SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Ajmer

Ajmer pronounced is one of the major and oldest cities in the Indian state of Rajasthan and the centre of the eponymous Ajmer District. It is located at the centre of Rajasthan, is home to the Ajmer Sharif shrine; the city was established as "Ajayameru" by a Shakambhari Chahamana ruler, either Ajayaraja I or Ajayaraja II, served as the Chahamana capital until the 12th century CE. Ajmer is surrounded by the Aravalli Mountains. Ajmer had been a municipality since 1869. Ajmer has been selected as one of the heritage cities for the HRIDAY - Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana and Smart City Mission schemes of Government of India. Ajmer was known as Ajayameru; the 12th century text Prithviraja Vijaya states that the Shakambhari Chahamana king Ajayaraja II established the city of Ajayameru. Historian Dasharatha Sharma notes that the earliest mention of the city's name occurs in Palha's Pattavali, copied in 1113 CE at Dhara; this suggests that Ajmer was founded sometime before 1113 CE. A prashasti, issued by Vigraharaja IV and found at Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra, states Ajayadeva moved his residence to Ajmer.

The text Prabandha-Kosha states that it was the 8th-century king Ajayaraja I who commissioned the Ajayameru fort, which came to be known as the Taragarh fort of Ajmer. According to historian R. B. Singh, this claim appears to be true, as inscriptions dated to the 8th century CE have been found at Ajmer. Singh theorizes that Ajayaraja II expanded the town area, constructed palaces, moved the Chahamana capital from Shakambhari to Ajmer. Mughal prince Dara Shikoh was born here in 1615. Jahanara Begum powerful Mughal princess born here. During Colonial times Ajmer city served as the headquarters of Ajmer - Merwara Province and possessed a Central jail, a large General Hospital, two smaller hospitals according to Gazetteer, 1908, it was the headquarters of a native regiment and of a Railway Volunteer corps. From the 1900s, United Free Church of Scotland, the church of England, the Roman Catholics, the American Episcopal Methodists have mission establishments here. At that time there were twelve printing presses in the city, from which eight weekly newspapers were published.

At the time of Independence Ajmer Continued as a separate state with its own legislature until its merger with erstwhile Rajputana province called Rajasthan. The Legislature of Ajmer State was housed in the building, it had 30 MLAs. and Haribhau Upadhaya was the first Chief Minister of the erstwhile state and Bhagirath Chaudhary as the first Vidhan Sabha Speaker. In 1956, after acceptance of the proposal by Fazil Ali, Ajmer was merged into Rajasthan to form Ajmer District with the addition of Kishangarh sub-division of Jaipur district. Gujarati Historic Novel named Gujaratno Jay written by Zaverchand Meghani based on various Jain Prabandhas describes city as Sapadlakshan. Ajmer is surrounded by the Aravali Mountains, it is situated on the lower slopes of the Taragarh Hill of that range. To the northwest is the Nagapathar Range of the Aravali Mountain Ranges which protects it from desertification from the Thar Desert. Ajmer has a hot, semi-arid climate with over 55 centimetres of rain every year, but most of the rain occurs in the monsoon months, between June and September.

Temperatures remain high throughout the year, with the summer months of April to early July having an average daily temperature of about 30 °C. During the monsoon there is frequent heavy rain and thunderstorms, but flooding is not a common occurrence; the winter months of November to February are mild and temperate with average temperatures ranging from 15–18 °C with little or no humidity. There are, occasional cold weather fronts that cause temperatures to fall to near freezing levels; the Kishangarh Airport is the nearest Airport. It was inaugurated by Former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in September 2013; the airport was inaugurated by Union Minister of State for Civil Aviation Jayant Sinha and Chief Minister Vasundhara Raje on 11 October 2017. The Kishangarh Airport is the nearest Airport, it was inaugurated by Former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in September 2013. The airport was inaugurated by Union Minister of State for Civil Aviation Jayant Sinha and Chief Minister Vasundhara Raje on 11 October 2017.

