Livestock is defined as domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, milk, fur and wool. The term is sometimes used to refer to those that are bred for consumption, while other times it refers only to farmed ruminants, such as cattle and goats. Horses are considered livestock in the United States; the USDA classifies pork, veal and lamb as livestock and all livestock as red meat. Poultry and fish are not included in the category; the breeding and slaughter of livestock, known as animal husbandry, is a component of modern agriculture, practiced in many cultures since humanity's transition to farming from hunter-gatherer lifestyles. Animal husbandry practices have varied across cultures and time periods, continues to play a major economic and cultural role in numerous communities. Livestock farming practices have shifted to intensive animal farming, sometimes referred to as "factory farming". Intensive animal farming increases the yield of the various commercial outputs, but has led to negative impacts on animal welfare, the environment, public health.
In particular, livestock beef and sheep stocks, have out-sized influence on greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. Due to these negative impacts, but for reasons of farming efficiency, one projection mentions a large decline of livestock at least some animals in certain countries by 2030. Livestock as a word was first used between 1650 and 1660, as a compound word combining the words "live" and "stock". In some periods, "cattle" and "livestock" have been used interchangeably. Today, the modern meaning of cattle is domesticated bovines. United States federal legislation defines the term to make specified agricultural commodities eligible or ineligible for a program or activity. For example, the Livestock Mandatory Reporting Act of 1999 defines livestock only as cattle and sheep, while the 1988 disaster assistance legislation defined the term as "cattle, goats, poultry, equine animals used for food or in the production of food, fish used for food, other animals designated by the Secretary."Deadstock is defined in contradistinction to livestock as "animals that have died before slaughter, sometimes from illness or disease".
It is illegal in many countries, such as Canada, to sell or process meat from dead animals for human consumption. Animal-rearing originated during the cultural transition to settled farming communities from hunter-gatherer lifestyles. Animals are domesticated when their living conditions are controlled by humans. Over time, the collective behaviour and physiology of livestock have changed radically. Many modern farm animals are unsuited to life in the wild; the dog was domesticated early. Goats and sheep were domesticated in multiple events sometime between 11,000 and 5,000 years ago in Southwest Asia. Pigs were domesticated by 8,500 BC in the Near 6,000 BC in China. Domestication of the horse dates to around 4000 BC. Cattle have been domesticated since 10,500 years ago. Chickens and other poultry may have been domesticated around 7000 BC; the term "livestock" is may be defined narrowly or broadly. Broadly, livestock refers to any breed or population of animal kept by humans for a useful, commercial purpose.
Traditionally, animal husbandry was part of the subsistence farmer's way of life, producing not only the food needed by the family but the fuel, clothing and draught power. Killing the animal for food was a secondary consideration, wherever possible its products, such as wool, eggs and blood were harvested while the animal was still alive. In the traditional system of transhumance and livestock moved seasonally between fixed summer and winter pastures. Animals can be kept intensively. Extensive systems involve animals roaming at will, or under the supervision of a herdsman for their protection from predators. Ranching in the Western United States involves large herds of cattle grazing over public and private lands. Similar cattle stations are found in South America and other places with large areas of land and low rainfall. Ranching systems have been used for sheep, ostrich, emu and alpaca. In the uplands of the United Kingdom, sheep are turned out on the fells in spring and graze the abundant mountain grasses untended, being brought to lower altitudes late in the year, with supplementary feeding being provided in winter.
In rural locations and poultry can obtain much of their nutrition from scavenging, in African communities, hens may live for months without being fed, still produce one or two eggs a week. At the other extreme, in the more developed parts of the world, animals are intensively managed. In between these two extremes are semi-intensive family run farms where livestock graze outside for much of the year, silage or hay is made to cover the times of year when the grass stops growing, fertiliser and other inputs are bought onto the farm from outside
Camp James E. Rudder is host to the third and final phase of a nine-week training course, dubbed the "swamp phase", of the U. S. Army Ranger School; the camp is located on the Eglin Air Force Base reservation, co-located with Eglin AFB Auxiliary Field #6 / Biancur Field fourteen miles northwest of the main Eglin AFB airfield. The Florida Ranger Camp was established November 15, 1951, by Major Arthur "Bull" Simons, named the Commander of the Amphibious/Jungle Training Committee at Eglin AFB Auxiliary Field #7 / Epler Field, the initial location of the camp. Colonel Simons was the commander of the prisoner of war rescue attempt on Son Tay, North Vietnam; the Florida Ranger Camp remained at Field Seven for 20 years until it was moved to Field Six in January 1970. The current Camp Rudder was named for Major General James E. Rudder, USA in June 1974. MG Rudder commanded the 2d Ranger Battalion when it scaled the cliffs at Pointe du Hoc, during the 1944 D-Day Normandy invasion. Biancur Field, Eglin Auxiliary Field #6, was named for 1st Lt Andrew Biancur, USAAF, a test pilot of the Medium Bombardment Section of the 1st Proving Ground Group, killed in crash of a prototype YP-61-NO Black Widow, AAF Ser.
