An airliner is a type of aircraft for transporting passengers and air cargo. Such aircraft are most operated by airlines. Although the definition of an airliner can vary from country to country, an airliner is defined as an aeroplane intended for carrying multiple passengers or cargo in commercial service; the largest of them are wide-body jets which are called twin-aisle because they have two separate aisles running from the front to the back of the passenger cabin. These are used for long-haul flights between airline hubs and major cities. A smaller, more common class of airliners is the single-aisle; these are used for short to medium-distance flights with fewer passengers than their wide-body counterparts. Regional airliners seat fewer than 100 passengers and may be powered by turbofans or turboprops; these airliners are the non-mainline counterparts to the larger aircraft operated by the major carriers, legacy carriers, flag carriers, are used to feed traffic into the large airline hubs. These regional routes form the spokes of a hub-and-spoke air transport model.
The lightest of short-haul regional feeder airliner type aircraft that carry a small number of passengers are called commuter aircraft, commuterliners and air taxis, depending on their size, how they are marketed, region of the world, seating configurations. The Beechcraft 1900, for example, has only 19 seats; when the Wright brothers made the world's first sustained heavier-than-air flight, they laid the foundation for what would become a major transport industry. Their flight in 1903 was just 11 years before what is defined as the world's first airliner; these airliners have had a significant impact on global society and politics. In 1913, Igor Sikorsky developed the first large multi-engine airplane, the Russky Vityaz, refined into the more practical Ilya Muromets with dual controls for a pilot plus copilot and a comfortable cabin with a lavatory, cabin heating and lighting; the large four-engine biplane was derived in a bomber aircraft, preceding subsequent transport and bomber aircraft.
Due to the onset of World War I, it was never used as a commercial airliner. It first flew on December 10, 1913 and took off for its first demonstration flight with 16 passengers aboard on February 25, 1914. In 1915, the first airliner was used by Elliot Air Service; the aircraft was a Curtiss JN-4, a small biplane, used in World War I as a trainer. It was used as a tour and familiarization flight aircraft in the early 1920s. In 1919, after World War I, the Farman F.60 Goliath designed as a long-range heavy bomber, was converted for commercial use into a passenger airliner. It could seat 14 passengers from 1919, around 60 were built. Several publicity flights were made, including one on 8 February 1919, when the Goliath flew 12 passengers from Toussus-le-Noble to RAF Kenley, near Croydon, despite having no permission from the British authorities to land. Another important airliner built in 1919 was the Airco DH.16. In March 1919, the prototype first flew at Hendon Aerodrome. Nine aircraft were built, all but one being delivered to the nascent airline, Aircraft Transport and Travel, which used the first aircraft for pleasure flying, on 25 August 1919, it inaugurated the first scheduled international airline service from London to Paris.
One aircraft was sold to the River Plate Aviation Company in Argentina, to operate a cross-river service between Buenos Aires and Montevideo. Meanwhile, the competing Vickers converted its successful WWI bomber, the Vickers Vimy, into a civilian version, the Vimy Commercial, it was redesigned with a larger-diameter fuselage, first flew from the Joyce Green airfield in Kent on 13 April 1919. The world's first all-metal transport aircraft was the Junkers F.13 from 1919, with 322 built. The Dutch Fokker company produced the Fokker F. II and the F. III; these aircraft were used by the Dutch airline KLM when it reopened an Amsterdam-London service in 1921. The Fokkers were soon flying to destinations across Europe, including Bremen, Brussels and Paris, they proved to be reliable aircraft. The Handley Page company in Britain produced the Handley Page Type W as the company's first civil transport aircraft, it housed two crew in 15 passengers in an enclosed cabin. Powered by two 450 hp Napier Lion engines, the prototype first flew on 4 December 1919, shortly after it was displayed at the 1919 Paris Air Show at Le Bourget.
