The Punjab spelled Panjab, is a geopolitical and historical region in South Asia in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India. The boundaries of the region focus on historical accounts; until the Partition of Punjab in 1947, the British Punjab Province encompassed the present-day Indian states and union territories of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi. It bordered the Balochistan and Pashtunistan regions to the west, Kashmir to the north, the Hindi Belt to the east, Rajasthan and Sindh to the south; the people of the Punjab today are called Panjabis, their principal language is Punjabi. The main religions of the Indian Punjab region are Hinduism; the main religions of the Pakistani Punjab region is Islam. Other religious groups are Christianity, Zoroastrianism and Ravidassia; the Punjab region has been inhabited by the Indus Valley Civilisation, Indo-Aryan peoples, Indo-Scythians, has seen numerous invasions by the Persians, Kushans, Timurids, Pashtuns and others.
Historic foreign invasions targeted the most productive central region of the Punjab known as the Majha region, the bedrock of Punjabi culture and traditions. The Punjab region is referred to as the breadbasket in both India and Pakistan; the region was called Sapta Sindhu, the Vedic land of the seven rivers flowing into the ocean. The origin of the word Punjab can be traced to the Sanskrit "pancha-nada", which means "five rivers", is used as the name of a region in the Mahabharata; the name of the region, Punjab, is a compound of two Persian words, Panj and āb, introduced to the region by the Turko-Persian conquerors of India, more formally popularised during the Mughal Empire. Punjab thus means "The Land of Five Waters", referring to the rivers Jhelum, Ravi and Beas. All are tributaries of the Sutlej being the largest; the Greeks referred to the region as Pentapotamia. There are two main definitions of the Punjab region: the 1947 definition and the older 1846–1849 definition. A third definition incorporates both the 1947 and the older definitions but includes northern Rajasthan on a linguistic basis and ancient river movements.
The 1947 definition defines the Punjab region with reference to the dissolution of British India whereby the British Punjab Province was partitioned between India and Pakistan. In Pakistan, the region now includes Islamabad Capital Territory. In India, it includes the Punjab state, Chandigarh and Himachal Pradesh. Using the 1947 definition, the Punjab borders the Balochistan and Pashtunistan regions to the west, Kashmir to the north, the Hindi Belt to the east, Rajasthan and Sindh to the south. Accordingly, the Punjab region is diverse and stretches from the hills of the Kangra Valley to the plains and to the Cholistan Desert. Using the 1947 definition of the Punjab region, some of the major cities of the area include Lahore and Ludhiana; the older definition of the Punjab region focuses on the collapse of the Sikh Empire and the creation of the British Punjab province between 1846 and 1849. According to this definition, the Punjab region incorporates, in Pakistan, Azad Kashmir including Bhimber and Mirpur and parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
In India the wider definition includes parts of Jammu Division. Using the older definition of the Punjab region, the Punjab region covers a large territory and can be divided into five natural areas: the eastern mountainous region including Jammu Division and Azad Kashmir; the formation of the Himalayan Range of mountains to the east and north-east of the Punjab is the result of a collision between the north-moving Indo-Australian Plate and the Eurasian Plate. The plates are still moving together, the Himalayas are rising by about 5 millimetres per year; the upper regions are snow-covered the whole year. Lower ranges of hills run parallel to the mountains; the Lower Himalayan Range runs from north of Rawalpindi through Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and further south. The mountains are young, are eroding rapidly; the Indus and the five rivers of the Punjab have their sources in the mountain range and carry loam and silt down to the rich alluvial plains, which are fertile. According to the older definition, some of the major cities include Jammu and parts of Delhi.
