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Age of Enlightenment

The Age of Enlightenment was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 17th to 19th century. The Enlightenment emerged out of a European intellectual and scholarly movement known as Renaissance humanism; some consider the publication of Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica as the first major enlightenment work. French historians traditionally date the Enlightenment from 1715 to 1789, from the death of Louis XIV of France until the outbreak of the French Revolution that ended the Ancien Regime. Most end it with the beginning of the 19th century. Philosophers and scientists of the period circulated their ideas through meetings at scientific academies, Masonic lodges, literary salons, coffeehouses and in printed books and pamphlets; the ideas of the Enlightenment undermined the authority of the monarchy and the Church and paved the way for the political revolutions of the 18th and 19th centuries. A variety of 19th-century movements, including liberalism and neoclassicism, trace their intellectual heritage to the Enlightenment.

The Enlightenment included a range of ideas centered on the sovereignty of reason and the evidence of the senses as the primary sources of knowledge and advanced ideals such as liberty, toleration, constitutional government and separation of church and state. In France, the central doctrines of the Enlightenment philosophers were individual liberty and religious tolerance, in opposition to an absolute monarchy and the fixed dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church; the Enlightenment was marked by an emphasis on the scientific method and reductionism, along with increased questioning of religious orthodoxy—an attitude captured by Immanuel Kant's essay Answering the Question: What is Enlightenment, where the phrase Sapere aude can be found. The Age of Enlightenment was preceded by and associated with the scientific revolution. Earlier philosophers whose work influenced the Enlightenment included Descartes; the major figures of the Enlightenment included Beccaria, Baruch Spinoza, Kant, Hume and Adam Smith.

Some European rulers, including Catherine II of Russia, Joseph II of Austria and Frederick II of Prussia, tried to apply Enlightenment thought on religious and political tolerance, which became known as enlightened absolutism. Many of the main political and intellectual figures behind the American Revolution associated themselves with the Enlightenment: Benjamin Franklin visited Europe and contributed to the scientific and political debates there and brought the newest ideas back to Philadelphia; the most influential publication of the Enlightenment was the Encyclopédie. Published between 1751 and 1772 in thirty-five volumes, it was compiled by Diderot, d'Alembert and a team of 150 scientists and philosophers, it helped spread the ideas of the Enlightenment across Europe and beyond. Other landmark publications were Voltaire's Dictionnaire Letters on the English; the ideas of the Enlightenment played a major role in inspiring the French Revolution, which began in 1789. After the Revolution, the Enlightenment was followed by the intellectual movement known as Romanticism.

René Descartes' rationalist philosophy laid the foundation for enlightenment thinking. His attempt to construct the sciences on a secure metaphysical foundation was not as successful as his method of doubt applied in philosophic areas leading to a dualistic doctrine of mind and matter, his skepticism was refined by John Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding and David Hume's writings in the 1740s. His dualism was challenged by Spinoza's uncompromising assertion of the unity of matter in his Tractatus and Ethics. According to Jonathan Israel, these laid down two distinct lines of Enlightenment thought: first, the moderate variety, following Descartes and Christian Wolff, which sought accommodation between reform and the traditional systems of power and faith, second, the radical enlightenment, inspired by the philosophy of Spinoza, advocating democracy, individual liberty, freedom of expression and eradication of religious authority; the moderate variety tended to be deistic, whereas the radical tendency separated the basis of morality from theology.

Both lines of thought were opposed by a conservative Counter-Enlightenment, which sought a return to faith. In the mid-18th century, Paris became the center of an explosion of philosophic and scientific activity challenging traditional doctrines and dogmas; the philosophical movement was led by Voltaire and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who argued for a society based upon reason as in ancient Greece rather than faith and Catholic doctrine, for a new civil order based on natural law, for science based on experiments and observation. The political philosopher Montesquieu introduced the idea of a separation of powers in a government, a concept, enthusiastically adopted by the authors of the United States Constitution. While the Philosophes of the French Enlightenment were not revolutionaries and many were members of the nobility, their ideas played an important part in undermining the legitimacy of the Old Regime and shapi

Mnet Asian Music Award for Best Mixed Group

The Mnet Asian Music Award for Best Mixed Group was an award presented annually by CJ E&M Pictures from 2000—2009. It was first awarded on the 2nd Mnet Asian Music Awards ceremony held in 2000; the award continued to be given until the 11th Mnet Asian Music Awards in 2009 wherein 8Eight received the last award for their performance in "Without a Heart". ^ Each year is linked to the article about the Mnet Asian Music Awards held that year. The following lists the artist who received multiple awards for Best Mixed Group from 2000-2009. Sources "M.net Asian Music Awards Winners list by year". Mwave. MAMA. "M.net Asian Music Awards Broadcasts by year". Mwave. MAMA. "M.net Asian Music Awards Photos by year". Mwave. MAMA. Mnet Asian Music Awards official website

Malabar danio

The Malabar danio is a tropical fish belonging to the minnow family. Originating in Sri Lanka and the west coast of India, the fish has been circulated throughout the world through the aquarium fish trade, it grows to a maximum length of 6 in exceeds 4 in in a home aquarium. The Malabar danio is found in tropical climates in a wide variety of waters, from mountain streams to small pools, but it prefers flowing waters, it is an schooling fish that prefers to be in groups. Its diet consists of insects and plant matter. Malabar danios are oviparous, spawn in shallow water after heavy rains among the plants growing on the bottom. An adult will spawn around 200 sticky eggs that will hatch in one to two days; the fry will be free-swimming after the fifth day. The parents must be removed from aquaria to prevent them from eating the eggs; the species was earlier incorrectly considered a synonym of Devario aequipinnatus, a valid name for a different species. List of freshwater aquarium fish species Froese and Daniel Pauly, eds..

Devario malabaricus in FishBase. September 2004 version. Devario malabaricus