The Ajmer Junction is the main railway station situated in the city. And was built during colonial times. Pushkar: Located few kilometres from Ajmer, is an important tourist and pilgrimage destination and a satellite town of Ajmer city, it is famous for Pushkar Lake and the 14th century Brahma Temple at Pushkar, dedicated to Brahmā, according to the Padma Purāņa, Pushkar is important pilgrimage site for Lord Brahmā. Manibandh or Chamunda Mata Mandir: is one among the 108 Shakti Peeth at Gayatri hills near Pushkar, 11 km from Ajmer. People know this temple as Chamunda Mata Temple, it takes 14 minutes to travel from Pushkar Lake to Chamunda Mata Mandir Taragarh Fort: It is reputed to be the oldest hill fort in India. It stands, with precipitous surroundings, at a height of 2,855 ft. above sea-level, between 1,300 and 1,400 ft. above the valley at its base. This hill fort guarding Ajmer, was the seat of the Chauhan rulers, it was built by King Ajaypal Chauhan on the summit of overlooks Ajmer. The battlements run along the top of the hill.

When it fell to the British Raj, the fort was

German submarine U-387

German submarine U-387 was a Type VIIC U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II. She carried out ten patrols, she sank no ships. She was a member of eleven wolfpacks, she was sunk by HMS Bamborough Castle in the Barents Sea in December 1944. German Type VIIC submarines were preceded by the shorter Type VIIB submarines. U-387 had a displacement of 769 tonnes when at the 871 tonnes while submerged, she had a total length of 67.10 m, a pressure hull length of 50.50 m, a beam of 6.20 m, a height of 9.60 m, a draught of 4.74 m. The submarine was powered by two Germaniawerft F46 four-stroke, six-cylinder supercharged diesel engines producing a total of 2,800 to 3,200 metric horsepower for use while surfaced, two Garbe, Lahmeyer & Co. RP 137/c double-acting electric motors producing a total of 750 metric horsepower for use while submerged, she had two 1.23 m propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres; the submarine had a maximum submerged speed of 7.6 knots.

When submerged, the boat could operate for 80 nautical miles at 4 knots. U-387 was fitted with five 53.3 cm torpedo tubes, fourteen torpedoes, one 8.8 cm SK C/35 naval gun, 220 rounds, two twin 2 cm C/30 anti-aircraft guns. The boat had a complement of between sixty; the submarine was laid down on 5 September 1941 at the Howaldtswerke yard at Kiel as yard number 18, launched on 1 October 1942 and commissioned on 24 November under the command of Kapitänleutnant Rudolf Büchler. She served with the 5th U-boat Flotilla from 24 November 1942 and the 7th flotilla from 1 July 1943, she was reassigned to the 13th flotilla from 1 November until her loss. U-387's first patrol was preceded by short trips from Kiel to Marviken to Bergen in June 1943; the boat's patrol proper commenced with her departure from Bergen on 3 July. She followed the Norwegian coast as far as Bodø and headed due north as far as a point a few miles short of Svalbard, she sailed south, passing to the west of Bear Island, docking in Narvik on 21 August.

At 50 days, it was her longest patrol. The boat's second and third sorties were both divided into two parts, her crew got to know the northern Norwegian and Barents Seas well. The monotony of her fourth and sixth forays was not relieved by success. By now based in Narvik, the submarine was carrying out her seventh patrol when she was attacked by a Norwegian-crewed Sunderland flying boat of No. 330 Squadron RAF. Enough damage was inflicted to oblige the U-boat to put into Trondheim for repairs. U-387's eighth patrol was uneventful as was her ninth, which took her to the waters around the North Cape; the boat left Narvik for the last time on 24 November 1944. On 9 December, she was sunk in the Barents Sea near Murmansk by depth charges dropped by the British corvette HMS Bamborough Castle. Fifty-one men died in the U-boat. U-387 took part in eleven wolfpacks, namely. Monsun Eisenbart Eisenbart Donner & Keil Trutz Grimm Feuer Zorn Grimm Panther Stier Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type VIIC boat U-387". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net.

Retrieved 26 December 2014

Abdul Taib Mahmud

Tun Pehin Sri Haji Abdul Taib bin Mahmud is the Yang di-Pertua Negeri of Sarawak, in office since 2014. He was Chief Minister of Sarawak from 1981 to 2014. Taib was the President of Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu, part of the Barisan Nasional coalition until 2018, he is of ethnic Melanau descent. Taib is informally known as Pak Uban, which translates into "white-haired uncle". Among Chinese speaking communities he is known as Pek Moh which means "white hair". Another informal name for him, in reference to the British Brooke family that ruled Sarawak as White Rajahs in the 19th and early 20th century, is the "last white rajah" or "white-haired rajah". Holding the post of Chief Minister of Sarawak from 1981 to 2014, he was the longest serving Chief Minister in Malaysia, he assumed the Chief Minister post at the age of 45. Being a member of the Malaysian Parliament for 38 years, Taib is the second longest-serving parliamentarian in Malaysia after Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah. Taib and his wider family are accused of corruption and benefiting from Sarawak's natural and economic resources.

