Horus is one of the most significant ancient Egyptian deities. He was worshipped from at least the late prehistoric Egypt until the Ptolemaic Kingdom and Roman Egypt. Different forms of Horus are recorded in history and these are treated as distinct gods by Egyptologists; these various forms may be different manifestations of the same multi-layered deity in which certain attributes or syncretic relationships are emphasized, not in opposition but complementary to one another, consistent with how the Ancient Egyptians viewed the multiple facets of reality. He was most depicted as a falcon, most a lanner falcon or peregrine falcon, or as a man with a falcon head; the earliest recorded form of Horus is the tutelary deity of Nekhen in Upper Egypt, the first known national god related to the ruling pharaoh who in time came to be regarded as a manifestation of Horus in life and Osiris in death. The most encountered family relationship describes Horus as the son of Isis and Osiris, he plays a key role in the Osiris myth as Osiris's heir and the rival to Set, the murderer of Osiris.
In another tradition Hathor is sometimes as his wife. Horus served many functions, most notably being a god of the sky. Horus is recorded in Egyptian hieroglyphs as ḥr.w "Falcon". Additional meanings are thought to have been "the distant one" or "one, above, over"; as the language changed over time, it appeared in Coptic varieties variously as hoːɾ or ħoːɾ and was adopted into ancient Greek as Ὧρος Hōros. It survives in Late Egyptian and Coptic theophoric name forms such as Siese "son of Isis" and Harsiese "Horus, Son of Isis". Nekheny may have been another falcon god worshipped at Nekhen, city of the falcon, with whom Horus was identified from early on. Horus may be shown as a falcon on the Narmer Palette, dating from about the 31st century BC; the Pyramid Texts describe the nature of the pharaoh in different characters as both Horus and Osiris. The pharaoh as Horus in life became the pharaoh as Osiris in death, where he was united with the other gods. New incarnations of Horus succeeded the deceased pharaoh on earth in the form of new pharaohs.
The lineage of Horus, the eventual product of unions between the children of Atum, may have been a means to explain and justify pharaonic power. The gods produced by Atum were all representative of terrestrial forces in Egyptian life. By identifying Horus as the offspring of these forces identifying him with Atum himself, identifying the Pharaoh with Horus, the Pharaoh theologically had dominion over all the world; the notion of Horus as the pharaoh seems to have been superseded by the concept of the pharaoh as the son of Ra during the Fifth Dynasty. Horus was born to the goddess Isis after she retrieved all the dismembered body parts of her murdered husband Osiris, except his penis, thrown into the Nile and eaten by a catfish, or sometimes depicted as instead by a crab, according to Plutarch's account used her magic powers to resurrect Osiris and fashion a phallus to conceive her son. After becoming pregnant with Horus, Isis fled to the Nile Delta marshlands to hide from her brother Set, who jealously killed Osiris and who she knew would want to kill their son.
There Isis bore Horus. Since Horus was said to be the sky, he was considered to contain the sun and moon, it became said that the sun was his right eye and the moon his left, that they traversed the sky when he, a falcon, flew across it. The reason that the moon was not as bright as the sun was explained by a tale, known as The Contendings of Horus and Seth. In this tale, it was said that Set, the patron of Upper Egypt, Horus, the patron of Lower Egypt, had battled for Egypt brutally, with neither side victorious, until the gods sided with Horus; as Horus was the ultimate victor he became known as ḥr.w wr "Horus the Great", but more translated "Horus the Elder". In the struggle, Set had lost a testicle, Horus' eye was gouged out. Horus was shown in art as a naked boy with a finger in his mouth sitting on a lotus with his mother. In the form of a youth, Horus was referred to as nfr ḥr.w "Good Horus", transliterated Neferhor, Nephoros or Nopheros. The Eye of Horus is an ancient Egyptian symbol of protection and royal power from deities, in this case from Horus or Ra.
