Wingtip devices are intended to improve the efficiency of fixed-wing aircraft. Wingtip devices can improve aircraft handling characteristics and enhance safety for following aircraft, such devices increase the effective aspect ratio of a wing without materially increasing the wingspan. An extension of span would lower lift-induced drag, but would increase parasitic drag and would require boosting the strength, at some point, there is no net benefit from further increased span. There may be operational considerations that limit the allowable wingspan, wingtip devices increase the lift generated at the wingtip and reduce the lift-induced drag caused by wingtip vortices, improving lift-to-drag ratio. This increases fuel efficiency in powered aircraft and increases cross-country speed in gliders, U. S. Air Force studies indicate that a given improvement in fuel efficiency correlates directly with the causal increase in the aircrafts lift-to-drag ratio. The initial concept dates back to 1897, when English engineer Frederick W.
Lanchester patented wing end-plates as a method for controlling wingtip vortices, in the United States, Scottish-born engineer William E. Somerville patented the first functional winglets in 1910. Somerville installed the devices on his biplane and monoplane designs. Vincent Burnelli received US Patent no,1,774,474 for his Airfoil Control Means on August 26,1930. This was done in order to counteract the dutch roll characteristic the marked three degrees of angle for each wing panel that the original He 162 designs wings possessed. Following the end of World War II, Dr. Sighard F. Drooped wingtips are often called Hoerner tips in his honor and light aircraft have made use of Hoerner tips for many years. The term winglet was previously used to describe an additional lifting surface on an aircraft, richard Whitcombs research in the 1970s at NASA first used winglet with its modern meaning referring to near-vertical extension of the wing tips. The upward angle of the winglet, its inward or outward angle, as well as its size, the winglet converts some of the otherwise-wasted energy in the wingtip vortex to an apparent thrust.
This small contribution can be worthwhile over the lifetime, provided the benefit offsets the cost of installing and maintaining the winglets. Another potential benefit of winglets is that they reduce the intensity of wingtip vortices, minimum spacing requirements between aircraft operations at airports is largely dictated by these factors. Aircraft are classified by weight because the vortex strength grows with the lift coefficient, and thus. The drag reduction permitted by winglets can reduce the takeoff distance. Wingtip vortices create turbulence, originating at the edge of the wingtip and propagating backwards. This turbulence delaminates the airflow over a triangular section of the outboard wing
Hamburg, officially Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, is the second largest city in Germany and the eighth largest city in the European Union. It is the second smallest German state by area and its population is over 1.7 million people, and the wider Hamburg Metropolitan Region covers more than 5.1 million inhabitants. The city is situated on the river Elbe, the official long name reflects Hamburgs history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state, and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a sovereign state. Prior to the changes in 1919, the civic republic was ruled by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. Though repeatedly destroyed by the Great Fire of Hamburg, the floods and military conflicts including WW2 bombing raids, the city managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. On the river Elbe, Hamburg is a port and a global service, media and industrial hub, with headquarters and facilities of Airbus, Blohm + Voss, Beiersdorf.
The radio and television broadcaster NDR, Europes largest printing and publishing firm Gruner + Jahr, Hamburg has been an important financial centre for centuries, and is the seat of Germanys oldest stock exchange and the worlds second oldest bank, Berenberg Bank. The city is a fast expanding tourist destination for domestic and international visitors. It ranked 16th in the world for livability in 2015, the ensemble Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel was declared a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science and education hub with several universities and institutes and its creative industries and major cultural venues include the renowned Elbphilharmonie and Laeisz concert halls, various art venues, music producers and artists. It is regarded as a haven for artists, gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule. Hamburg is known for theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Paulis Reeperbahn is among the best known European entertainment districts, Hamburg is on the southern point of the Jutland Peninsula, between Continental Europe to the south and Scandinavia to the north, with the North Sea to the west and the Baltic Sea to the north-east.