The third definition of the Punjab region adds to the definitions cited above and includes parts of Rajasthan on linguistic lines and takes into consideration the location of the Punjab rivers in ancient times. In particular, the Sri Ganganagar and Hanumangarh districts are included in the Punjab region; the climate is a factor contributing to the economy of the Punjab. It is not uniform over the whole region, with the sections adjacent to the Himalayas receiving heavier rainfall than those at a distance. There are two transitional periods. During the hot season from mid-April to the end of June, the temperature may reach 49 °C; the monsoon season, from July to September, is a period of heavy rainfall, providing
Enclave and exclave
An enclave is a territory, or a part of a territory, surrounded by the territory of one other state. Territorial waters have the same sovereign attributes as land, enclaves may therefore exist within territorial waters. An exclave is a portion of a state or territory geographically separated from the main part by surrounding alien territory. Many exclaves are enclaves. Enclave is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory, only surrounded by another state. Vatican City and San Marino, enclaved by Italy, Lesotho, enclaved by South Africa, are enclaved states. Unlike an enclave, an exclave can be surrounded by several states; the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan is an example of an exclave. Semi-enclaves and semi-exclaves are areas that, except for possessing an unsurrounded sea border, would otherwise be enclaves or exclaves. Enclaves and semi-enclaves can exist as independent states, while exclaves always constitute just a part of a sovereign state. A pene-enclave is a part of the territory of one country that can be conveniently approached—in particular, by wheeled traffic—only through the territory of another country.
Pene-enclaves are called functional enclaves or practical enclaves. Many pene-exclaves border their own territorial waters, such as Point Roberts, Washington. A pene-enclave can exist on land, such as when intervening mountains render a territory inaccessible from other parts of a country except through alien territory. A cited example is the Kleinwalsertal, a valley part of Vorarlberg, accessible only from Germany to the north; the word enclave is French and first appeared in the mid-15th century as a derivative of the verb enclaver, from the colloquial Latin inclavare. It was a term of property law that denoted the situation of a land or parcel of land surrounded by land owned by a different owner, that could not be reached for its exploitation in a practical and sufficient manner without crossing the surrounding land. In law, this created a servitude of passage for the benefit of the owner of the surrounded land; the first diplomatic document to contain the word enclave was the Treaty of Madrid, signed in 1526.
The term enclave began to be used to refer to parcels of countries, fiefs, towns, etc. that were surrounded by alien territory. This French word entered the English and other languages to denote the same concept, although local terms have continued to be used. In India, the word "pocket" is used as a synonym for enclave. In British administrative history, subnational enclaves were called detachments or detached parts, national enclaves as detached districts or detached dominions. In English ecclesiastic history, subnational enclaves were known as peculiars; the word exclave, modeled on enclave, is a logically extended back-formation of enclave. Enclaves exist for a variety of historical and geographical reasons. For example, in the feudal system in Europe, the ownership of feudal domains was transferred or partitioned, either through purchase and sale or through inheritance, such domains were or came to be surrounded by other domains. In particular, this state of affairs persisted into the 19th century in the Holy Roman Empire, these domains exhibited many of the characteristics of sovereign states.
Prior to 1866 Prussia alone consisted of more than 270 discontiguous pieces of territory. Residing in an enclave within another country has involved difficulties in such areas as passage rights, importing goods, provision of utilities and health services, host nation cooperation. Thus, over time, enclaves have tended to be eliminated. For example, two-thirds of the then-existing national-level enclaves were extinguished on August 1, 2015, when the governments of India and Bangladesh implemented a Land Boundary Agreement that exchanged 162 first-order enclaves; this exchange thus de-enclaved another two dozen second-order enclaves and one third-order enclave, eliminating 197 of the Indo-Bangladesh enclaves in all. The residents in these enclaves had complained of being stateless. Only Bangladesh's Dahagram–Angarpota enclave remained. For illustration, in the figure, A1 is a semi-enclave. Although A2 is an exclave of A, it cannot be classed as an enclave because it shares borders with B and C; the territory A3 is both an exclave of A and an enclave from the viewpoint of B.
The singular territory D, although an enclave, is not an exclave. An enclave is a part of the territory of a state, enclosed within the territory of another state. To distinguish the parts of a state enclosed in a single other state, they are called true enclaves. A true enclave cannot be reached without passing through the territory of a single other state that surrounds it. Vinokurov calls this the restrictive definition of "enclave" given by international law, which thus "comprises only so-called'true enclaves'". Two examples are Büsingen am Hochrhein, a true enclave of Germany, Campione d'Italia, a true enclave of Italy, both of which are surrounded by Switzerland; the definition of a territory comprises territorial waters. In the case of enclaves in territorial waters, they are called maritime (those surrounded by ter
The Ganges, or Ganga, is a trans-boundary river of the Indian subcontinent which flows through the nations of India and Bangladesh. The 2,525 km river rises in the western Himalayas in the Indian state of Uttarakhand, flows south and east through the Gangetic Plain of North India. After entering West Bengal, it divides into two rivers: the Padma River; the Hooghly, or Adi Ganga, flows through several districts of West Bengal and into the Bay of Bengal near Sagar Island. The other, the Padma flows into and through Bangladesh, joins the Meghna river which empties into the Bay of Bengal; the Ganges is one of the most sacred rivers to Hindus. It is a lifeline to millions of Indians who live along its course and depend on it for their daily needs, it is worshipped in Hinduism and personified as the goddess Gaṅgā. It has been important with many former provincial or imperial capitals located on its banks; the Ganges is polluted. Pollution threatens not only humans, but more than 140 fish species, 90 amphibian species and the endangered Ganges river dolphin.