The symbol is seen on images of Horus' mother, on other deities associated with her. In the Egyptian language, the word for this symbol was "wedjat", it was the eye of one of the earliest of Egyptian deities, who became associated with Bastet and Hathor as well. Wadjet was a solar deity and this symbol began as her all-seeing eye. In early artwork, Hathor is depicted with this eye. Funerary amulets were made in the shape of the Eye of Horus; the Wedjat or Eye of Horus is "the central element" of seven "gold, faience and lapis lazuli" bracelets found on the mummy of Shoshenq II. The Wedjat "was intended to ward off evil. Egyptian and Near Eastern sailors would paint the symbol on the bow of their vessel to ensure safe sea travel. Horus was told by his mother, Isis, to protect the people of Egypt from Set, the god of the desert, who had killed Horus' father, Osiris. Horus had many battles with Set, not only to avenge his father, but to choose the rightful ruler of Egypt. In these battles, Horus came to be associated with Lower Egypt, became its patron.
According to The Contendings of Horus and Seth, Set is depicted
Ekmeleddin Mehmet İhsanoğlu is a Turkish academic and diplomat, Secretary-General of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation from 2004 to 2014. He is an author and editor of academic journals and advocate of intercultural dialogue. İhsanoğlu studied science at the Ain Shams University, where he received his BSc in 1966. He obtained his MSc in 1970 from Al-Azhar University. İhsanoğlu received his PhD from the Faculty of Science at the Ankara University in 1974. İhsanoğlu's academic work has focused on the history of scientific activity and institutions of learning within Islam, cultural exchanges between Islam and the West, the relationship between science and religion, the development of science in its socio-cultural environment. İhsanoğlu was the founder of the Department of History of Science at the Faculty of Letters of Istanbul University, he remained the chairman of that department between 1984 and 2003. He was a lecturer and a visiting professor at various universities, including Ankara University, the University of Exeter, United Kingdom, Inönü University, the University of Malatya, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Germany.
After taking the office as the ninth Secretary General of the OIC in January 2005, İhsanoğlu coordinated the drafting and implementation of a reform program for the OIC aiming to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the 57-member Organisation. The reform program's components included the "Ten-Year Programme of Action to Face the Challenges of Twenty-first Century" and a revised OIC Charter, adopted by the OIC at the Eleventh Islamic Summit Conference in 2008. İhsanoğlu was one of the signatories of A Common Word, an open letter by Islamic scholars to Christian leaders, that called for peace and understanding. His mandate as the Secretary-General of OIC expired on 31 January 2014.İhsanoğlu was announced as the joint candidate of the two opposition parties in the Turkish parliament, Republican People's Party and Nationalist Movement Party for the 2014 presidential election. He was supported by 11 other smaller opposition parties, he lost in the first round with 38.44% of the votes. In the June 2015 general election, İhsanoğlu was elected as a MHP Member of Parliament for İstanbul's 2nd electoral district.
He was the MHP's candidate to become the Speaker of Parliament in the June–July 2015 speaker elections, but was eliminated in the third round. İhsanoğlu was born Ekmellettin Muhammet İhsan to madrasa professor İhsan Efendi hailing from Yozgat and Seniye Hanım. Seniye Hanım was the daughter of Rhodian Turkish parents. İhsanoğlu was born in Egypt. Ihsanoglu founded with Prof. Celal Tuzun the Research Institute for Organic Chemistry, when he was a faculty member at the Faculty of Science of the University of Ankara. Ihsanoğlu is the founder and first chair of the first Department of History of Science in Turkey, which he established at the Faculty of Letters of the University of Istanbul; the scholarly positions he filled include visiting professor at Ludwig Maximilians University, Germany, 2003. At the beginning of his career Ihsanoğlu was lecturer of Turkish Literature and Language at Ain Shams University, Egypt, 1966–1970; as part of his academic career Ihsanoğlu has held the following positions: member of Academie Europea.
