Agronomy is the science and technology of producing and using plants in agriculture for food, fuel and land restoration. It is both a scientific one. Agronomy has come to encompass work in the areas of plant genetics, plant physiology and soil science, it is the application of a combination of sciences like biology, economics, earth science, genetics. Agronomists of today are involved with many issues, including producing food, creating healthier food, managing the environmental impact of agriculture, distribution of agriculture, extracting energy from plants. Agronomists specialise in areas such as crop rotation and drainage, plant breeding, plant physiology, soil classification, soil fertility, weed control, insect and pest control; this area of agronomy involves selective breeding of plants to produce the best crops under various conditions. Plant breeding has increased crop yields and has improved the nutritional value of numerous crops, including corn and wheat, it has led to the development of new types of plants.
For example, a hybrid grain called triticale was produced by crossbreeding wheat. Triticale contains more usable protein than does either wheat. Agronomy has been instrumental in fruit and vegetable production research. Agronomists use biotechnology to expedite the development of desired characteristic. Biotechnology is a lab activity requiring field testing of the new crop varieties that are developed. In addition to increasing crop yields agronomic biotechnology is being applied for novel uses other than food. For example, oilseed is at present used for margarine and other food oils, but it can be modified to produce fatty acids for detergents, substitute fuels and petrochemicals. Agronomists study sustainable ways to make soils more productive and profitable throughout the world, they classify soils and analyze them to determine whether they contain nutrients vital to plant growth. Common macronutrients analyzed include compounds of nitrogen, potassium, calcium and sulfur. Soil is assessed for several micronutrients, like zinc and boron.
The percentage of organic matter, soil pH, nutrient holding capacity are tested in a regional laboratory. Agronomists will interpret these lab reports and make recommendations to balance soil nutrients for optimal plant growth. In addition, agronomists develop methods to preserve the soil and to decrease the effects of erosion by wind and water. For example, a technique called contour plowing may be used to prevent soil erosion and conserve rainfall. Researchers in agronomy seek ways to use the soil more in solving other problems; such problems include the disposal of human and animal manure, water pollution, pesticide build-up in the soil. As well as looking after the soil for future generations to come, such as the burning of paddocks after crop production. Pasture management techniques include no-till farming, planting of soil-binding grasses along contours on steep slopes, using contour drains of depths up to 1 metre. Agroecology is the management of agricultural systems with an emphasis on ecological and environmental perspectives.
This area is associated with work in the areas of sustainable agriculture, organic farming, alternative food systems and the development of alternative cropping systems. Theoretical production ecology tries to quantitatively study the growth of crops; the plant is treated as a kind of biological factory, which processes light, carbon dioxide and nutrients into harvestable products. The main parameters considered are temperature, standing crop biomass, plant production distribution, nutrient and water supply. Agricultural engineering Agricultural policy Agroecology Agrology Agrophysics Food systems Green Revolution Vegetable farming Wendy B. Murphy, The Future World of Agriculture, Watts, 1984. Antonio Saltini, Storia delle scienze agrarie, 4 vols, Bologna 1984-89, ISBN 88-206-2412-5, ISBN 88-206-2413-3, ISBN 88-206-2414-1, ISBN 88-206-2415-X The American Society of Agronomy Crop Science Society of America Soil Science Society of America European Society for Agronomy The National Agricultural Library – Comprehensive agricultural library.
Information System for Agriculture and Food Research
Sofía Sara Hübner Bezanilla known as Sara Hübner de Fresno and by her literary pseudonym Magda Sudermann, was a Chilean feminist writer and editor. The daughter of the writer Carlos Luis Hübner and Teresa Bezanilla, Sara Hübner de Fresno wrote for newspapers and magazines, including Zig-Zag and Artes y letras, she edited the Women's Page section of the periodical Las Últimas Noticias in the early 20th century. Part of her literary output is known to be unpublished or scattered in newspapers and magazines – as is the case with other feminist writers such as Luisa Lynch, María Luisa Fernández, the sisters Ximena and Carmen Morla Lynch, her literary work is considered to be part of the early 20th century avant-garde that sought to increase feminist thinking and fight for women's rights. However some of her writings express feelings of contempt toward the Mapuche people. "Del diario íntimo de Magda Suddermann" in Revista de artes y letras "Nunca" in Hablemos de amor: Gran selección de poemas románticos de los genios del amor "Del diario íntimo de Magda Suddermann" at Memoria Chilena
The Trak Starz, are American hip hop record production group from St. Louis, Missouri. Credited with helping establish St. Louis in the hip-hop community, The Trak Starz developed a reputation as one of the rap industry's marquee production teams. Prior to forming The Trak Starz in 2000, Sham and Zo had known each other for over 7 years. Zo played in numerous reggae and funk bands including Reggae At Will and Dr. Zhivegas, while Sham was in a group called Out of Order. Zo utilized his keyboard skills to produce tracks for various regional rappers. After producing a few tracks for Sham's Out of Order group the two began producing together, forming The Trak Starz. Soon after, the newly formed partners produced an album for the Whole 9, a group, signed to MCA Records, they received production credits on albums for Bone Thugs-n-Harmony, Krayzie Bone and Tyrese, as well as producing background music for various MTV shows. After their work with the Whole 9 and other artists, The Trak Starz were managed by Chaka Zulu, whose connections helped them sign former 3 Strikes group member Chingy to Disturbing tha Peace Records.