It was the world's first airliner to be designed with an on-board lavatory. Meanwhile, in France, the Bleriot-SPAD S.33 was a great success throughout the 1920s serving the Paris-London route, on continental routes. The enclosed cabin could carry four passengers with an extra seat in the cockpit. By 1921, aircraft capacity needed to be larger for the economics to remain favourable; the English company de Havilland, therefore built the 10-passenger DH.29 monoplane, while starting work on the design of the DH.32, an eight-seater biplane with a less powerful but more economical Rolls-Royce Eagle engine. Owing to the urgent need for more capacity, work on the DH.32 was stopped and the DH.34 biplane was designed, accommodating 10 passengers. The Fokker trimotor was an important and popular transport, manufactured under license in Europe and America. Throughout the 1920s, companies in Britain and France were at the forefront of the civil airliner industry considerably aided by govern
Professor Vito Volterra was an Italian mathematician and physicist, known for his contributions to mathematical biology and integral equations, being one of the founders of functional analysis. Born in Ancona part of the Papal States, into a poor Jewish family: his father was Abramo Volterra and mother, Angelica Almagia. Volterra showed early promise in mathematics before attending the University of Pisa, where he fell under the influence of Enrico Betti, where he became professor of rational mechanics in 1883, he started work developing his theory of functionals which led to his interest and contributions in integral and integro-differential equations. His work is summarised in his book Theory of functionals and of Integral and Integro-Differential Equations. In 1892, he became professor of mechanics at the University of Turin and in 1900, professor of mathematical physics at the University of Rome La Sapienza. Volterra had grown up during the final stages of the Risorgimento when the Papal States were annexed by Italy and, like his mentor Betti, he was an enthusiastic patriot, being named by the king Victor Emmanuel III as a senator of the Kingdom of Italy in 1905.
In the same year, he began to develop the theory of dislocations in crystals, to become important in the understanding of the behaviour of ductile materials. On the outbreak of World War I well into his 50s, he joined the Italian Army and worked on the development of airships under Giulio Douhet, he originated the idea of using inert helium rather than flammable hydrogen and made use of his leadership abilities in organising its manufacture. After World War I, Volterra turned his attention to the application of his mathematical ideas to biology, principally reiterating and developing the work of Pierre François Verhulst. An outcome of this period is the Lotka–Volterra equations. Volterra is the only person, a plenary speaker in the International Congress of Mathematicians four times. In 1922, he joined the opposition to the Fascist regime of Benito Mussolini and in 1931 he was one of only 12 out of 1,250 professors who refused to take a mandatory oath of loyalty, his political philosophy can be seen from a postcard he sent in the 1930s, on which he wrote what can be seen as an epitaph for Mussolini's Italy: Empires die, but Euclid’s theorems keep their youth forever.
However, Volterra was no radical firebrand. As a result of his refusal to sign the oath of allegiance to the fascist government he was compelled to resign his university post and his membership of scientific academies, during the following years, he lived abroad, returning to Rome just before his death. In 1936, he had been appointed a member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, on the initiative of founder Agostino Gemelli, he died in Rome on 11 October 1940. He is buried in the Ariccia Cemetery; the Academy organised his funeral. In 1900 he married a cousin, their son Edoardo Volterra was a famous historian of Roman law. 1910. Leçons sur les fonctions de lignes. Paris: Gauthier-Villars. 1912. The theory of permutable functions. Princeton University Press. 1913. Leçons sur les équations intégrales et les équations intégro-différentielles. Paris: Gauthier-Villars. 1926, "Variazioni e fluttuazioni del numero d'individui in specie animali conviventi," Mem. R. Accad. Naz. dei Lincei 2: 31–113. 1926, "Fluctuations in the abundance of a species considered mathematically," Nature 118: 558–60.