It is on the River Elbe at its confluence with the Alster, the city centre is around the Binnenalster and Außenalster, both formed by damming the River Alster to create lakes. The island of Neuwerk and two neighbouring islands Scharhörn and Nigehörn, in the Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park, are part of Hamburg. The neighbourhoods of Neuenfelde, Cranz and Finkenwerder are part of the Altes Land region, neugraben-Fischbek has Hamburgs highest elevation, the Hasselbrack at 116.2 metres AMSL. Hamburg has a climate, influenced by its proximity to the coast
Publicly, the two carriers appeared to merge when their reservations systems and booking processes were merged on October 17,2015, other systems were still separate at that time. The airline had an international and domestic network, with 193 destinations in 24 countries in North America, South America, Europe. The airline was a member of the Star Alliance, before becoming a member of Oneworld in March 2014. The carrier operated the US Airways Shuttle, a US Airways brand which provided service between Boston, New York City and Washington, D. C. As of October 2013, US Airways employed 32,312 people worldwide, in 1979, after passage of the Airline Deregulation Act, Allegheny Airlines changed its name to USAir and began seeking to expand its operations. A decade later, it had acquired Piedmont Airlines and Pacific Southwest Airlines, in February 2013, American Airlines and US Airways announced plans to merge, creating the largest airline in the world. The holding companies of American and US Airways merged effective December 9,2013, in preparation for their eventual integration, the airlines began offering reciprocal frequent flyer benefits on January 7,2014, and US Airways left Star Alliance to join Oneworld on March 31,2014.
US Airways management runs the combined airline from the American headquarters in Fort Worth, on April 8,2015, the FAA officially granted a single operating certificate for both carriers, marking the end of US Airways as an independent carrier. The brand continued to exist until October, on July 13,2015, American announced that it planned to discontinue the US Airways brand name on October 17,2015. On that date, US Airways made the flight for the airline from San Francisco to Philadelphia with stops at Phoenix and Charlotte. US Airways traces its history to All American Aviation Inc, a company founded by du Pont family brothers Richard C. du Pont, Alexis Felix du Pont, Jr. headquartered in Pittsburgh, the airline served the Ohio River valley in 1939. In 1949 the company was renamed All American Airways as it switched from airmail to passenger service, it became Allegheny Airlines in 1953. Alleghenys first jet was the Douglas DC-9 in 1966, it absorbed Lake Central Airlines in 1968, in 1973 it was the ninth largest airline in the free world by passengers carried.
With expansion came growing pains, in the 1970s Allegheny had the nickname Agony Air due to customer dissatisfaction, Allegheny changed its name to USAir in 1979 after the passage in 1978 of the Airline Deregulation Act that allowed the airline to expand its network to the southeastern US. USAir was a customer for the Boeing 737-300, as it needed a larger aircraft for its growing Florida routes. USAir was the worlds largest operator of DC-9s and approached McDonnell Douglas for a new design, after negotiations with McDonnell Douglas broke down, Boeing came forward with a proposed variant of the 737. USAir selected the new 737 and the company worked closely with Boeing during its development, USAir expanded in the late 1980s, purchasing San Diego–based Pacific Southwest Airlines in 1986 and Winston-Salem, North Carolina–based Piedmont Airlines in 1987. The PSA and Piedmont acquisitions were completed in 1988 and 1989, the Piedmont acquisition in 1989 was the largest airline merger until and USAir became one of the worlds largest airlines, operating more than 5,000 flights daily
Boeing 737 Next Generation
The Boeing 737 Next Generation, commonly abbreviated as 737NG, is the name given to the −600/-700/-800/-900 series of the Boeing 737 airliner. It is the third derivative of the 737, and follows the 737 Classic series. They are short- to medium-range, narrow-body jet airliners, produced since 1996 by Boeing Commercial Airplanes, the 737NG series includes four variants and can seat between 110 and 210 passengers. As of December 2016, a total of 7,071 737NG aircraft have been ordered, the remaining orders are in the -700, -700 BBJ, -800, and -900ER variants. The 737NGs primary competition is with the Airbus A320 family, upgraded and re-engined models in development as the 737 MAX series are to eventually supplant the 737NG, with the first 737 MAX to be delivered in 2017. Prompted by the development of the Airbus A320, which incorporated ground-breaking technologies such as fly-by-wire, after working with potential customers, the 737 Next Generation program was announced on November 17,1993. The 737NG encompasses the −600, −700, −800 and −900 variants, the performance of the 737NG is essentially that of a new airplane, but important commonality is retained from previous 737 generations.