After signing with The Trak Starz production company, the three began working on Chingy's solo album. According to Zo: The first song created in that small apartment was "Right Thurr", the overnight nationwide hit that would launch the relative unknowns to stardom, as well as Chingy's solo career, their melodic, radio-friendly beats spawned numerous hits from Chingy's debut album Jackpot, which would go on to sell over 3 million copies. The overwhelming success of Chingy propelled The Trak Starz to the forefront of hip-hop production, landing them their own label deal. Zo explains: After securing a deal with Barry Hankerson's Blackground Records, The Trak Starz hoped to develop local artists from their Trak Starz Productions roster including rapper Louie V, female R&B group STL, rap duo 2 Deep, male R&B singer JuJu, male solo rapper 47. Zo explains: By the end of 2003, The Track Starz had earned production credits on Ludacris' multi-platinum Chicken-n-Beer and Britney Spears' "Me Against the Music."
Their success would continue in 2004 lending their talents on Houston's hit single "I Like That," which they wrote and parlayed into a multimillion-dollar advertising campaign. They earned a Diamond certification and a Grammy Award nomination for Album of the Year with their contributions on Usher's Confessions. However, they would lose to Ray Charles' Genius Loves Company. Additional production credits would include Chingy's Platinum certified Powerballin' and DreamWorks Shark Tale soundtrack. In 2005 The Trak Starz, now managed by Larry Rudolph of ReignDeer Entertainment, announced the release of their debut album titled Star Studded; the album's guest list was extensive including David Banner, Juvenile, Lil Jon, Chingy, Nate Dogg, Bun B. and Jon B. Recorded in their state-of-the art studio in St. Louis, The Trak Meet, the first official single titled "Take it Off," featured STL and T Deep, the first artists signed to the Trak Starz label. According to Sham: According to The Trak Starz, one of the most anticipated tracks is what the duo referred to as the “Producers’ Anthem,” featuring producers who, like The Trak Starz, are artists.
The concept was simple, each of the album's producer's will rhyme a verse over their own beat, with The Trak Starz molding the different styles into one seamless track. In regards to the album Zo has stated," The album was due to be released in November 2005, however it was never released. In addition to their own album, The Trak Starz were continuously working on numerous projects for artist such as Nas, Ludacris, E-40, Chingy and Janet Jackson, while co-writing with Babyface for Aretha Franklin's Jewels in the Crown: All-Star Duets with the Queen; the song was slated for Aretha Franklin and Beyoncé however it was not featured on the album. They were producing the score for an urban dance movie, called Behind The Groove. In regards to the movie Zo is quoted as saying, 2007 proved to be another big year for The Trak Starz earning a Grammy Award for their production on Ludacris' 2006 Release Therapy album, their award for Best Rap Album was achieved for their production on "Do Your Time" featuring Beanie Sigel, C-Murder and the late Pimp C.
After earning their first Grammy Award, The Trak Starz continued to focus on their label and promoting new artists on their Trak Starz Productions roster, including male rapper, Lil Tek and female R&B singer, Darra Dee. They formed a joint venture with Grind Up/Asylum/Warner Bros. Records to release St. Louis’, Ludy. In addition, The Trak Starz and their up-and-coming in-house production team, The Bakery, produced the hit "Pop and Drop It” for Jive Records/HiTz Committee recording artist Huey, they are producing Trak Starz Records recording artist and St. Louis native Tydis' new album, Sensation, they have sold over 20 million records worldwide. The Official Trak Starz Website