Ajmer

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Ajmer
Metropolis
Mayo College
Mayo College
Ajmer is located in India
Ajmer
Ajmer
Ajmer is located in Rajasthan
Ajmer
Ajmer
Coordinates: 26°27′00″N 74°38′24″E / 26.4499°N 74.6399°E / 26.4499; 74.6399Coordinates: 26°27′00″N 74°38′24″E / 26.4499°N 74.6399°E / 26.4499; 74.6399
Country India
State Rajasthan
District Ajmer
Founded by Ajayaraja I or Ajayaraja II
Named for Ajayaraja I or Ajayaraja II
Government
 • Body Ajmer Development Authority (ADA), Ajmer Municipal corporation (AMC)
Elevation1574.8 480 m (1,570 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Metropolis 542,321
 • Urban 551,101
Languages
 • Official Hindi
 • Regional Marwari, English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 305001 to 305023
Telephone code 0145, +91145
Vehicle registration

RJ-01(Ajmer) RJ-36 (Beawar) RJ-42 (Kishangarh)

RJ-48 (Kekri)
Nearest city Jaipur, Udaipur, Jodhpur
Website www.ajmer.rajasthan.gov.in

Ajmer (pronounced [ədʒmeːr] (About this sound listen)) is one of the major cities in the Indian state of Rajasthan and is the centre of the eponymous Ajmer District. According to the 2011 census, Ajmer had a population of 542,321 in the city, 551,101 including its suburbs.[1] The city is located at a distance of 135 km from the state capital Jaipur and 205 Km from Jodhpur ( high Court) and 391 km from the national capital New Delhi.

The city was established as "Ajayameru" by a Shakambhari Chahamana (Chauhan) ruler, either Ajayaraja I or Ajayaraja II, and served as the Chahamana capital until the 12th century CE.

Ajmer is surrounded by the Aravalli Mountains. It is a pilgrimage centre for the shrine of the Sufi Saint Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti and is also the base for visiting Pushkar (11 km), an ancient Hindu pilgrimage city, famous for the temple of Lord Brahma. Ajmer has been selected as one of the heritage cities for the HRIDAY - Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana scheme of Government of India.[2]

History[edit]

Jahangir receives Prince Khurram at Ajmer on his return from the Mewar campaign

Ajmer was originally known as Ajayameru.[3] The 12th century text Prithviraja Vijaya states that the Shakambhari Chahamana (Chauhan) king Ajayaraja II (ruled c. 1110 – 1135 CE) established the city of Ajayameru.[4] Historian Dasharatha Sharma notes that the earliest mention of the city's name occurs in Palha's Pattavali, which was copied in 1113 CE (1170 VS) at Dhara. This suggests that Ajmer was founded sometime before 1113 CE.[5] A prashasti (eulogistic inscription), issued by Vigraharaja IV and found at Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra, states Ajayadeva (that is, Ajayaraja II) moved his residence to Ajmer.[6]

The later text Prabandha-Kosha states that it was the 8th century king Ajayaraja I who commissioned the Ajayameru fort, which later came to be known as the Taragarh fort of Ajmer.[4] According to historian R. B. Singh, this claim appears to be true, as inscriptions dated to the 8th century CE have been found at Ajmer.[7] Singh theorizes that Ajayaraja II later enlarged the town, constructed palaces, and moved the Chahamana capital from Shakambhari to Ajmer.[8]

Geography[edit]

Ajmer is in the northwest section of India and is surrounded by the Aravalli Mountains. It is situated on the lower slopes of the Taragarh Hill of that range. The massive rocks of Nagpaharh range protects Ajmer from the Thar Desert to the west.

Ajmer is antipodal to the Chilean island Isla Salas y Gómez.

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Ajmer
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 22.9
(73.2)
25.7
(78.3)
31.3
(88.3)
36.5
(97.7)
39.7
(103.5)
38.4
(101.1)
33.6
(92.5)
31.3
(88.3)
32.6
(90.7)
33.5
(92.3)
29.2
(84.6)
24.7
(76.5)
31.62
(88.92)
Average low °C (°F) 7.6
(45.7)
10.5
(50.9)
16.0
(60.8)
22.2
(72)
26.8
(80.2)
27.5
(81.5)
25.6
(78.1)
24.4
(75.9)
23.7
(74.7)
18.0
(64.4)
12.3
(54.1)
8.4
(47.1)
18.58
(65.45)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 7.3
(0.287)
6.0
(0.236)
5.0
(0.197)
4.0
(0.157)
15.7
(0.618)
58.1
(2.287)
181.5
(7.146)
157.5
(6.201)
73.0
(2.874)
13.1
(0.516)
4.0
(0.157)
3.8
(0.15)
529
(20.826)
Source: IMD[9]

Ajmer has a hot, semi-arid climate with over 55 centimetres (22 inches) of rain every year, but most of the rain occurs in the monsoon months, between June and September. Temperatures remain relatively high throughout the year, with the summer months of April to early July having an average daily temperature of about 30 °C (86 °F). During the monsoon there is frequent heavy rain and thunderstorms, but flooding is not a common occurrence. The winter months of November to February are mild and temperate with average temperatures ranging from 15–18 °C (59–64 °F) with little or no humidity. There are, however, occasional cold weather fronts that cause temperatures to fall to near freezing levels.