The wing was modified, increasing its area by 25% and span by 16 ft, new quieter and more fuel-efficient CFM56-7B engines were used. These improvements combine to increase the 737s range by 900 nmi, a flight test program was operated by 10 aircraft,3 -600s,4 -700s, and 3 -800s. The interior of the 737 Next Generation became the interior on the Boeing 757-300. In 2010, the interior of the 737 Next Generation was updated to look similar to that of the Boeing 787, known as the Boeing Sky Interior, it introduces new pivoting overhead bins, new sidewalls, new passenger service units, and LED mood lighting. Boeing offers BSI retrofits for older 737NG aircraft, Boeings Space Bins carry 50% more than the pivoting bins, allowing a 737 to hold 174 carry-on bags. The first NG to roll out was a −700, on December 8,1996 and this aircraft, the 2, 843rd 737 built, first flew on February 9,1997 with pilots Mike Hewett and Ken Higgins. The prototype −800 rolled out on June 30,1997 and first flew on July 31,1997, piloted by Jim McRoberts, the monthly production rate could reach 57 per month in 2019, even to the factory limit of 63 later.
A single airplane is produced in Boeing Renton Factory in 10 days, the empty fuselage from Spirit AeroSystems in Wichita, enters the plant on Day 1. Electrical wiring is installed on Day 2 and hydraulic machinery on Day 3, on Day 4 the fuselage is crane-lifted and rotated 90 degrees, wings are mated to the airplane in a six-hour process, along with landing gear, and the airplane is again rotated 90 degrees. The final assembly process begins on Day 6 with the installation of seats, lavatories, overhead bins. Engines are attached on Day 8 and it rolls out of the factory for test flights on Day 10
Airbus Corporate Jets
Airbus Corporate Jets, a business unit of Airbus SAS and part of the Airbus Group and completes corporate jet variants from the parents airliner range. Types include the A318 Elite to the double/triple-decked Airbus A380 Prestige, following the entry of the 737 based Boeing Business Jet, Airbus joined the business jet market with the A319 Corporate Jet in 1997. Although the term Airbus Corporate jet was used only for the A319CJ, it is now often used for all models. As of December 2008,121 corporate and private jets are operating,164 aircraft have been ordered, an Airbus Corporate Jet Centre is based at Toulouse and specialises in single-aisle aircraft. The ACJ family is based on the successful A320 family of aircraft and was based on the A319CJ, today any version of the A320 is available as corporate jet with 180 minute ETOPS rating. Changes over the versions include an increase in service ceiling to 41,000 feet. The A318 Elite is based on the passenger A318, the smallest of the ACJ family, it is offered in passenger configurations between 14 and 18 passengers with a range of 4,050 nmi.
This model is the jet version of the A319. It incorporates removable extra fuel tanks which are installed in the compartment. Upon resale the aircraft can be reconfigured as a standard A319 by removing its extra tanks, certificated both European JAA and American FAA, the A319LR and ACJ are the only business jets approved for public transport on both sides of the Atlantic. The aircraft seats between 19 and 50 passengers but may be outfitted by the customers into any configuration, DC Aviation, UB Group and Reliance Industries are among its users. The A319CJ competes with the Boeing BBJ1, Gulfstream G550, because of its wider fuselage diameter, it offers a roomier interior than its competitors. It is powered by the engine types as the A320. Since 2003, an ACJ is an aircraft of Armenia, Czech Republic, Malaysia, Thailand, Ukraine. The A320 Prestige is offered as a variant for passengers who want more interior space than the A319 offers and it has a passenger capacity of 30 and a range of 4,950 nautical miles with two removable fuel tanks.
The A321 is the largest narrow body corporate jet with a full range of 4,590 nautical miles. The VIP widebodies are based on the A330/A340/A350/A380 aircraft, additional fuel tanks are expanding the range with most increase for the A330 Prestige. The A330-200 Prestige offers space for 60 passengers with a range of 8,300 nmi, based on Airbus first four engine design, the ETOPS immune A340-300 Prestige offers a 7,700 nmi range for 75 passengers
Fly-by-wire is a system that replaces the conventional manual flight controls of an aircraft with an electronic interface. Both systems often require redundant backup to deal with failures, which increases weight, both have limited ability to compensate for changing aerodynamic conditions. The term fly-by-wire implies a purely electrically signaled control system and it is used in the general sense of computer-configured controls, where a computer system is interposed between the operator and the final control actuators or surfaces. This modifies the manual inputs of the pilot in accordance with control parameters, side-sticks, centre sticks, or conventional flight control yokes can be used to fly FBW aircraft. Fly-by wire systems are complex, but their operation can be explained in simple terms. When a pilot moves the control column, a signal is sent to a computer the signal is sent through wires to ensure that the signal reaches the computer. A Triplex is when there are three channels being used, in an Analog system, the computer receives the signals, performs a calculation and adds another channel.