The Ganges is a major source of global ocean plastic pollution. The levels of fecal coliform bacteria from human waste in the waters of the river near Varanasi are more than 100 times the Indian government's official limit; the Ganga Action Plan, an environmental initiative to clean up the river, has been a major failure thus far, due to rampant corruption, lack of will on behalf of the government and its bureaucracy, lack of technical expertise, poor environmental planning, lack of support from religious authorities. The main stream of Ganga begins at the confluence of the Bhagirathi and Alaknanda rivers in the town of Devprayag in the Garhwal division of the Indian state of Uttarakhand; the Bhagirathi is considered to be the source in Hindu culture and mythology, although the Alaknanda is longer, therefore, hydrologically the source stream. The headwaters of the Alakananda are formed by snowmelt from peaks such as Nanda Devi and Kamet; the Bhagirathi rises at the foot of Gangotri Glacier, at Gomukh, at an elevation of 3,892 m, being mythologically referred to as, residing in the matted locks of Shiva, symbolically Tapovan, being a meadow of ethereal beauty at the feet of Mount Shivling, just 5 km away.
Although many small streams comprise the headwaters of Ganga, the six longest and their five confluences are considered sacred. The six headstreams are the Alaknanda, Nandakini, Pindar and Bhagirathi rivers; the five confluences, known as the Panch Prayag, are all along the Alaknanda. They are, in downstream order, where the Dhauliganga joins the Alaknanda. After flowing 250 km through its narrow Himalayan valley, Ganga emerges from the mountains at Rishikesh debouches onto the Gangetic Plain at the pilgrimage town of Haridwar. At Haridwar, a dam diverts some of its waters into the Ganga Canal, which irrigates the Doab region of Uttar Pradesh, whereas the river, whose course has been southwest until this point, now begins to flow southeast through the plains of northern India; the Ganga follows an 800 km arching course passing through the cities of Kannauj and Kanpur. Along the way it is joined by the Ramganga, which contributes an average annual flow of about 500 m3/s. Ganga joins the river Yamuna at the Triveni Sangam at a holy confluence in Hinduism.
At their confluence the Yamuna is larger than the Ganga, contributing about 2,950 m3/s, or about 58.5% of the combined flow. Now flowing east, the river meets the Tamsa River, which flows north from the Kaimur Range and contributes an average flow of about 190 m3/s. After the Tamsa the Gomti River joins; the Gomti contributes an average annual flow of about 234 m3/s. The Ghaghara River flowing south from the Himalayas of Nepal, joins; the Ghaghara, with its average annual flow of about 2,990 m3/s, is the largest tributary of the Ganges. After the Ghaghara confluence the Ganga is joined from the south by the Son River, contributing about 1,000 m3/s; the Gandaki River the Kosi River, join from the north flowing from Nepal, contributing about 1,654 m3/s and 2,166 m3/s, respectively. The Kosi is the third largest tributary of the Ganga, after the Yamuna; the Kosi merges into the Ganga near Kursela in Bihar. Along the way between Allahabad and Malda, West Bengal, the Ganga passes the towns of Chunar, Varanasi, Patna, Chapra, Ballia, Simaria and Saidpur.