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Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.
Shubra El Kheima
Shubra El Kheima, is the fourth largest city in Egypt. It is located in the Qalyubia Governorate around 30°7′43″N 31°14′32″E and along the northern edge of the Cairo Governorate, it forms part of the Greater Cairo agglomeration. Shubra El Kheima was inhabited by workers, who have worked in surrounding factories since the 1940s; however it contains the great expansion of Greater Cairo towards the north as a consequence of migration from rural areas. Its population was 1,016,722 at the 2006 Census, it is administered as two kism: Shubra El Kheima 1 10.41 km2, 461,689 people, borders Nile River, with city railway station Shubrā El Kheima 2 17.27 km2, 563,880 people, includes BahtimSince the national 2017 census, there is a 3rd kism within the governorate. It is unknown if this will be rolled into Shubra El Kheima or be considered a separate city, as municipal designations appears informal in Egypt. Using 2018 data, population of the two is 1,187,747 and 42,910 people per km2; the 3 kisms combined have 1,655,941 people with 46,764 people per km2.
Shubra El Kheima is an important link point to many of other Governorates like the capital Cairo, Giza and Manofia. For instance it's a link to the Egyptian capital Cairo through many roads e.g. Cornish El-Nile road if someone want to go to downtown, Ahmed Helmi street if someone want to go to Ramses area and another way to downtown, as well as Shubra El Kheima has the northern terminus of Line 2 of the Cairo Metro. Shubra El Kheima hosts the Palace of the founder of modern Egypt, he chose an isolated palace or an official residence away from the Citadel in the district called Shubra, the construction of the palace began in 1808 and it was completed in 1821. The Palace of Mohammad Ali or Shubra Palace is distinguished by its style of decoration that mixes between the Islamic style of decoration and the European one. Mohammed Ali's Palace is the first flourishing structures in Shubra; this palace was once involving about 13 building but the only remaining parts of it are the reception area, the fountain kios, the basin area and the garden, provided with a collection of rare plants and some of them still exist and it is now a museum.
The palace came under the authority of the Supreme Council of Antiquities in 1978. The most remarkable one is the drawing room, used a dining room, a small garden was planted in each step of this scalar hill, irrigated the waterwheel tower, constructed to provide the gardens and the villa with fresh water. Media related to Shubra El-Kheima at Wikimedia Commons
Alexandria University is a public university in Alexandria, Egypt. It was established in 1938 as a satellite of Fouad University, becoming an independent entity in 1942, it was known as Farouk University until the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 when its name was changed to the University of Alexandria. Taha Hussein was the founding rector of Alexandria University, it is now the second largest university in Egypt and has many affiliations to various universities for ongoing research. Dr. Essam El-Kurdi, President of Alexandria University Dr. Hisham Gaber, Vice President for Education and Student Affairs Dr. Mokhtar Ibrahim Yousef, Vice-President for Graduate Studies and Research Dr. Alaa Ramadan, Vice President for Community Service and Environmental Development At the time it became an independent institution in 1942, it had the following faculties: Faculty of Agriculture Faculty of Medicine Faculty of Arts Faculty of Commerce Faculty of Engineering Faculty of Law Faculty of Science In 1989, four faculties, located in Alexandria and administered by Helwan University, were annexed to Alexandria University.
These are the faculties of Agriculture, Fine Arts, Physical Education for Boys and Physical Education for Girls. Alexandria University Holds now 23 Faculties and Institutes as follows: Faculty of Arts Faculty of Law Faculty of Commerce Faculty of Engineering Faculty of Science Faculty of Agriculture Faculty of Medicine Faculty of Pharmacy Faculty of Nursing Faculty of Physical Education for Girls Faculty of Physical Education for Boys High Institute of Public Health Faculty of Fine Arts Faculty of Agriculture Faculty of Education Faculty of Dentistry Institute of Graduate Studies and Research Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Institute of Medical Research Faculty of Tourism and Hotels Faculty of Specific Education Faculty of kindergarten Faculty of Economic Studies & Political Science Alexandria University Also opened branches in African and Middle-Eastern Countries: Chad Branch Iraq Branch South Sudan Branch William Linn Westermann – American papyrologist Yahya El Mashad – Egyptian nuclear physicist Mohamed Hashish – research scientist best known as the father of the abrasive water jet cutter Mohammed Aboul-Fotouh Hassab – professor of gastro-intestinal surgery.
