuguese around Africa into the Indian Ocean. Meanwhile, from the 1580s to the 1640s, Russians explored and conquered the whole of Siberia, Alaska in the 1730s.

Between the 12th and 15th centuries the European economy was transformed by the interconnecting of river and sea trade routes, causing Europe to become one of the world's most prosperous trading networks. Before the 12th century the main obstacle to trade east of the Strait of Gibraltar was lack of commercial incentive rather than inadequate ship design. Economic growth of Spain followed the siege of Lisbon; the decline of Fatimid Caliphate naval strength that started before the First Crusade helped the maritime Italian states Venice and Pisa, dominate trade in the eastern Mediterranean, with It

Maolán Buí

Maolán Buí known by the name Bearna Rua, at 973 metres high, is the fifth-highest peak in Ireland on the Arderin list, or the sixth-highest peak in Ireland according to the Vandeleur-Lynam list. Maolán Buí is known for its narrow north-west spur, called The Bone, it is part of the MacGillycuddy's Reeks in Kerry. Maolán Buí is in the eastern part of the MacGillycuddy's Reeks in County Kerry, Ireland's highest mountain range; the peak lies on a ridge between Cnoc na Péiste 988 metres and Cnoc an Chuillinn 958 metres, which are themselves part of the larger eastern ridge of the Reeks, which includes The Big Gun 939 metres and finishes at its far eastern end with Cruach Mhór 932 metres. A narrow north-west spur of Maolán Buí called The Bone, not to be confused with the nearby peak that sits on the Beenkeragh Ridge, The Bones 957 metres, is regarded as a safe escape route from the eastern section of the main MacGillycuddy's Reeks ridge, down into the Hag's Glen and out through Cronin's Yard. Maolán Buí is the 278th-highest mountain in Ireland on the Simm classification.

It is regarded by the Scottish Mountaineering Club as one of 34 Furths, a mountain above 3,000 ft in elevation, meets the other SMC criteria for a Munro, but, outside of Scotland. Maolán Buí's prominence qualifies it to meet the Arderin classification, the British Isles Simm and Hewitt classifications. Maolán Buí does not appear in the MountainViews Online Database, 100 Highest Irish Mountains, as the prominence threshold is over 100 m. Lists of mountains in Ireland List of mountains of the British Isles by height List of Furth mountains in the British Isles MountainViews: The Irish Mountain Website MountainViews: Irish Online Mountain Database The Database of British and Irish Hills, the largest database of British Isles mountains Hill Bagging UK & Ireland, the searchable interface for the DoBIH Ordnance Survey Ireland Online Map Viewer Logainm: Placenames Database of Ireland

Lido Fanale Anteriore Lighthouse

Lido Fanale Anteriore Lighthouse is an active lighthouse located on the northern tip of the island of Lido di Venezia, in the Venetian Lagoon on the Adriatic Sea. The lighthouse, established in 1912, consists of a quadrangular skeletal tower, 10 metres high, not wholly, by a metal plate with balcony and light; the tower is settled on a platform supported by wooden piles. The Fanale Anteriore light is positioned at 13 metres above sea level and emits one white flash in a 3 seconds period, visible up to a distance of 11 nautical miles; the lighthouse automated and powered by a solar unit, is managed by the Marina Militare with the identification code number 4177 E. F; the Fanale Anteriore Direction light is positioned at 3 metres above sea level and emits one green flash in a 4 seconds period, visible up to a distance of 5 nautical miles. The lighthouse automated and powered by a solar unit, is managed by the Marina Militare with the identification code number 4186 E. F. List of lighthouses in Italy Servizio Fari Marina Militare