These four Quadruplex signals are sent to the control surface actuator. Potentiometers in the actuator send a signal back to the computer reporting the position of the actuator, when the actuator reaches the desired position, the two signals cancel each other out and the actuator stops moving. The computer commands the flight control surfaces to adopt a configuration that will achieve the flight path. Fly-by-wire control systems allow aircraft computers to perform tasks without pilot input, automatic stability systems operate in this way. Gyroscopes fitted with sensors are mounted in an aircraft to sense movement changes in the pitch, any movement results in signals to the computer, which automatically moves control actuators to stabilize the aircraft. Aircraft systems may be quadruplexed to prevent loss of signals in the case of failure of one or even two channels, pre-flight safety checks of a fly-by-wire system are often performed using built-in test equipment. On programming the system, either by the pilot or groundcrew, any failure will be indicated to the crews. A FBW aircraft can be lighter than a design with conventional controls.
These include the vertical and horizontal stabilizers that are at the rear of the fuselage, if these structures can be reduced in size, airframe weight is reduced. The advantages of FBW controls were first exploited by the military, the Airbus series of airliners used full-authority FBW controls beginning with their A320 series, see A320 flight control. Boeing followed with their 777 and designs, electronic systems require less maintenance, whereas mechanical and hydraulic systems require lubrication, tension adjustments, leak checks, fluid changes, etc
Tianjin, formerly known in English as Tientsin, is a metropolis in northern coastal Mainland China and one of the five national central cities of the country, with a total population of 15,469,500. It is governed as one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of the PRC and is thus under direct administration of the central government, Tianjin borders Hebei Province and Beijing Municipality, bounded to the east by the Bohai Gulf portion of the Yellow Sea. Part of the Bohai Economic Rim, it is the largest coastal city in northern China, in terms of urban population, Tianjin is the fourth largest in China, after Shanghai and Guangzhou. In terms of area population, Tianjin ranks fifth in Mainland China. The walled city of Tianjin was built in 1404, as a treaty port since 1860, Tianjin has been a major seaport and gateway to Beijing. During the Boxer Rebellion the city was the seat of the Tianjin Provisional Government, under the Ta-tsing Empire, and the Republic of China, Tianjin became one of the largest cities in the region.
At that time, numerous European-style buildings and mansions were constructed in concessions, after the founding of the Peoples Republic of China, Tianjin suffered a depression due to the policy of the central government and Tangshan earthquake, but recovered from 1990s. As of the end of 2010, around 285 Fortune 500 companies have set up base in Binhai, Tianjin is the pinyin romanization of the Chinese characters 天津, which mean Heavenly Ford or Ford of Heaven. The origin of the name is obscure, one folk etymology is that it was an homage to the patriotic Chu poet Qu Yuan, whose Li Sao includes the verse. departing from the Ford of Heaven at dawn. Another is that it honors a former name of the Girl, a third is that it derives from a place name noted in the River Record of the History of Jin. The most common are that it was bestowed by the Yongle Emperor of the Ming, before this time, it was open sea. The opening of the Grand Canal during the Sui dynasty prompted the development of Tianjin into a trading center, during the Qing dynasty Tianjin was promoted to a prefecture or Zhou in 1725 with Tianjin County established under the prefecture in 1731.