No. 41-18883, c/n 711, on 8 January 1944 at Eglin Field. Biancur Field, as Eglin AFB Aux Field #6, remains the airfield portion of Camp Rudder and was used by the U. S. Navy's Training Squadron 4 at nearby Naval Air Station Pensacola in the early 1960s for strike pilot training; the squadron aircraft were T2J Buckeyes and Biancur was used for Field Carrier Landing Practice touch-and-go landings before student pilots were allowed to land on board the training carrier of the period, the USS Antietam. Meals for the sailors on TAD at Biancur were supplied by the U. S. Army Rangers at Field 7. With the advent of the more advanced T-2C Buckeye and TA-4J Skyhawk II and the retirement of Antietam to be replaced by the aircraft carrier USS Lexington, VT-4 shifted FCLP operations to Outlying Field Choctaw, A Navy airfield known as Eglin AFB Auxiliary Field #10, to the west of Camp Rudder. With the Navy's departure, all Biancur Field operations passed over to the Army. Over the years, twenty-four Army Ranger students have died while in training at Camp Rudder, including four who died in a 1955 training accident, two Ranger students who died of hypothermia in January 1977, another four who died of exposure during cold-weather flooding in February 1995.
The 1995 accident was blamed on several factors, including a sudden rise in the water level on Boiling Creek coupled with other unexpected weather changes, such as fog that delayed rescue efforts. Since 1995, more sophisticated measures have been put into place that cast an elaborate, yet invisible, safety net around the students; as students plan ambushes and negotiate swamps, field ambulances are posted minutes away. Evacuation helicopters and rescue boats are on standby and are advised of changing conditions. Before students enter the water, divers check out conditions. An elaborate system to monitor weather and water conditions and depths exists at every step in the exercise. Training remains tough for the men; the Army has placed more emphasis on protecting Rangers during training. Camp officials say that with lessons learned from a training accident in 1995, more resources thanks to allocations from the U. S. Congress, the danger of training casualties has been reduced. CGlobalSecurity.org Special Operations.com
Jerome Robert Busemeyer is a Distinguished Professor at Indiana University - Bloomington in the Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences and Cognitive Science Program. His research investigates the cognitive processes and dynamics of human judgment and decision making using mathematical modeling, he is one of the developers of a theory of decision making called decision field theory.. He is helped develop the field of quantum cognition, he has authored several hundreds of articles over the course of his career. Dr. Busemeyer completed his undergraduate degree in Psychology at the University of Cincinnati in 1973, which he followed with both a masters and Ph. D. in Experimental Psychology from the University of South Carolina in 1976 and 1979 respectively. He was a NIMH post doctoral fellow in the Quantitative program at University of Illinois until 1980. Afterwards, he became a faculty member at Purdue University until 1997, he joined the faculty at Indiana University-Bloomington, he was president of the Society for Mathematical Psychology in 1993, he served as the Manager of the Cognition and Decision Program at the Air Force Office of Scientific Research in 2005-2007.
He was Chief Editor of Journal of Mathematical Psychology from 2005 to 2010, he is the inaugural Editor of the APA journal Decision. Jerome Busemeyer was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, in the year 1950, he attended Moeller High School. His father was Robert H. Busemeyer, a well known electrical contractor in Cincinnati. Fellow of American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 2017 Fellow Cognitive Science Society, 2017 Society of Experimental Psychologists Howard C. Warren medal, 2015 Fellow of the Society of Experimental Psychologists, 2006