The Airbus A321 is a member of the Airbus A320 family of short to medium range, narrow-body, commercial passenger twin engine jet airliners and carries 185 to 236 passengers. It has a stretched fuselage, the first derivative of the baseline A320 and entered service in 1994 about six years after the original A320; the aircraft shares a common type rating with all other Airbus A320-family variants, allowing previous A320-family pilots to fly the aircraft without the need for further training. In December 2010, Airbus announced a new generation of the A320neo; the lengthened fuselage A321neo variant offers new, more efficient, combined with airframe improvements and the addition of winglets. The aircraft delivers fuel savings of up to 15%; the A321neo carries up to 240 passengers, with a maximum range of 4,000 nmi for the long-range version when carrying no more than 206 passengers. Final assembly of the aircraft takes Alabama; as of 31 December 2019, a total of 2,043 A321 aircraft have been delivered, of which 2,015 are in service.
In addition, another 3,003 airliners are on firm order. As of December 2019, American Airlines was the largest operator of the Airbus A321, operating 231 aircraft; the Airbus A321 was the first derivative of the A320 known as the Stretched A320, A320-500 and A325. Its launch came on 24 November 1988, around the same time as the A320 entered service, after commitments for 183 aircraft from 10 customers were secured; the maiden flight of the Airbus A321 came on 11 March 1993, when the prototype, registration F-WWIA, flew with IAE V2500 engines. Lufthansa and Alitalia were the first to order the stretched Airbuses, with 20 and 40 aircraft requested, respectively; the first of Lufthansa's V2500-A5-powered A321s arrived on 27 January 1994, while Alitalia received its first CFM56-5B-powered aircraft on 22 March 1994. The A321-100 entered service in January 1994 with Lufthansa. Final assembly for the A321 was carried out in a first for any Airbus; this came after a dispute between the French, who claimed that the move would incur $150 million in unnecessary expenditure associated with the new plant, the Germans, who claimed that it would be more productive for Airbus in the long run.
The second production line was located in Hamburg, which produced the smaller Airbus A319 and A318. For the first time, Airbus entered the bond market, through which it raised $480 million to finance development costs. An additional $180 million was borrowed from private investors; the A321 is the largest variant of the A320 family. The A321-200's length exceeds 44.5 m. Wingspan remained unchanged. Two suppliers provided turbofan engines for the A321: CFM International with its CFM56 and International Aero Engines with the V2500 engine, both in the thrust range of 133–147 kN. Over 30 years since launch, the A321 Maximum takeoff weight grew by 20% from the 83t -100 until the 101t A321XLR, seating is 10% more dense with 244 seats, up by 24, range doubled from 2,300 nmi to 4,700 nmi. By 2019, 4,200 have been ordered—one-quarter of all Airbus single-aisles—including 2,400 neos, one-third of all A320neo orders; the Airbus A321 is a narrow-body aircraft with a retractable tricycle landing gear and is powered by two wing pylon-mounted turbofan engines.
It is a low-wing cantilever monoplane with a conventional tail unit having a single vertical stabilizer and rudder. Changes from the A320 include some modifications to the wing; the fuselage was lengthened by a 4.27 m plug ahead of the wing and a 2.67 m plug behind it, so that the A321 is 6.94 metres longer than the A320. The length increase required the overwing window exits of the A320 to be converted into door exits and repositioned in front of and behind the wings. To maintain performance, double-slotted flaps and minor trailing edge modifications were included, increasing the wing area from 124 m2 to 128 m2; the centre fuselage and undercarriage were reinforced to accommodate the increase in maximum takeoff weight of 9,600 kg, taking it to 83,000 kg. The original derivative of the A321, the A321-100, had a shorter range compared to the A320 as extra fuel tankage was not added to the initial design to compensate for the extra weight; the MTOW of the A321-100 is 83,000 kg. The A321-100 entered service with Lufthansa in 1994.