1960. Sur les Distorsions des corps élastiques. Paris: Gauthier-Villars. 1930. Theory of functionals and of integral and integro-differential equations. Blackie & Son. 1931. Leçons sur. Paris: Gauthier-Villars. Reissued 1990, Gabay, J. ed. 1954-1962. Opere matematiche. Memorie e note. Vol. 1, 1954. Volterra Volterra's function Lotka–Volterra equation Smith–Volterra–Cantor set Volterra integral equation Volterra series Product integral Volterra operator Volterra space Volterra Semiconductor Poincaré lemma Castelnuovo, G. "Vito Volterra", Rendiconti della Accademia Nazionale delle Scienze detta dei XL, Memorie di Matematica e Applicazioni, Serie 3, XXV: 87–95, MR 0021530, Zbl 0061.00605, archived from the original on 5 March 2016, retrieved 23 June 2014. Fichera, Gaetano, "La figura di Vito Volterra a cinquanta anni dalla morte", in Amaldi, E.. "Vito Volterra fifty years after his death" is detailed biographical survey paper on Vito Volterra, dealing with scientific and moral aspects of his personality.
Gemelli, Agostino, "La relazione del presidente", Acta Pontificia Academia Scientarum, 6: XI–XXIV. The commemorative address pronounced by Agostino Gemelli on the occasion of the first seance of the fourth academic year of Pontificial Academy of Sciences: it includes his commemoration of various deceased members. Goodstein, Judith R; the Volterra Chronicles: The Life and Times of an Extraordinary Mathematician 1860–1940, History of Mathematics, 31, Providence, RI-London: American Mathematical Society/London Mat
A re-edited film is a motion picture, modified from the manner in which it was showcased in its original theatrical release. These films are preceded by the disclaimer, "This film has been modified from its original version, it has been edited for content," or some minor variant thereof. Reasons for this type of editing may range from the distributor's demands to accommodating different audience groups. Fan-made movie edits are met with controversy, as they bring up issues of copyright law. There are three main types of film editing: format and content. Format – Feature films are produced in a widescreen 1.85:1 aspect ratio or 2.40:1 aspect ratio. Which is different from the screen formats utilized for television transmissions—a standard 1.33:1 aspect ratio for analog or standard-definition television broadcasts and the growing standard of 1.77:1 aspect ratio for digital television broadcasts. Prior to the beginning of a film presented in the 4:3 aspect ratio on VHS tapes or DVDs, a disclaimer appears, This film has been modified from its original version.
It has been formatted to fit this screen. Since the adoption of the high-definition television resolution standard, some theatrical films intended for 2.39 or 2.40 aspect ratios have been reframed for 1.78 for television and home video, require the modification warning as per Directors Guild of America rules. Length – Films may be shortened for television broadcasts or for use on airlines. DVD releases of films may contain longer cuts. In recent years, a growing number of feature films are being released in an Unrated cut, incorporating scenes that may have been excluded from the film's original theatrical prints. If a film has scenes edited to fit its designated timeslot, prior to the beginning of a re-edited film's television airing, an additional notice indicating that the film has been edited "to run in the time allotted" will be included in the format disclaimer screen. An common practice for length-edited films shown on advertiser-supported television networks is for the film's end credits to sometimes be sped up to accommodate succeeding programs, or to free up more airtime for advertisements.
Content – Some films have content deemed "objectionable" to "family audiences", namely sexual content, obscene language, graphic violence, illicit drug use and perceived racial insensitivity. To make these films suitable for younger or more typical audiences, or to appeal to advertisers when a film is shown on ad-supported broadcast television or basic cable services, alternative versions are created with such content removed or replaced. Profanities are substitued with minced oaths through automated dialogue replacement or are muted entirely; the editing of these versions is performed by a censor and not the director of the work. In addition, a film is edited if it received a NC-17 rating from the Motion Picture Association, as NC-17 rated films are not screened at mainstream cinemas or advertised on television. Therefore, studios will re-edit the film to achieve an R rating instead. There are two main techniques for re-editing films: Purchased film content is downloaded onto an editing work station's hard drive and are manually re-edited by third-party editors to remove objectionable content from the video and audio tracks.