Later it was to upgraded to a prefecture or Fu before becoming a relay station under the command of the Viceroy of Zhili. In 1856, Chinese soldiers boarded The Arrow, a Chinese-owned ship registered in Hong Kong flying the British flag and suspected of piracy and they captured 12 men and imprisoned them. In response, the British and French sent gunboats under the command of Admiral Sir Michael Seymour to capture the Taku forts near Tianjin in May 1858. At the end of the first part of the Second Opium War in June of the year, the British and French prevailed, and the Treaties of Tianjin were signed. The treaties were ratified by the Emperor of China in 1860, and Tianjin was formally opened to Great Britain and France and these nations left many architectural reminders of their rule, notably churches and thousands of villas. Today those villas provide a flavour to Tianjin
The Boeing Company is an American multinational corporation that designs and sells airplanes, rotorcraft and satellites worldwide. The company provides leasing and product support services, Boeing stock is a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average. The Boeing Companys corporate headquarters are located in Chicago and the company is led by President, Boeing is organized into five primary divisions, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Boeing Defense, Space & Security, Operations & Technology, Boeing Capital, and Boeing Shared Services Group. Boeing bought Heaths shipyard in Seattle on the Duwamish River, which became his first airplane factory. Boeing was incorporated in Seattle by William Boeing, on July 15,1916, Boeing was incorporated in Delaware, the original Certificate of Incorporation was filed with the Secretary of State of Delaware on July 19,1934. Boeing, who studied at Yale University, worked initially in the timber industry and this knowledge proved invaluable in his subsequent design and assembly of airplanes.
The company stayed in Seattle to take advantage of the supply of spruce wood. William Boeing founded his company a few months after the June 15 maiden flight of one of the two B&W seaplanes built with the assistance of George Conrad Westervelt, a U. S. Navy engineer. Boeing and Westervelt decided to build the B&W seaplane after having flown in a Curtiss aircraft, Boeing bought a Glenn Martin Flying Birdcage seaplane and was taught to fly by Glenn Martin himself. Boeing soon crashed the Birdcage and when Martin informed Boeing that replacement parts would not become available for months, Westervelt agreed to build a better airplane and soon produced the B&W Seaplane. This first Boeing airplane was assembled in a hangar located on the northeast shore of Seattles Lake Union. Many of Boeings early planes were seaplanes, on April 6,1917, the U. S. declared War on Germany and in the year entered World War I. On May 9,1917, the became the Boeing Airplane Company. With the U. S. entering the war, Boeing knew that the U. S.
Navy needed seaplanes for training, so Boeing shipped two new Model Cs to Pensacola, where the planes were flown for the Navy. The Navy liked the Model C and ordered 50 more, the company moved its operations to a larger former shipbuilding facility known as Boeing Plant 1, located on the lower Duwamish River, Washington state. Others, including Boeing, started selling other products, Boeing built dressers and furniture, along with flat-bottom boats called Sea Sleds. In 1919 the Boeing B-1, flying boat made its first flight and it accommodated one pilot and two passengers and some mail. Over the course of eight years, it made international airmail flights from Seattle to Victoria, on May 24,1920, the Boeing Model 8 made its first flight
The Boeing 737 is an American short- to medium-range twinjet narrow-body airliner. The 737 is Boeings only narrow-body airliner in production, with the 737 Next Generation variants currently being built, production has begun on the re-engined and redesigned 737 MAX, which is set to enter service in 2017. Originally envisioned in 1964, the initial 737-100 made its first flight in April 1967, the lengthened 737-200 entered service in April 1968. In the 1980s Boeing launched the -300, -400, and -500 models, the 737 Classics added capacity and incorporated CFM56 turbofan engines along with wing improvements. In the 1990s, Boeing introduced the 737 Next Generation, with changes including a redesigned, increased span laminar flow wing, upgraded glass cockpit. The 737 Next Generation comprises the four -600, -700, -800, Boeing Business Jet versions of the 737 Next Generation are produced. The 737 series is the best-selling jet commercial airliner in history, the 737 has been continuously manufactured by Boeing since 1967 with 9,401 aircraft delivered and 4,423 orders yet to be fulfilled as of February 2017.
Assembly of the 737 is performed at the Boeing Renton Factory in Renton, many 737s serve markets previously filled by 707,727,757, DC-9, and MD-80/MD-90 airliners, and the aircraft currently competes primarily with the Airbus A320 family. As of 2006, there were an average of 1,250 Boeing 737s airborne at any given time, Boeing had been studying short-haul jet aircraft designs and wanted to produce another aircraft to supplement the 727 on short and thin routes. Preliminary design work began on May 11,1964, and Boeings intense market research yielded plans for a 50- to 60-passenger airliner for routes 50 to 1,000 mi long, consultation with Lufthansa over the previous winter resulted in an increase in capacity to 100 seats. On April 5,1965, Boeing announced an order by United Airlines for 40 737s, United wanted a slightly larger airplane than the original 737. So Boeing stretched the fuselage 91 centimeters ahead of, and 102 cm behind the wing, the longer version was designated 737-200, with the original short-body aircraft becoming the 737-100.