At Bhagalpur, the river begins to flow south-southeast and at Pakur, it begins its attrition with the branching away of its first distributary, the Bhāgirathi-Hooghly, which goes on to become the Hooghly River. Just before the border with Bangladesh the Farakka Barrage controls the flow of Ganga, diverting some of the water into a feeder canal linked to the Hooghly for the purpose of keeping it silt-free; the Hooghly River is formed by the confluence of the Bhagirathi River and Jalangi River at Nabadwip, Hooghly has a number of tributaries of its own. The largest is the Damoda
The Thar Desert known as the Great Indian Desert, is a large arid region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent that covers an area of 200,000 km2 and forms a natural boundary between India and Pakistan. It is the world's 17th largest desert, the world's 9th largest subtropical desert. About 85 % of the Thar Desert is located with the remaining 15 % in Pakistan. In India, it covers about 170,000 km2, the remaining 30,000 km2 of the desert is within Pakistan; the Thar desert forms 5% of the total geographic area of India. More than 60% of the desert lies in the state of Rajasthan, extends into Gujarat and Haryana; the desert comprises a dry part, the Marusthali region in the west, a semidesert region in the east with fewer sand dunes and more precipitation. The Thar Desert extends between the Aravalli Hills in the north-east, the Great Rann of Kutch along the coast and the alluvial plains of the Indus River in the west and north-west. Most of the desert is covered by huge shifting sand dunes that receive sediments from the alluvial plains and the coast.
The sand is mobile due to strong winds occurring before the onset of the monsoon. The Luni River is the only river integrated into the desert. Rainfall is limited to 100–500 mm per year falling from July to September. Salt water lakes within the Thar Desert include the Sambhar, Didwana and Phalodi in Rajasthan and Kharaghoda in Gujarat; these lakes evaporate during the fat season. The salt is derived by the weathering of rocks in the region. Lithic tools belonging to the prehistoric Aterian culture of the Maghreb have been discovered in Middle Paleolithic deposits in the Thar Desert; the soil of the Thar Desert is prone to wind erosion. High velocity winds blow soil from the desert, depositing some on neighboring fertile lands, causing shifting sand dunes within the desert. Sand dunes are stabilised by erecting micro-windbreak barriers with scrub material and subsequent afforestation of the treated dunes with seedlings of shrubs such as phog, castor oil plant and trees such as gum acacia, Prosopis juliflora and lebbek tree.
The 649 km long Indira Gandhi Canal brings fresh water to the Thar Desert. It was conceived to halt spreading of the desert to fertile areas. There are few local tree species suitable for planting in the desert. Therefore, exotic tree species were introduced for plantation. Many species of Eucalyptus, Acacia and other genera from Israel, Australia, US, Zimbabwe, Chile and Sudan have been tried in Thar Desert. Acacia tortilis has proved to be the most promising species for desert afforestation and the jojoba is another promising species of economic value found suitable for planting in these areas. There are several protected areas in the Thar Desert. In India: the Desert National Park represents the Thar Desert ecosystem, its diverse fauna includes the great Indian bustard, chinkara, Bengal fox and caracal. Seashells and massive fossilized tree trunks in this park record the geological history of the desert, it is located in 210 km from Jaipur, in the Shekhawati region. This sanctuary is home to a large population of blackbuck and caracal such as partridge and sand grouse.
In Pakistan: the Nara Desert Wildlife Sanctuary covers 6,300 km2. Stretches of sand in the desert are interspersed by sandy and gravel plains. Due to the diversified habitat and ecosystem, the vegetation, human culture and animal life in this arid region is rich in contrast to the other deserts of the world. About 23 species of lizard and 25 species of snakes are found here and several of them are endemic to the region; some wildlife species, which are fast vanishing in other parts of India, are found in the desert in large numbers such as the blackbuck and Indian wild ass in the Rann of Kutch. They have evolved excellent survival strategies, their size is smaller than other similar animals living in different conditions, they are nocturnal. There are certain other factors responsible for the survival of these animals in the desert. Due to the lack of water in this region, transformation of the grasslands into cropland has been slow; the protection provided to them by a local community, the Bishnois, is a factor.