The 2010 rankings were controversial, as a single professor's practice of publishing a great number of articles in a journal of which he himself was the editor was identified as a crucial contributing factor for the high rating of Alexandria University. Alexandria University is ranked 301+ worldwide based on Times Higher Education's World University Rankings 2011–2012. Alexandria University is ranked 601+ worldwide based on QS World University Rankings 2011/12, it was ranked 701+ in the QS World University Rankings 2014/2015. As of 2017, it is 916th worldwide and 2nd in Egypt according to Webometrics' ranking of world universities. Educational institutions in Alexandria Education in Egypt List of universities in Egypt Alexandria University official website
Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt
Ibrahim Pasha was the eldest son of Muhammad Ali, the Wāli and unrecognised Khedive of Egypt and Sudan. He served as a general in the Egyptian army that his father established during his reign, taking his first command of Egyptian forces when he was a teenager. In the final year of his life, he succeeded his still living father as ruler of Egypt and Sudan, due to the latter's ill health, his rule extended over the other dominions that his father had brought under Egyptian rule, namely Syria, Morea and Crete. Ibrahim pre-deceased his father, dying 10 November 1848, only four months after acceding to the throne. Upon his father's death the following year, the Egyptian throne passed to Abbas. Ibrahim remains one of the most celebrated members of the Muhammad Ali dynasty for his impressive military victories, including several crushing defeats of the Ottoman Empire. Among Egyptian historians, his father Muhammad Ali, his son Ismail the Magnificent are held in far higher esteem than other rulers from the dynasty, who were viewed as indolent and corrupt.
Today, a statue of Ibrahim occupies a prominent position in Cairo. His Mother Emine, born at Nusretli in 1770 and died in Cairo 1824, she was the widow of Ottoman Turk Serezli Ali Bey, a daughter of Major Ali Aga of Nusretli. Ibrahim was her first born son, it is further known that he was born in the village of Nusratli, near the town of Drama, the Ottoman province of Rumelia, in what is now the eastern parts of Macedonian region in Greece. In 1805, during his father's struggle to establish himself as ruler of Egypt, the adolescent Ibrahim, at 16, was sent as a hostage to the Ottoman captain Pasha. However, Ibrahim was allowed to return to Egypt once his father was recognised as Wāli of Egypt by the Ottoman Sultan, had defeated the British military expedition of Major General Alexander Mackenzie Fraser; when Muhammad Ali went to Arabia to prosecute the war against the Ibn Saud in 1813, Ibrahim was left in command of Upper Egypt. He continued the war with the broken power of the Mameluks. In 1816, he succeeded his brother Tusun Pasha in command of the Egyptian forces in Arabia.
Muhammad Ali had begun to introduce European discipline into his army, Ibrahim had received some training, but his first campaign was conducted more in the old Asiatic style than his operations. The campaign lasted two years, ended in the destruction of the House of Saud as a political power. Muhammad Ali landed at Yanbu, the port of Medina, on 1813; the holy cities had been recovered from the Saudis, Ibrahim's task was to follow them into the desert of Nejd and destroy their fortresses. Such training as the Egyptian troops had received, their artillery, gave them a marked superiority in the open field, but the difficulty of crossing the desert to the Saudis stronghold of Diriyah, some 400 miles east of Medina made the conquest a arduous one. Ibrahim displayed great energy and tenacity, sharing all the hardships of his army, never allowing himself to be discouraged by failure. By the end of September 1818, he had forced the Saudi leader to surrender, had taken Diriyah, which he sacked. On December 11, 1819 he made a triumphal entry into Cairo.