Transportation[edit]

A long shot of Pushkar ghati

Ajmer is well connected to the major cities of India by land and rail.

Air[edit]

Work on the Kishangarh Airport near Ajmer was inaugurated by Former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in September 2013 and it is expected to commence operations in 2017.[10] As of 2017, domestic flights to Delhi and Jaipur are available. In the next two to three years[when?] it will become an international airport.[citation needed]

Rail[edit]

Ajmer is well connected to major cities by rail. The Ajmer Junction (अजमेर जंक्शन) at Topadara, Jaipur Road serves Ajmer to all cities of India by rail. It occurs at broad gauge, Northwestern line.

Tourist sites[edit]

Ajmer Sharif Dargah
Nareli Jain temple
Tomb of Khwaja Husain Ajmeri behind Shahjahani Masjid Dargah Khwaja Sahab Ajmer
  • The Ajmer Sharif Dargah: It is a shrine of Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti which is situated at the foot of the Taragarh hill, and consists of several white marble buildings arranged around two courtyards, including a massive gate donated by the Nizam of Hyderabad, and the Akbari Mosque, built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan and containing the domed tomb of the saint. Akbar and his queen used to come here by foot every year on pilgrimage from Agra in observance of a vow when he prayed for a son. The large pillars called "Kose ('Mile') Minars", erected at intervals of about two miles (3 km) along the entire way between Agra and Ajmer mark the places where the royal pilgrims halted every day.[11] About 125,000 pilgrims visit the site every day. The urs for Moinuddin Chishti is celebrated every year on the 6th and 7th of Rajab.
  • Nareli Jain Temple: It is a beautiful Jain temple. It is located on the outskirts of Ajmer and lies on the national highway NH8. This temple is popular amongst tourists for its beautiful architecture and intricate stone carvings which give it both a traditional and contemporary look.[13]
  • Dargah of Syed Meeran Hussain Khing Sawar: At the highest point of Taragarh fort stands the Dargah of Hazrat Syed Meeran Hussian Khing Sawar who was the governor of Ajmer after its conquest by Sultan Muhammad Ghori (Persian: معز الدین محمد غوری), born Shihab ad-Din. During the reign of Qutubuddin Ebak, Syed Meeran Hussain was the resident Garrison of Taragarh Fort. While playing polo in Lahore, Qutubuddin Ebak fell from the back of a horse and died, in 1210CE.
  • Taragarh Fort: The fort guarding Ajmer, was the seat of the Chauhan rulers and was originally believed to be built by Mughal ruler Akbar.[14] It is reputed to be one of the oldest hill forts in India and the world. It was built by King Ajaypal Chauhan on the summit of Taragarh Hill and overlooks Ajmer. The battlements run along the top of the hill. The walls are about two miles (3 km) in circumference and the fort can only be approached by way of a very steep slope. When it fell to the British Raj, the fort was dismantled on the orders of Lord William Bentinck and was converted into a sanatorium for the British troops stationed at the garrison town of Nasirabad.[11]
  • Adhai Din Ka Jhonpda: A mosque by Qutubuddin Aibak built in 1193, is situated on the lower slope of Taragarh hill. Aibak's successor, Shams al-Din Iltutmish added to the mosque. It is noted for its double-depth calligraphy inscriptions in the Naskh and Kufic scripts. Apart from the mosque, called Jama Iltutmish (pronounced Altamash locally), nearly the whole of the ancient temple has fallen into ruins, but the relics are still unsurpassed as examples of Hindu architecture and sculpture. Forty columns support the roof, but no two are alike and the ornaments are exceptional in their decorations.[11][15]
  • Akbari Fort & Museum: The city's museum was once the residence of Prince Salīm, the son of the Emperor Akbar, and presently houses a collection of Mughal and Rajput armour and sculpture. This is a magnificent example of Mughal architecture, construction of which was commissioned by Akbar in 1570. This is where Salim, as the Emperor Jahangir, read out the firman permitting the British East India Company to trade with India.[16]
  • Tomb of Khwaja Husain Ajmeri: tomb (Maqbara, shrine) of Khwaja Husain Ajmeri Chishty Rehamatullah Alaih (Shaikh Husain Ajmeri) who was the suprintendant and Sajjada Nasheen of Ajmer Sharif Dargah in Emperor Akbar's time. He was the great grandson of Khwaja Moinuddin Hasan Chishty Rehmatullah Alaih, and his tomb was built in 1637–1638 near Sola Khamba (tomb of Khwaja Alauddin Chishty). Both tombs are behind the shahjahani mosque Dargah Khwaja Saheb Ajmer.
  • Mayo College: The college was founded in 1875 by Lord Mayo, Viceroy of India. The architecture of the buildings is in the same style as royal Rajasthani architecture. The main building, in white marble, is a classic example of Indo-Saracenic architecture.[17]
  • Jai Chamunda Mata Temple: This temple is in Naka Madar area, set up at high place. One can go on foot, or by a vehicle. It has temples of Chamunda Mata, Bharu Ji and Maa Ganga. It is a very peaceful to sit for a while in the temple after the morning and evening aarti (Worship practice). The aarti itself is an attraction.[18]

