Agra is a city on the banks of the Yamuna river in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is 206 kilometres south of the national capital New Delhi. Agra is 24th in India. Agra is a major tourist destination because of its many Mughal-era buildings, most notably the Taj Mahal, Agra Fort and Fatehpur Sikri, all of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Agra is included on the Golden Triangle tourist circuit, along with Jaipur. Agra is in the Braj cultural region; the history of Agra before the Delhi Sultanate is unclear. A 17th century chronicle called the Agra before Sikandar Lodī's time as an old settlement, a village, owing to its destruction by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni; the 11th-century Persian poet Mas'ūd Sa'd Salmān writes of an assault on the fortress of Agra held by King Jaypal, by Mahmud of Ghazni. Despite his surrender, Mahmud sacked the place, it was mentioned for the first time in 1080 AD. Sikandar was the first sultan to move his capital from Delhi to Agra in 1504, its administration having been under Bayana.
He governed the country from here and Agra assumed the importance of the second capital. He died in 1517 and his son, Ibrāhīm Lodī, remained in power there for nine more years. Several palaces, a mosque were built by him in the fort during his period, he was defeated at the Battle of Panipat in 1526. Between 1540 and 1556, beginning with Sher Shah Suri, ruled the area, it was the capital of the Mughal Empire from 1556 to 1648. The city was taken by the Marathas and still fell to the British Raj. Agra features a semiarid climate; the city features mild winters and dry summers and a monsoon season. However, the monsoons, though substantial in Agra, are not quite as heavy as the monsoon in other parts of India; this is a primary factor in Agra featuring a semiarid climate as opposed to a humid subtropical climate. As of 2011 India census, Agra city has a population of 1,585,704, while the population of Agra cantonment is 53,053; the urban agglomeration of Agra has a population of 1,760,285. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%.
Agra city has an average literacy rate of 73%, below the national average of 74%. Literacy rate of males is higher than that of women; the sex ratio in the city was 875 females per thousand males while child sex ratio stood at 857. Agra district literacy rate is 62.56%. According to the 2011 census, Agra district has a population of 4,380,793 equal to the nation of Moldova or the US state of Kentucky; this gives it a ranking of 41st in India. The district has a population density of 1,084 inhabitants per square kilometre. 52.5% of Agra's population is in the 15–59 years age category. Around 11% of the population is under 6 years of age. Hindus are 88.8 %. Hinduism and Jainism are the major religions in Agra city with 80.7%, 15.4% and 1.0% of the population adhering to them. The Catholic minority is served by its own Metropolitan Archdiocese of Agra. Masud Sa'd Salman claims to have been there when Mahmud assaulted Agra, claiming the Raja Japal surrendered after seeing a nightmare. Mahmud however proceeds to pillage the city.
The history of the city before the Muslim conquerors is unclear. The 17th century chronicler named; the king of Mathura had used the Agra fort as a jail. The degradation in the status of the site was a result of the destruction brought upon it by Mahmud of Ghazni. Sultan Sikandar Lodī, the Muslim ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, shifted his capital to Agra in the year 1504. Before this, it was under the lordship of Bayana. After the Sultan's death, the city passed on to his son, Sultan Ibrāhīm Lodī, he ruled his Sultanate from Agra until he fell fighting to Mughal Badshah Bābar in the First battle of Panipat fought in 1526. The golden age of the city began with the Mughals, it was known as Akbarabād and remained the capital of the Mughal Empire under the Badshahs Akbar, Jahāngīr and Shāh Jahān. Akbar made it the eponymous seat of one of his original twelve subahs, bordering Delhi, Allahabad and Ajmer subahs. Shāh Jahān shifted his capital to Shāhjahānabād in the year 1648. Since Akbarabād was one of the most important cities in India under the Mughals, it witnessed a lot of building activity.
Babar, the founder of the Mughal dynasty, laid out the first formal Persian garden on the banks of the river Yamuna. The garden is called the Garden of Relaxation, his grandson Akbar the Great raised the towering ramparts of the Great Red Fort, besides making Agra a centre for learning, arts and religion. Akbar built a new city on the outskirts of Akbarabād called Fatehpur Sikri; this city was built in the form of a Mughal military camp in stone. His son Jahāngīr had a love of flora and fauna and laid many gardens inside the Red Fort or Lāl Qil'a. Shāh Jahān, known for his keen interest in architecture, gave Akbarabād its most prized monument, the Taj Mahal. Built in loving memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal, the mausoleum was completed in 1653. Shāh Jahān shifted the capital to Delhi during his reign, but his son Aurangzeb moved the capital back to Akbarabād, usurping his father and imprisoning him in the Fort there; the Jat kingdom of Bharatpur waged many wars against the Mughal Delhi and in the 17th and 18th century carried out numerous campaigns in Mughal territories inc
The Legend of Billie Jean is a 1985 American drama film, directed by Matthew Robbins. It stars Keith Gordon, Christian Slater and Richard Bradford. Billie Jean Davy, a teenager in Corpus Christi, rides with her younger brother, Binx on his Honda Elite Scooter to a local lake to go swimming. At a drive-in, Hubie Pyatt, a rowdy local teen, his friends hit on Billie Jean, but Binx humiliates him by throwing a milkshake in his face; as Billie Jean tells Binx about the weather in Vermont, a place he has always wanted to visit, Hubie steals Binx's scooter. As Binx goes to retrieve his scooter that night, Billie Jean goes to the authorities with her friends Putter and Ophelia. Detective Ringwald urges them to wait the problem out; when Billie Jean returns home, she finds Binx beaten, his scooter damaged. The next day, Billie Jean and Ophelia go to Mr. Pyatt's shop to get the amount of $608 to repair the scooter. While appearing helpful and understanding, Mr. Pyatt propositions Billie Jean and attempts to rape her.