Other mammals of the Thar Desert include a subspecies of the caracal. The region is a haven for 141 species of resident birds of the desert. One can see eagles, falcons, buzzards and vultures. There are tawny eagles, greater spotted eagles, laggar falcons and kestrels. There are a number of reptiles; the Indian peafowl is a resident breeder in the Thar region. The peacock is designated as the provincial bird of the Punjab, it can be seen sitting on pipal trees in villages or Deblina. Bishnois Dharmaguru Jambeshwar was an ecologist; the natural vegetation of this dry area is classed as Northwestern thorn scrub forest occurring in small clumps scattered more or less openly. Density and size of patches increase from west to
Partition of India
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions and Pakistan. The Dominion of India became, as of 1950, the Republic of India, the Dominion of Pakistan became, as of 1956, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan In 1971, the People's Republic of Bangladesh came into being after Bangladesh Liberation War; the partition involved the division of three provinces, Assam and Punjab, based on district-wide Hindu or Muslim majorities. The boundary demarcating India and Pakistan came to be known as the Radcliffe Line, it involved the division of the British Indian Army, the Royal Indian Navy, the Indian Civil Service, the railways, the central treasury, between the two new dominions. The partition was set forth in the Indian Independence Act 1947 and resulted in the dissolution of the British Raj, as the British government there was called; the two self-governing countries of Pakistan and India came into existence at midnight on 14–15 August 1947.
The partition displaced over 14 million people along religious lines, creating overwhelming refugee crises in the newly constituted dominions. The violent nature of the partition created an atmosphere of hostility and suspicion between India and Pakistan that plagues their relationship to the present; the term partition of India does not cover the secession of Bangladesh from Pakistan in 1971, nor the earlier separations of Burma and Ceylon from the administration of British India. The term does not cover the political integration of princely states into the two new dominions, nor the disputes of annexation or division arising in the princely states of Hyderabad and Jammu and Kashmir, though violence along religious lines did break out in some princely states at the time of the partition, it does not cover the incorporation of the enclaves of French India into India during the period 1947–1954, nor the annexation of Goa and other districts of Portuguese India by India in 1961. Other contemporaneous political entities in the region in 1947, Bhutan and the Maldives were unaffected by the partition.
In 1905, the viceroy, Lord Curzon, in his second term, divided the largest administrative subdivision in British India, the Bengal Presidency, into the Muslim-majority province of East Bengal and Assam and the Hindu-majority province of Bengal. Curzon's act, the Partition of Bengal—which some considered administratively felicitous, contemplated by various colonial administrations since the time of Lord William Bentinck, but never acted upon—was to transform nationalist politics as nothing else before it; the Hindu elite of Bengal, among them many who owned land in East Bengal, leased out to Muslim peasants, protested fervidly. The large Bengali Hindu middle-class, upset at the prospect of Bengalis being outnumbered in the new Bengal province by Biharis and Oriyas, felt that Curzon's act was punishment for their political assertiveness; the pervasive protests against Curzon's decision took the form predominantly of the Swadeshi campaign and involved a boycott of British goods. Sporadically—but flagrantly—the protesters took to political violence that involved attacks on civilians.
The violence, was not effective, as most planned attacks were either preempted by the British or failed. The rallying cry for both types of protest was the slogan Bande Mataram, the title of a song by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, which invoked a mother goddess, who stood variously for Bengal and the Hindu goddess Kali; the unrest spread from Calcutta to the surrounding regions of Bengal when Calcutta's English-educated students returned home to their villages and towns. The religious stirrings of the slogan and the political outrage over the partition were combined as young men, in groups such as Jugantar, took to bombing public buildings, staging armed robberies, assassinating British officials. Since Calcutta was the imperial capital, both the outrage and the slogan soon became nationally known; the overwhelming, but predominantly Hindu, protest against the partition of Bengal and the fear, in its wake, of reforms favouring the Hindu majority, now led the Muslim elite in India, in 1906, to meet with the new viceroy, Lord Minto, to ask for separate electorates for Muslims.
In conjunction, they demanded proportional legislative representation reflecting both their status as former rulers and their record of cooperating with the British. This led, to the founding of the All-India Muslim League in Dacca. Although Curzon, by now, had resigned his position over a dispute with his military chief Lord Kitchener and returned to England, the League was in favour of his partition plan; the Muslim elite's position, reflected in the League's position, had crystallized over the previous three decades, beginning with the 1871 Census of British India, which had first estimated the populations in regions of Muslim majority. In the three decades since that census, Muslim leaders across northern India, had intermittently experienced public animosity from some of the new Hindu p
Kathiawar written Kathiawad or Kattywad, is a peninsula in western India and part of the Saurashtra region. Its coastline borders the Gulf of Kutch to the west, the Arabian Sea to the south and the Gulf of Khambhat to the southeast and east. Jigat Point is located at Diu Head at its southern; the word Kathiawad means the land of the Kathis, a Rajput tribe of Scythian or Indo-Getic origin who migrated to the region in the 8th century and controlled the southwestern peninsula of contemporary Gujarat. Kathis were widespread in the region and dominated central Saurashtra in particular for some centuries. Although the Kathis are believed to have migrated to the area as late as the 16th century, they have played an important part in the documented history of the region. During the reign of India Pratihar ruler Mihir Bhoj, the Gurjar empire stetched from Kathiawad to the Bay of Bengal. A Haddola inscription confirms that Gurjar Pratihars continued to rule in this region during the reign of Mahipala I too.