The re-edited version is copied onto media and made available for rental or purchase, provided an original version has been purchased in correlation with the re-edited copy. Some manual re-edits are done by fans to cut a film to their own – or their peers – specifications. Although a 2006 lower court ruling prohibits businesses from manually re-editing commercial films, the law still allows for individuals to self-censor and edit their own films for personal use. Programmed re-editing occurs when software is used to skip portions of the video and/or audio content on-the-fly, according to pre-programmed instruction sets that are knowingly used by the consumer. In any case, theatrical films that aired on television in the 1970s and for most of the 1980s would have an "Edited For Television" disclaimer superimposed right after the opening credits, or, in a few cases, superimposed over the movie title card itself, just below the title. However, when a theatrical film or television special is aired on network or syndicated television or is re-issued on video in a form different from its original version, variations of the following disclaimers appear: "This film has been modified from its original version.
It has been formatted to fit this screen." "The following film has been modified from its original version. It has been formatted to fit this screen." "This film has been modified as follows from its original version: It has been formatted to fit your screen." Depending on whether a television print of a film contains edits for content and time, the disclaimer will include additional text: "...to run in the time allotted and for content." Or "...and to run in the time allotted." Or "...and edited for content." Disney films prepared for television by Disney-ABC Domestic Television and other select television stations will have the following variants: "This film has been edited for television", or "This film has been modified from its original version. It has been edited for television and f
A dolmen is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb consisting of two or more vertical megaliths supporting a large flat horizontal capstone or "table". Most date from the early Neolithic and were sometimes covered with earth or smaller stones to form a tumulus. Small pad-stones may be wedged between supporting stones to achieve a level appearance. In many instances, the covering has weathered away, leaving only the stone "skeleton" of the mound intact, it remains unclear. The oldest known are found in Western Europe. Archaeologists still do not know who erected these dolmens, which makes it difficult to know why they did it, they are all regarded as tombs or burial chambers, despite the absence of clear evidence for this. Human remains, sometimes accompanied by artefacts, have been found in or close to the dolmens which could be scientifically dated using radiocarbon dating. However, it has been impossible to prove that these remains date from the time when the stones were set in place; the word dolmen has an unclear history.
The word entered archaeology when Théophile Corret de la Tour d'Auvergne used it to describe megalithic tombs in his Origines gauloises using the spelling dolmin. The Oxford English Dictionary does not mention "dolmin" in English and gives its first citation for "dolmen" from a book on Brittany in 1859, describing the word as "The French term, used by some English authors, for a cromlech...". The name was derived from a Breton language term meaning "stone table" but doubt has been cast on this, the OED describes its origin as "Modern French". A book on Cornish antiquities from 1754 said that the current term in the Cornish language for a cromlech was tolmen and the OED says that "There is reason to think that this was the term inexactly reproduced by Latour d'Auvergne as dolmen, misapplied by him and succeeding French archaeologists to the cromlech". Nonetheless it has now replaced cromlech as the usual English term in archaeology, when the more technical and descriptive alternatives are not used.
The Cornish term was quoit - an English language word for an object with a hole through the middle preserving the original Cornish language term of'Tolmen' - the name of another dolmen-like monument is in fact Mên-an-Tol'stone with hole' (SWF: Men An Toll. Dolmens are known by a variety of names in other languages, including Irish: dolmain and Portuguese: anta, Bulgarian: Долмени Dolmeni, German: Hünengrab/Hünenbett and Dutch: hunebed, Basque: trikuharri, Abkhazian: Adamra, Adyghe Ispun, dysse, dös, Korean: 고인돌 goindol, "dol", Hebrew: גַלעֵד. Granja is used in Portugal and Spain; the rarer forms anta and ganda appear. In the Basque Country, they are attributed to a race of giants; the etymology of the German: Hünenbett, Hünengrab and Dutch: hunebed - with Hüne/hune meaning "giant" - all evoke the image of giants buried there. Of other Celtic languages, Welsh: cromlech was borrowed into English and quoit is used in English in Cornwall. Great dolmen Passage grave Polygonal dolmen Rectangular, enlarged or extended dolmen Simple dolmen Holcombe, Charles.