Meanwhile, Binx has found a gun, when Billie Jean flees from the back of the store distressed, he turns it on Mr. Pyatt. Mr. Pyatt tells him the gun is unloaded, they become fugitives. By the time Ringwald realizes that he made a mistake not listening to Billie Jean, the situation is spinning out of control. Billie Jean wants only the cash to fix an apology from Mr. Pyatt. With help from Lloyd Muldaur, the teenage son of the district attorney, who voluntarily becomes her "hostage", Billie Jean makes a video of her demands, featuring herself with her long, blonde hair chopped into a crew cut; as media coverage increases, Billie Jean becomes a teen icon, young fans follow her every movement. Facing uncertain dangers, both physical and legal, Billie Jean is forced to turn her friends Putter and Ophelia in to the cops for their safety; when Ringwald arrives and demands to know where Billie Jean is, Ophelia defiantly replies, "Everywhere!" Mr. Pyatt issues a bounty for her apprehension, Billie Jean realizes the best plan is to turn herself in.
To avoid attracting too much attention and her brother Binx both arrive in disguise. But the disguise is blown, the situation descends into a riot, which results in Binx getting shot; as Binx is taken away in an ambulance, Billie Jean confronts Mr. Pyatt and gets him to admit his actions that led to him being shot; the onlookers, seeing how Billie Jean was exploited and their indirect involvement in it, destroy all the Billie Jean merchandise and leave in disgust. Billie Jean and Binx are hitchhiking in Vermont. Binx, after complaining about the cold, admires a red snowmobile. Filming locations included the Sunrise several locations along South Padre Island Drive; the original title of the film was Fair Is Fair. Craig Safan produced the original score for the film writing a couple of synthpop-styled instrumental tracks. Furthermore, some rock songs were added to the soundtrack which had never been released; the movie's theme song "Invincible" by Pat Benatar peaked at number 10 on the Billboard Hot 100 in September 1985, while Billy Idol's reissue of his single "Rebel Yell" climbed up to number six on the UK Singles Chart in October 1985.
"Invincible" – Pat Benatar "Closing In" – Mark Safan "Boys in Town" – Divinyls "Heart Telegraph" – Divinyls "Rebel Yell" – Billy Idol "It’s My Life" – Wendy O. Williams "Time to Explain" – Bruce Witkin & The Kids "Self Defense" – Chas Sanford Jay Boyar of the Orlando Sentinel stated that the film "has quite a lot going for it" and "doesn't get many points for finesse, but it has energy, good performances and more wit than you'd expect." He added, "One reason that sections of the movie are effective is that Helen Slater has enough style and presence to be believable as a young woman, taken for a modern Joan of Arc. As Billie Jean, she's got the clear eyes of a dreamer and the toughness of a winner." Janet Maslin of The New York Times said that the film is "competently made, sometimes attractively acted... and bankrupt beyond belief. It's hard to imagine that the film makers, let alone audiences, can believe in a sweet, selfless heroine who just can't help becoming a superstar." The film holds a 40% approval rating on Rotten Tomatoes, based on 10 reviews.
The film was released on Betamax and VHS home video in 1985. In 2009, Sony Pictures Home Entertainment released in Europe a Spanish-titled DVD La Leyenda de Billie Jean, with 4:3 open matte image, but without any bonus material. A remastered NTSC DVD including commentary by Helen Slater and Yeardley Smith was released on November 1, 2011, via their manufactured on demand service. Mill Creek Entertainment released a retail version of the DVD, along with a Blu-ray edition on July 22, 2014. List of American films of 1985 Social bandit The Legend of Billie Jean on IMDb The Legend of Billie Jean at AllMovie The Legend of Billie Jean at Rotten Tomatoes
Ashina Xichun known as Chuluo Khagan, was the khagan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate, second son of Yami Qaghan. He ruled for 18 months. Since Ashina Shibobi was still a minor, Ilteber shad succeeded his elder brother as khagan creating him Nipu shad and appointing eastern territories to him, he terminated. He created Yang Zhengdao a posthumous son of Yang Jian as puppet King of Sui. Starting to plan a major assault as advised by Liang Shidu, he became allied to Wang Shichong and Dou Jiande; as part of the plan, he requested Dou to cross the Taihang Mountains and meet him at Jin and Jiang Prefectures. However he died from illness poisoned by the Minister of Ceremonies Zheng Yuanshu. Perpetrators were executed by Illig Qaghan, he married the Sui dynasty's Princess Yicheng in heqin, the former wife of Qimin in levirate marriage along with other wives. Issues: Ashina Momo - was titled Yushe married to someone of Imperial Li clan. Ashina Wushi Ashina Dachen Ashina Yanchen Ashina Dichen Ashina Mingchen Ashina Jianchen Ashina She'er - was titled To shad in youth and married to Princess Hengyang, daughter of Gaozu.
Ashina Daozhen - a general in Tang army. Ashina Danai changed his name to Shi Danai - a general in Tang army. Zongzheng, Xue. "A History of Turks". Beijing: Chinese Social Sciences Press. ISBN 7-5004-0432-8. P. 208-213