The peninsula is dotted with antiquities and has a continuous history from prehistoric times to the early periods of the Mahabharata through the Indus civilization. It was influenced by Kathi people in particular between the 16th century to the mid 20th century and therefore the emergent name of Kathiawar became a favourite alternative to the region of Saurashtra. In a geopolitical context, the area of Kathiawar forms the core of Saurashtra. In feudal times, there were certain principle divisions of Saurashtra falling under princely states, namely Kathiawad, Gohilwad, Panchal & Zalawad, Okha Mandal, etc. However, the main area of Kathiawar covered 10 districts: Rajkot, Jamnagar, Porbandar, Junagadh, Morvi, Gir-somnath; some historians suggest that the Kathi people are Scythians who migrated to Saurashtra around the second century BC. For a long period, the name Sorath remained limited to the region when the Chudasama Rajput ruled from 875 to 1473. Concurrently, major Rajput clans that held a sway over this region included the Walas, Raijadas, Gohils, Jadejas, Parmars, Patgirs or Pargirss, Sarvaiyas and Khachars.
Most of the princely states of Kathiawar were brought under the British protectorate by 1820, but from Kathiawad first treaty with the British was made by Vira Wala of Jetpur with Colonel Walker at Baroda on 26 October 1803. The state of the region in the early nineteenth century is illustrated in Letitia Elizabeth Landon's poem, Scene in Kattiawar, based on the print shown below. Before Indian independence in 1947, most of Kathiawar was divided into numerous princely states, ruled by local potentates who acknowledged British suzerainty in return for local sovereignty; these states comprised the Kathiawar Agency. The rest of the peninsula, chiefly in the east along the Gulf of Cambay, were districts ruled directly by the British as part of British India's Bombay Presidency, which included part of the peninsula. After Indian independence, the states of Kathiawar acceded to India. In 1947, Junagadh's Muslim ruler acceded his territory to Pakistan; the predominantly Hindu population rebelled, while the prince fled to Pakistan, a plebiscite was conducted, after which the kingdom was merged into the Indian Union.
The former princely states of Kathiawar were grouped into the new province of Saurashtra, which became Saurashtra State in 1950. In 1956, Saurashtra was merged into Bombay State, in 1960, Bombay state was divided along linguistic lines into the new states of Gujarat and Maharashtra. Diu remained in Portuguese hands until 1961, when it was occupied by Indian troops became integrated into India as part of the union territory of Goa and Diu in 1962; the major cities of Kathiawar are Rajkot in the center of the peninsula, Jamnagar on the Gulf of Kutch, Bhavnagar on the Gulf of Khambhat and the historic city Wadhwan in the central portion of Gujarat, Porbandar on the west coast, historic city of Junagadh on the South. Diu, an island town part of Portuguese India and now part of the Indian union territory of Daman and Diu, lies off the south coast of Kathiawar; the city of Somnath and its famous temple are located on the south coast. Amreli Botad Bhavnagar Devbhoomi Dwarka Gir Somnath Jamnagar Junagadh Morbi Porbandar The natural vegetation on most of the peninsula is xeric scrub, part of the Northwestern thorn scrub forests ecoregion.