Only about 90 were produced. Airbus launched the heavier and longer-range A321-200 development in 1995 which has a full-passenger transcontinental US range; this is achieved through higher thrust engines, minor structural strengthening, an increase in fuel capacity with the installation of one or two optional 2,990 L tanks in the rear underfloor hold. The additional fuel tankage increases the total capacity of this model to 30,030 L; these modifications increased the maximum takeoff weight of the A321-200 to 93,000 kg. This variant first flew in December 1996, entered service with Monarch Airlines in April 1997, its direct competitors include the 757-200 and the 737-900/900ER. On 1 December 2010, Airbus launched the A320neo family with 500 nmi more range and 15% better fuel efficiency thanks to new CFM International LEAP-1A or Pratt & Whitney PW1000G engines and larg
The Ulster University's Institute of Nursing and Health Research known as the University of Ulster's Institute of Nursing Research, is a research institute of Ulster University, physically located at the Jordanstown and Magee campus'. Within the Institute, there are over 30 researchers and 10 professors based on the Jordanstown and Magee campuses of the university. In addition, the INHR has 90 doctoral students researching and studying towards their chosen topics. Members of the Institute can either be full members or associate members, however visiting professors are closely involved in research; the Institute has five main centres: Centre for Health and Rehabilitation Technologies Centre for Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities - which initiates research and evaluation studies to inform the development and organisation of policy and services for people with disabilities. Managing Chronic Illness - which conducts rigorous research into holistic care, responsive to the needs of those living with a chronic condition.
Maternal and Infant Research Centre, which encompasses two main research clusters: perinatal epidemiology and midwifery research Person-Centred Practice - which focuses on the enhancement of knowledge and expertise in person centred practice. Led by a director, their role is to shape the institute and ensure research is maintained at a high level; the director is Professor Tanya McCance. Professor McCance is responsible to the Dean of the Faculty of Life and Health Sciences as the Institute is one of several research intensive departments attached to this faculty; the institute is a collaboration between two schools in this faculty, the School of Nursing and the School of Health Science. The institute is split into centres: Centre for Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Centre for Health and Rehabilitation Technologies Managing Chronic Illness Research Centre Centre for Maternal and Infant Research Person-centred Practice Research Centre The 2014 Research Excellence Framework received 38 staff submissions for consideration.
As a result, 94.6% of all work was deemed to be 94.6% being "internationally excellent or world leading". In addition, 100% of research submitted was given an impact and environment rating of 3* or 4*. Overall the institute achieved 86% 3* or 4* with 23 submissions being world leading, 63 being internationally excellent, 10 being 2*, 3 being 1* and 1 submission not being considered
Enspel is an Ortsgemeinde – a community belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde – in the Westerwaldkreis in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Enspel lies 10 km northwest of Westerburg on a bank on the west slope of the Stöffel, a basalt mountain; the community’s structure is based on the nearby basalt quarries which were worked beginning about 1900. Worth seeing are the mighty outcrops in the Stöffel. Since 1972 Enspel has belonged to what was the newly founded Verbandsgemeinde of Westerburg, a kind of collective municipality. In 1261, Enspel had its first documentary mention. In the 20th century, the famous Stöffelmaus was found; this was a fossil of Eomys quercyi. The council is made up of 9 council members, including the extraofficial mayor, who were elected in a majority vote in a municipal election on 7 June 2009. South of the community runs Bundesstraße 255 leading from Montabaur to Herborn; the nearest Autobahn interchange is Montabaur on the A 3. Enspel lies on the Oberwesterwaldbahn to Au. From there, the cities of Cologne, Frankfurt am Main and Wiesbaden may be reached directly.
The nearest InterCityExpress stop is the railway station at Montabaur on the Cologne-Frankfurt high-speed rail line. Fire brigade "Stöffelhalle" village association house "Am Stöffel" Guesthouse – self-catering Blockhütte Jugendraum Football area Two playgrounds Entrance to Stöffel-Park Enspel