Ajmer sightseeing:[19]

Baradari on Lake Anasagar
  • Anasagar Lake: This is an historic man-made lake built by Maharaja Anaji (1135–1150 AD).[14] By the lake is the Daulat Bagh, a garden laid out by Emperor Jahangir. Emperor Shah Jahan later added five pavilions, known as the Baradari, between the garden and the lake.
  • The Sai Baba Temple: located on the way to the Prithviraj Chauhan Statue, this temple is also an important tourist destination which has the same style of architecture as that of the Sai Baba Temple in Shirdi.
  • Lake Foy Sagar: Situated in the outskirts of the city, it is a picturesque artificial lake that was created as a famine relief project in 1892. It offers panoramic views of the neighbouring Aravalli mountains as well as of the evening flights of nearby birds.
  • [20]
  • Located about 11 kilometres from Ajmer, Pushkar is also an important tourist destination. It is famous for Pushkar Lake and the 14th century Brahma Temple at Pushkar, dedicated to Brahmā, according to the Padma Purāņa, Pushkar is the only place where Brahmā may be worshipped.[21]
  • Prithviraj Smarak: Prithviraj Smarak is dedicated to Mahraja Prithviraj of Rajput Chauhan dynasty of Ajmer. It is located on the way from Ajmer to Pushkar. Tourists enjoy a great view of Ajmer city from here. This place has a life size statue of King pritthiraj chauhan and features a daily light and music show.

Demographics[edit]

Religions in Ajmer
Religion Percent
Hindus
83.53%
Muslims
11.58%
Population growth of Ajmer 
Census Pop.
1891 68,800
1901 73,800 7.3%
1911 86,200 16.8%
1921 113,200 31.3%
1931 119,500 5.6%
1941 147,300 23.3%
1951 196,300 33.3%
1961 231,200 17.8%
1971 264,300 14.3%
1981 374,400 41.7%
1991 402,700 7.6%
2001 485,197 20.5%
2011 542,321 11.8%
source:[22][23][1]
Population growth through the years
Year Population
1891
68,800
1901
73,800
1911
86,200
1921
113,200
1931
119,500
1941
147,300
1951
196,300
1961
231,200
1968
265,200
1971
264,300
1981
374,400
1991
402,700
2001
485,197
2011
542,321

[22][23][1]

As of the 2011 Census of India the population of Ajmer city was 542,321 placing Ajmer in the top 100 major cities of India and 5th in Rajasthan. Including suburbs outside the city limits the population was 551,101. The female to male ratio in the city was 947/1,000. The literacy rate in the city was 86.52%, male literacy being 92.08% and female literacy being 80.69%.[1] Ajmer's population growth in the decade was 18.48%; this compares to a growth figure of 20.93% in the previous decade.[23]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "Ajmer City Population Census 2011 | Rajasthan". www.census2011.co.in. 
  2. ^ "Introduction". Hriday official website. 
  3. ^ "Ajmer Tourism: Places to Visit in Ajmer - Rajasthan Tourism". tourism.rajasthan.gov.in. Retrieved 2017-03-10. 
  4. ^ a b R. B. Singh 1964, p. 87.
  5. ^ Dasharatha Sharma 1959, p. 40.
  6. ^ Har Bilas Sarda 1911, pp. 68-74.
  7. ^ R. B. Singh 1964, p. 88.
  8. ^ R. B. Singh 1964, pp. 131-132.
  9. ^ "Monthly mean maximum and minimum temperature and total rainfall of important cities (PDF)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-13. Retrieved 2013-07-28. 
  10. ^ "Focus on connecting small cities by air: Manmohan". The Hindu. 21 September 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-02. 
  11. ^ a b c  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ajmere". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 452–453. 
  12. ^ "Magazine | Jain Culture | Temples | India | Rajasthan ►Ajmer ►Soniji Ki Nasiyan". Herenow4u.net. Retrieved 2012-05-18. 
  13. ^ "Nareli Jain Temple Ajmer, Rajasthan". www.tourmyindia.com. Retrieved 2017-07-28. 
  14. ^ a b Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 173. 
  15. ^ Arhai-din-ka Jhompra Mosque Archived 2010-12-14 at the Wayback Machine. archnet.org.
  16. ^ "Akbar Ka Kila, AJMER". 
  17. ^ Main Building Architecture: Official website of Mayo College, Ajmer, India
  18. ^ Location of Jain Chamunda Temple
  19. ^ Ajmer Sightseeing
  20. ^ "Sight Seeing". Ajmer.nic.in. Retrieved 2012-05-19. 
  21. ^ News India Times, New York NY, USA, April 25, 2008.
  22. ^ a b "Historical Census of India". 
  23. ^ a b c "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]