After his return Ibrahim gave effective support to the Frenchman, Colonel Sève, employed to drill the army on the European model. Ibrahim set an example by submitting to be drilled as a recruit. In 1824, Muhammad Ali was appointed governor of the Morea by Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II. Mahmud required the assistance of the well-trained Egyptian army against the contemporary Greek Revolution, which his forces had been unable to quell: in 1822, the Greeks had decisively defeated an army of some 30,000 men under Sultanzade Mahmud Dramali Pasha. Ibrahim was sent to the Peloponnese with an army of 17,000 men; the expedition sailed on July 4, 1824, but was for some months unable to do more than come and go between Rhodes and Crete. The fear of the Greek fire ships stopped his way to the Morea; when the Greek sailors mutinied from want of pay, Ibrahim was able to land at Modon on February 26, 1825. He remained in the Morea until the capitulation of October 1, 1828 was forced on him by the intervention of the Western powers.
He defeated the Greeks in the open field, though the siege of Missolonghi proved costly to his own troops and to the Ottoman forces who operated with him, he brought it to a successful termination on April 24, 1826. But he was defeated in Mani three times in a row; the Greek guerrilla bands harassed his army, in revenge he desolated the country and sent thousands of the inhabitants into slavery in Egypt. These measures of repression aroused great indignation in Europe and led to the intervention of the naval squadrons of the United Kingdom, the Restored Kingdom of France and Imperial Russia in the Battle of Navarino, their victory was followed by the landing of a French expeditionary force in the so-called Morea expedition. By the terms of the capitulation of October 1, 1828, Ibrahim evacuated the country. In 1831, his father's quarrel with the Porte having become flagrant, Ibrahim was sent to conquer Syria, he took Acre after a severe siege on May 27, 1832, occupied Damascus, defeated an Ottoman army at Homs on July 8
Abbassia is a neighbourhood in Cairo, Egypt. The Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral, Cairo is located in Abbassia; the medical faculty of Ain Shams University and its affiliate hospital units are located in Abbassia. The Abbassia metro station is located here, as well. In 1865 an observatory, principally for meteorological work, was founded at Abbassia, by the Khedive Isma'il Pasha, maintained continuously there for nearly forty years; the building lay on the boundary between the cultivated Nile Delta and the desert but with urban encroachment, it was decided in 1904, to move the meteorological work to Helwan. The Observatory at Abbassia was an empty monument until 1952. Abbassia and the nearby region, saw heavy rainfall during a period of time geological researchers call the Pluvial Abbassia. During this period, red and purple rocks or gravel became distributed all along the valley and Delta regions of the Nile. Gravel beds were formed, including a famous gravel bed at Abbassia. Photographed and described in 1926 by Paul Bovier-Lapierre, these gravel beds were as thick as 33 feet in some areas.
In the Second World War, during which Egypt was the scene of heavy fighting, the United Kingdom located its Royal Armoured Corps School in Abbassia. In September 1941, an Italian Air Force plane bombed a British Army depot in Abbassia; the Cathedral of Saint Mark in Abbassia was the site of the 2012 funeral for Coptic Pope Shenouda III of Alexandria, attracting more than two million mourners from around the world. A queue of over one kilometer in length formed to view the body of the pope, as people pushed to get close, three people were crushed to death and 137 were injured. During the continued 2012 protests of the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, Abbassia was the scene of confrontations between protesters and armed gangs. On December 11, 2016 a chapel next to the Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral was the site of a suicide bombing against Egypt's Coptic community. Of the 25 Copts who died in the explosion, most were children; the army was deployed to the site and Egypt began three days of mourning.
Police Academy Stadium Al-Rahman Al-Rahim Mosque