Detailed design work continued on both variants at the same time, Boeing was far behind its competitors when the 737 was launched, as rival aircraft BAC-111, Douglas DC-9, and Fokker F28 were already into flight certification. To expedite development, Boeing used 60% of the structure and systems of the existing 727 and this fuselage permitted six-abreast seating compared to the rival BAC-111 and DC-9s five-abreast layout. Design engineers decided to mount the nacelles directly to the underside of the wings to reduce the landing gear length and kept the low to the ground for easy ramp inspection. Originally, the arrangement of the airfoil sections of the 737 wing was planned to be very similar to that of the 707 and 727. However, an improvement in drag at high Mach numbers was achieved by altering these sections near the nacelle. The engine chosen was the Pratt & Whitney JT8D-1 low-bypass ratio turbofan engine, with the wing-mounted engines, Boeing decided to mount the horizontal stabilizer on the fuselage rather than the T-tail style of the Boeing 727
Boeing 737 Classic
The Boeing 737 Classic is the -300/-400/-500 series of the Boeing 737, so named following the introduction of the -600/-700/-800/-900 series. They are short- to medium-range, narrow-body jet airliners produced by Boeing Commercial Airplanes, the Classic series was introduced as the new generation of the 737. Produced from 1984 to 2000,1,988 aircraft were delivered, development began in 1979, and in 1980 preliminary aircraft specifications were released at the Farnborough Airshow. In March 1981, USAir and Southwest Airlines each ordered 10 aircraft, the wing incorporated a number of changes for improved aerodynamics. The wing tip was extended 9 inches, the leading-edge slats and trailing-edge flaps were adjusted. The flight deck was improved with the optional EFIS, and the passenger cabin incorporated improvements similar to those on the Boeing 757, Boeing selected the CFM56-3 to exclusively power the 737-300 variant. The 737 wings were closer to the ground than previous applications for the CFM56, the overall thrust was reduced, from 24,000 to 20,000 lbf, mostly due to the reduction in bypass ratio.
The prototype of the -300 rolled out of the Renton plant on January 17,1984, after it received its flight certification on November 14,1984, USAir received the first aircraft on November 28. A very popular aircraft, Boeing received 252 orders for it in 1985, the 300 series remained in production until 1999 when the last aircraft was delivered to Air New Zealand on December 17,1999, registration ZK-NGJ. The 737-300 can be retrofitted with Aviation Partners Boeing winglets, the 737-300 retrofitted with winglets is designated the -300SP. Used passenger -300 aircraft have converted to freighter versions. The 737-300 has been replaced by the 737-700 in the Boeing 737 Next Generation family, the 737-400 design was launched in 1985 to fill the gap between the 737-300 and the 757-200, and competed with the Airbus A320 and McDonnell Douglas MD-80. It stretched the 737-300 another 10 ft to carry up to 188 passengers and it included a tail bumper to prevent tailscrapes during take-off, and a strengthened wing spar.
The prototype rolled out on January 26,1988, and flew for the first time on 19 February 1988, the aircraft entered service on September 15,1988, with launch customer Piedmont Airlines. The 737-400F was not a model delivered by Boeing, but a 737-400 converted to freighter, the Boeing 737-400 never included winglets as an option, just like the Boeing 737-600. Alaska Airlines was the first to one of their 400s from regular service to an aircraft with the ability to handle ten pallets. The airline has converted five more into fixed combi aircraft for half passenger and these 737-400 Combi aircraft are now in service. The 737-400 was replaced by the 737-800 in the Boeing 737 Next Generation family, the fuselage length of the -500 is 1 ft 7 in longer than the 737-200, accommodating up to 140 passengers
American Airlines, Inc. commonly referred to as American, is a major American airline headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas. It is the worlds largest airline measured by fleet size, scheduled passenger-kilometres flown. Regional service is operated by independent and subsidiary carriers under the name of American Eagle. American operates out of ten located in Dallas/Fort Worth, Chicago-OHare, Miami, Washington, DC-National, Los Angeles, New York-JFK. American operates its primary base at Tulsa International Airport in addition to the maintenance locations located at its hubs. Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport is Americans largest passenger carrying hub handling 51.1 million passengers annually with an average of 140,000 passengers daily, the company as of 2015 employs over 113,300 people. Through the airlines parent company, American Airlines Group, it is traded under NASDAQ. American Airlines was started in 1930 via a union of more than eighty small airlines, the two organizations from which American Airlines was originated were Robertson Aircraft Corporation and Colonial Air Transport.
