SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Agriculture

Agriculture is the science and art of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities; the history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11,500 years ago. Pigs and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Plants were independently cultivated in at least 11 regions of the world. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture in the twentieth century came to dominate agricultural output, though about 2 billion people still depended on subsistence agriculture into the twenty-first. Modern agronomy, plant breeding, agrochemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers, technological developments have increased yields, while causing widespread ecological and environmental damage. Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry have increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal welfare and environmental damage.

Environmental issues include contributions to global warming, depletion of aquifers, antibiotic resistance, growth hormones in industrial meat production. Genetically modified organisms are used, although some are banned in certain countries; the major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers and raw materials. Food classes include cereals, fruits, meat, milk and eggs. Over one-third of the world's workers are employed in agriculture, second only to the service sector, although the number of agricultural workers in developed countries has decreased over the centuries; the word agriculture is a late Middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, "field", which in its turn came from Greek αγρός, cultūra, "cultivation" or "growing". While agriculture refers to human activities, certain species of ant and ambrosia beetle cultivate crops. Agriculture is defined with varying scopes, in its broadest sense using natural resources to "produce commodities which maintain life, including food, forest products, horticultural crops, their related services".

Thus defined, it includes arable farming, animal husbandry and forestry, but horticulture and forestry are in practice excluded. The development of agriculture enabled the human population to grow many times larger than could be sustained by hunting and gathering. Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, included a diverse range of taxa, in at least 11 separate centres of origin. Wild grains were eaten from at least 105,000 years ago. From around 11,500 years ago, the eight Neolithic founder crops and einkorn wheat, hulled barley, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax were cultivated in the Levant. Rice was domesticated in China between 11,500 and 6,200 BC with the earliest known cultivation from 5,700 BC, followed by mung and azuki beans. Sheep were domesticated in Mesopotamia between 11,000 years ago. Cattle were domesticated from the wild aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey and Pakistan some 10,500 years ago. Pig production emerged in Eurasia, including Europe, East Asia and Southwest Asia, where wild boar were first domesticated about 10,500 years ago.

In the Andes of South America, the potato was domesticated between 10,000 and 7,000 years ago, along with beans, llamas and guinea pigs. Sugarcane and some root vegetables were domesticated in New Guinea around 9,000 years ago. Sorghum was domesticated in the Sahel region of Africa by 7,000 years ago. Cotton was domesticated in Peru by 5,600 years ago, was independently domesticated in Eurasia. In Mesoamerica, wild teosinte was bred into maize by 6,000 years ago. Scholars have offered multiple hypotheses to explain the historical origins of agriculture. Studies of the transition from hunter-gatherer to agricultural societies indicate an initial period of intensification and increasing sedentism. Wild stands, harvested started to be planted, came to be domesticated. In Eurasia, the Sumerians started to live in villages from about 8,000 BC, relying on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and a canal system for irrigation. Ploughs appear in pictographs around 3,000 BC. Farmers grew wheat, vegetables such as lentils and onions, fruits including dates and figs.

Ancient Egyptian agriculture relied on its seasonal flooding. Farming started in the predynastic period at the end of the Paleolithic, after 10,000 BC. Staple food crops were grains such as wheat and barley, alongside industrial crops such as flax and papyrus. In India, wheat and jujube were domesticated by 9,000 BC, soon followed by sheep and goats. Cattle and goats were domesticated in Mehrgarh culture by 8,000–6,000 BC. Cotton was cultivated by the 5th–4th millennium BC. Archeological evidence indicates an animal-drawn plough from 2,500 BC in the Indus Valley Civilisation. In China, from the 5th century BC there was a nationwide granary system and widespread silk farming. Water-powered grain mills were in use followed by irrigation. By the late 2nd century, heavy ploughs had been developed with iron mouldboards; these spread westwards across Eurasia. Asian rice was domesticated 8,200–13,500 years ago – depending on the molecular clock estimate, used – on the Pearl River in southern China with a single genetic origin from the wild rice Oryza rufipogon

1988 Leeds City Council election

The Leeds City Council elections were held on Thursday, 5 May 1988, with one third of the council and a vacancy in Headingley to be elected. Following national patterns, the newly merged Social and Liberal Democrats, seen a substantial fall in vote to their lowest share in a decade, with former candidates standing against them as SDP in opposition to the merger; the SLD collapse was uniform transferring to Labour, except in northern wards - where support tended to disperse between the main parties and any minor candidate standing - or wards in which Independents stood. For the SLD, their support in the three wards they were defending notably withstood that collapse, although hopes of retaking Armley after their councillor turned Independent were dashed by large swings away to allow a Labour gain there. Elsewhere, the incumbent Independent in Pudsey South was comfortably re-elected, tripling his majority there; as the chief recipient of lost SLD support, Labour won their highest share of vote since the council's inception in 1973, their greatest vote and majority on the council since 1980's re-warding.