A History of East Asia: From the Origins of Civilization to the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-51595-5. Piccolo, Salvatore. Ancient Stones: The Prehistoric Dolmens of Sicily. Thornham/Norfolk: Brazen Head Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9565106-2-4. Murphy, Cornelius; the Prehistoric Archaeology of the Beara Peninsula, Co. Cork. Department of Archaeology, University College Cork, 1997 Trifonov, V. 2006. Russia's megaliths: unearthing the lost prehistoric tombs of Caucasian warlords in the Zhane valley. St. Petersburg: The Institute for Study of Material Culture History, Russian Academy of Sciences. Available from Kudin, M. 2001. Dolmeni i ritual. Dolmen Path – Russian Megaliths. Available from Knight, Peter. Ancient Stones of Dorset, 1996. World heritage site of dolmen in Korea Piccolo, Salvatore. "Dolmen." Ancient History Encyclopedia. The Megalith Map The Megalithic Portal and Megalith Map Dolmen Museum in Italian and English Goindol: Dolmen of Korea Research Centre of Dolmens in Northeast Asia Poulnabrone Dolmen in the Burren, County Clare, Ireland "Dolmen sites in Korea". on UNESCO's World Heritage List.
Christopher John Lewis was a New Zealander who made a 1981 unsuccessful attempt to assassinate Elizabeth II, the Queen of New Zealand and other Commonwealth realms including the United Kingdom. He planned attempts at assassinating other British royal family members and was kept at arm's length from them by the authorities in New Zealand. Lewis was born in Dunedin on 7 September 1964, he had a troubled life. He was unable to write or read until the age of eight; as a boy, he idolised Charles Manson. In his teens, he formed a would-be guerrilla army with two friends; the group stole weapons, sent a threatening letter to the police, robbed a post office of $5,244. On 14 October 1981, 17-year-old Lewis had been tracking the New Zealand tour of the royal family, who were to visit Otago Museum in Dunedin. Lewis concealed a.22 caliber rifle wrapped up in an old pair of jeans, traveled by bicycle to the Adams Building, where he took up a position in a toilet cubicle. He fired through the window at the Queen.
The shot did not impact near the Queen or anyone else. While Lewis did not have a proper vantage point nor sufficiently powerful rifle for his purposes, a 1997 report by the New Zealand Security Intelligence Service notes that his intent was to kill the queen. Eight days after firing the shot, Lewis was arrested and charged with public possession of a firearm, public discharging of a firearm; as the charges were read to him, Lewis responded "Only two charges, what? Shit... Had the bullet hit her, would it be treason?" Lewis served three years with the last part in a psychiatric prison. The New Zealand Police covered up the story, charging him with possession of a firearm, but purposely keeping the event under wraps, concerned that it would create a negative image of New Zealand, endanger future royal visits. According to police files, Lewis was being asked about an unrelated robbery, when he took police to the position where he had fired at the Queen and showed police the empty casings and the rifle.
The facts of the attempt were classified, until released in February 2018 in response to a request from Fairfax Media. In 1983, when Charles, Prince of Wales, toured New Zealand with his wife Diana and their son William, Lewis unsuccessfully attempted to escape from a psychiatric ward. Lewis was released, when a third royal visit occurred the government sent him to Great Barrier Island to keep him away from the royal family, he was charged with the murder of a young mother, Tania Furlan, the kidnapping of her child. He killed himself in Mount Eden Prison, Auckland, in 1997 while awaiting his trial
Fabijan Knežević is a Canadian-Croatian footballer who played in the Croatian First Football League, Croatian Third Football League, the Canadian Soccer League. Knežević began his career with NK Kamen Ingrad, where he played in his first two professionals games in the Prva HNL, signed than a contract with HNK Šibenik in summer 2007. After one year with the reserve of HNK Šibenik was loaned out to NK Zagora Unešić for one season in August 2008, he was subsequently loaned to HNK Primorac in the Croatian Third Football League. In 2011, he returned to his hometown to sign with London City in the Canadian Soccer League