The former was first formed in Missouri in 1921, with both being merged in 1929 into holding company The Aviation Corporation and this in turn, was made in 1930 into an operating company and rebranded as American Airways. In 1934, when new laws and attrition of mail contracts forced many airlines to reorganize, the corporation redid its routes into a connected system, between 1970 and 2000, the company grew into being an international carrier, purchasing Trans World Airlines in 2001. In 2011, due to a downturn in the airline industry, in 2013, US Airways and American Airlines merged. Eventually operations were merged under one operating certificate to create the largest United States airline which kept the American Airlines brand name, American Airlines is headquartered in Fort Worth, adjacent to the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport. The headquarters is located in two buildings in the CentrePort office complex and these buildings together have about 1,400,000 square feet of space. As of 2014 over 4,300 employees work at this complex, before it was headquartered in Texas, American Airlines was headquartered at 633 Third Avenue in the Murray Hill area of Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
In 1979 American moved its headquarters to a site at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, Mayor of New York City Ed Koch described the move as a betrayal of New York City. American moved to two leased office buildings in Grand Prairie, the airline began leasing the facility from the airport, which owns the facility. As of 2015 American Airlines is the corporation with the largest presence in Fort Worth, in 2015 the airline announced it will build a new headquarters in Fort Worth. Groundbreaking began in the spring of 2016 and occupancy is scheduled for summer 2019, the airline plans to house 5,000 new workers in the building
A jet airliner is an airliner powered by jet engines. Airliners usually have two or four jet engines, three-engined designs were popular in the 1970s but are common today. Most airliners today are powered by jet engines, because they are capable of operating at high speeds. The first airliners, introduced in the 1950s, used the simpler turbojet engine, these were supplanted by designs using turbofans. Airliners are commonly classified as either the generally long-haul widebody aircraft and they retained the two inboard piston engines, the jets being housed in the outboard nacelles. The first airliner with jet power only was the Nene-powered Vickers VC.1 Viking G-AJPH, developed in 1949 was the Avro Canada C102 Jetliner, which never reached production, however the term jetliner came into use as a generic term for passenger jet aircraft. National prestige was attached to developing prototypes and bringing these first generation designs into service, there was a strong nationalism in purchasing policy, so that US Boeing and Douglas aircraft became closely associated with Pan Am, while BOAC ordered British Comets.
Aeroflot used Soviet Tupolevs, while Air France introduced French Caravelles, Boeing became the most successful of the early manufacturers. The KC-135 Stratotanker and military versions of the 707 remain operational, the Pratt & Whitney JT3 turbojets powered the original Boeing 707 and DC-8 models, in the early 1960s the JT3 was modified into the JT3D low-bypass turbofan for long-range 707 and DC-8 variants. The second-generation of jet airliners was known for the advancement of turbofan technology, the rear-engined T-tail arrangement is still used for jetliners with a maximum takeoff weight of less than 50 tons. Other second-generation developments, such as rocket assisted takeoff, water-injection, and afterburners used on supersonic jetliners such as Concorde, the third generation of jet airliners introduced wide-body craft and high-bypass turbofan engines. There was the debut of the European consortium Airbus. In 1978, Boeing unveiled the twin-engine Boeing 757 to replace its 727, the mid-size 757 and 767 launched to market success, due in part to 1980s extended-range twin-engine operational performance standards regulations governing transoceanic twinjet operations.
These regulations allowed twin-engine airliners to make ocean crossings at up to three hours distance from emergency diversionary airports, under ETOPS rules, airlines began operating the 767 on long-distance overseas routes that did not require the capacity of larger airliners. By the late 1980s, DC-10 and L-1011 models were approaching retirement age, mcDonnell Douglas were working on the MD-11, a stretched and upgraded successor of the DC-10. Airbus, thanks to the success of its A320 family, developed the medium-range A330 twinjet, in 1988, Boeing began developing what would be the 777 twinjet, using the twin-engine configuration given past design successes, projected engine developments, and reduced-cost benefits. In addition, Boeing released an update on their 747. Airliner Aviation Business jet Freight aircraft Jet aircraft Wide-body aircraft List of jet airliners