This result has the following consequences for the total number of seats on the council after the elections

Regulatory crime control

The idea of regulatory crime control is to reduce and control crime. Many factors can make a area a victim of criminal activity. John and Emily Eck, two primary scholars that work within the area of regulatory crime control, explain how places can either create crime opportunities or crime barriers. Eck defines the two types of regulatory crime control strategies as ends-based and means-based, he states that means-based strategies focus on the use of different procedures and technologies, while ends-based strategies concentrate on the overall outcome. Another primary scholar, Graham Farrell, discusses how repeat victimization is becoming an important area for policing and crime control. Regulatory crime control involves reducing crime within area. In order to regulate crime control and take preventive measures, one must develop different concepts that are aimed to helping deter crime; these different concepts include crime hotspots, crime generators and crime attractors. Hot spots are places with high crime rates.

Crime generators have high crime in places because they are really busy and crime attractors are places that consist of many crime targets and not much protection provided for these targets at these places. When referring to the two types of strategies of regulatory crime control, Eck goes into more detail about ends-based strategies having policies that are differentially influenced by the costs of production among the competing firms. In contrast, means-based strategies have policies that have firms that are all subject to the same commands. Ends-based strategies are not to be the primary regulatory instrument when dealing with crimes that are rare or serious; some broad policy change examples would include the Chula Vista police department motel project and SMART policing team in Oakland, California. First, the Chula Vista police department motel project is an example of the effect of size on risky facilities; when the police department looked at all of the locations of motels, they were located in high crime areas.

The motels that did not attract high levels of crime were located in high crime areas. According to John E. Eck, Ronald V. Clarke and Rob T. Guerette, one can look at the motels in close proximity to each other as being problematic to crime occurring at those motels; some of the offender explanations could be, if the people committing crimes in the low crime facilities traveled to reach the motels proximity to offender populations could be some of the explanation. An offender explanation could be how different offenders are attracted to different facilities; some facilities might have features. According to Karin Schmerler, author of problem of disorder at budget motels guidebook and visitors who live within thirty miles of a motel cause more problems than tourists or business travelers. Although criminal activity can be explained through targets and offenders, the place managers can have a role in explaining high crime facilities. Place management directly effects how target each interact at the location.

There can be more than one reason why these specific motels in these areas were victims of criminal activity. Second, the SMART policing team located in Oakland, aimed toward reducing drug activity and cleaning up the environment at the places with problems. Lorraine G. Mazerolle reported the results of a randomized field study conducted in Oakland, CA; the study consisted of civil remedies were used to target drug and disorder problems in 50 experimental places. Mazerolle explains that Oakland decided to put together a Beat Health program, a program, used to amplify social conditions and seeks to control drug and disorder problems and restore order; the police began by visiting nuisance locations and making working relations with citizens, apartment managers and business owners living or working both at the address, a target. The table below is from Mazerolle's reported results of the characteristics of the study locations. Most of the study sites were rental properties and twelve of the experimental sites were owner occupied.

Drug dealing was reported as a big problem in both control and experimental studies. Before the start of this experiment the control and experimental sites had similar levels of arrest action; the Beat Health investigation did find some difficulty in solving some of the problems they were encountering. According to Mazerolle, the investigation found some problems within a main buildings’ parking lot, located behind the building, shared with another apartment building. About two blocks around the buildings were an active drug market that consisted of young teens that would lookout on rooftops. In deciding whether or not the Beat Health program worked with their regulatory crime control efforts, the answer would be that there were positive outcomes. Mazerolle explains that after the study was done there was evidence of a decrease in signs of disorder, decrease in selling of drugs, an increase in civil behavior in public places, according to the social observation data, analyzed; the results show a positive outlook on regulatory crime control and how the different methods can be used to deter crime from different areas.

According to the Handbook of Policing, there have been a few concerns about crime control practices that have come up over the years, such as mischarges of justice, abuse of