On 12 February 2014, Taib handed over his resignation letter to the Governor of Sarawak to vacate his chief minister post ending his 33 years of chief ministership. His former brother-in-law, Adenan Satem, succeeded him as Chief Minister with effect from 1 March 2014. At the same time, he received the official credentials as the 7th Sarawak Head of State from the Yang di-Pertuan Agong at Istana Negara on 28 February, took the oath of office on the following day, he became the second Sarawakian to be appointed as the Governor after formally relinquishing the post of Chief Minister. Taib wed 18-year-old Laila Taib, a Polish Muslim of Lipka Tatar origin, at South Australia's Adelaide mosque on 13 January 1959. Taib's son Sulaiman Abdul Rahman is married to Anisa, the daughter of Deputy Chief Minister of Sarawak Datuk Patinggi Tan Sri Dr George Chan Hong Nam, his daughter, Jamilah Taib Murray and husband Sean Murray are involved in property development in Ottawa, Canada. Taib's mother Hajah Hamidah Yakub died in Normah Specialist Medical Centre, Kuching due to old age at 90 years old when Taib Mahmud was hospitalised in Singapore and underwent surgery to remove a suspected cancerous lump in his colon on 11 January 2006.

On 29 April 2009, Taib's wife Laila died of cancer. She was buried at the Demak Jaya cemetery in Kuching the following day. On 3 June 2009, Taib's four-year-old granddaughter Celestia Lulua Mahmud Abu Bekir died two days after slipping into the swimming pool at her home at Duta Nusantara Condominium in Kuala Lumpur. Celestia was admitted to the intensive care unit of the Kuala Lumpur Hospital after the accident, she was buried at the Bukit Kiara Muslim Cemetery. On 18 December 2010, he married for the second time to a Syrian woman in her early 30s. On 8 January 2011, he was seen together with his new wife, Toh Puan Datuk Patinggi Puan Sri Ragad Waleed Alkurdi attending a wedding reception of a former MP in Kuala Lumpur. Both held a wedding reception sometime in the middle of January, the reception were held at the New Sarawak State Legislative Building Complex. Taib Mahmud was born on 21 May 1936 at Kampung Sungei Merbau, Sarawak, he is the eldest child of Hajjah Hamidah binti Yakub. Taib has nine siblings namely Ibrahim, Mohammad Ali, Mohammad Arip, Mohammad Tufail, Aisah Zainab, Faridah Hanon and Zaleha.

Taib's father was a descendant of Pehin Datu Yahya Setia Raja, where the latter was an aristocrat, linked to the Royal Court of Brunei. However, Taib had an impoverished life because his father worked as a carpenter for Shell Oil Company. Taib's uncle, Abdul Rahman Ya ` kub raised Taib. Taib was five years old when the Japanese army landed in Miri in 1941. Taib's father, considering his family's safety from Japanese occupation, decided to move his family to his ancestral village in Mukah. After the war ended, the family returned to Miri. Taib undertook his early schooling at Andi Malay School and St Joseph's Primary School in Miri. Taib won a Shell scholarship to study at St. Joseph's Secondary School in Kuching with the help of his uncle, Abdul Rahman, a Probationary Native Officer in Miri. There, Taib met George Chan Hong Nam who would become the deputy chief minister of Sarawak and Bujang bin Mohammed Nor who would become Sarawak state secretary under the Taib's chieftainship. After school, Taib Mahmud planned to become a doctor but he was persuaded by Abdul Rahman to take up law.

According to Taib: I was obliged to study law because of family expectations. I preferred medicine. I was maneuvered toward law by my uncle; when I entered politics in 1963, I told myself that I would give Parti Bumiputera five years of my life. In 1958, his excellent performance in the Higher School Certificate examination earned him a Colombo Plan scholarship, allowing Taib to further his studies at the University of Adelaide in South Australia, he graduated with Bachelor of Laws from the university in 1960. After graduation, he was appointed as an associate to Justice Sir Herbert Mayo of the Supreme Court of South Australia. After the demise of his father, Taib took up the responsibility to look after his siblings and to discipline his siblings in studies and in looking after the household. Taib Mahmud pursued his postgraduate studies at Harvard International Summer Course in 1964. In Taib's early days of studying in Austr