A range of low hills, known as the Gir Hills, occupies the south-central portion of the peninsula. The highest of these is Girnar; the hills are home to an enclave of tropical dry broadleaf forest, part of the Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests ecoregion. Gir National Park, which includes the forested hills around Girnar, areas in the region that neighbor it, are home to the last remaining Asiatic lions in the wilderness of the Earth. Other national parks on Kathiawar are Blackbuck National Park on the Gulf of Cambay, Marine National Park on the Gulf of Kutch, near Jamnagar. Dwarika Somnath Sasan Gir and interiors / Kathi territories in Amreli-Bhavnagar districts Vallabhi Porbandar Junagadh Shatrunjay Hills, Palitana Sihor Palitana Virpur and Gondal Jamnagar & Marine National Park Velavadar Old cities of Wadhvan, Wankaner Diu, India The list of some divine, notable figures and events related to Kathiawar-Saurashtra can be exhaustive. Covering different sections and class of society, a few of them are as following: Sudama – Krishna's friend and a character from Mahabharata Baba Balak Nath – One of the legendary Naths and Chaurasi Siddhas N
Mount Abu is a popular hill station in the Aravalli Range in Sirohi district of Rajasthan state in western India, near the border with Gujarat. The mountain forms a distinct rocky plateau 22 km long by 9 km wide; the highest peak on the mountain is Guru Shikhar at 1,722 m above sea level. It is referred to as'an oasis in the desert' as its heights are home to rivers, lakes and evergreen forests; the nearest train station is Abu Road railway station: 28 km away. 14k Ngp. The ancient name of Mount Abu is Arbudaanchal. In the Puranas, the region has been referred to as Arbudaranya and'Abu' is a diminutive of this ancient name, it is believed that sage Vashistha retired to the southern spur at Mount Abu following his differences with sage Vishvamitra. There is another mythology according to; the incident happened on the mountain, known as Mount Abu and so the mountain is named "Arbudaranya" after that incident which became Abu. The conquest of Mount Abu in 1311 CE by Rao Lumba of Deora-Chauhan dynasty brought to an end the reign of the Parmars and marked the decline of Mount Abu.
He shifted the capital city to Chandravati in the plains. After the destruction of Chandravati in 1405, Rao Shasmal made Sirohi his headquarters, it was leased by the British government from the Maharaja of Sirohi for use as the headquarters. The Arbuda Mountains region is said to be original abode of the famous Gurjars; the association of the Gurjars with the mountain is noticed in many inscriptions and epigraphs including Tilakamanjari of Dhanpala. These Gurjars migrated from the Arbuda mountain region; as early as sixth century CE, they set up one or more principalities in Gujarat. All or a larger part of Rajasthan and Gujarat had been known as Gurjaratra or Gurjarabhumi for centuries before the Mughal period. According to a legend, sage Vashistha performed a great yajna at the peak of Mount Abu, to seek from the gods a provision for the defense of righteousness on earth. In answer to his prayer, a youth arose from the Agnikunda — the first Agnivansha Rajput. Achalgarh Fort is one of more attracting place, built by Parmar Rajput kings.
Dilwara temple built by mahipala Soalanki. Mount Abu town, the only hill station in Rajasthan, is at an elevation of 1,220 m, it has been a popular retreat from neighbouring Gujarat for centuries. The Mount Abu Wildlife Sanctuary covers 290 km ² of the mountain; the mountain is home to several Hindu temples, including the Adhar Devi Temple, carved out of solid rock. The oldest of these is the Vimal Vasahi temple, built in 1021 CE by Vimal Shah and dedicated to the first of the Jain Tirthankaras, they include the Kantinath Temple. It is the location of the headquarters of the Brahma Kumaris; the Achalgarh Fort, built in the 14th century by Kumbha of Mewar, is nearby and at its center is the popular visitor attraction of the Nakki Lake. The Toad Rock is on a hill near the lake. Close to the fort is a popular Shiva temple; the Durga Ambika Mata Temple lies in a cleft of rock in Jagat, just outside Mount Abu town. In Mount Abu, the faith community of Brahma Kumaris has its spiritual headquarters, which are represented by its own account in 110 countries.
Every year about 2.5 million visitors are supposed to visit the sprawling campus of that spiritual movement. While there are hundreds of hotels for tourists, some Dharamshalas can be found for as low as Rs.700 per night. In summer thousands of people come here. To reach Mount Abu, the nearest approach by road is from Abu Road, 27 km; the setting sun scene on Mount Abu is a notable tourist attraction, depicted in the film Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak. Summer prevails from mid-April to mid-June, when the average maximum temperature remains around 36 °C, it is suited for light cotton clothes. Due to its relief and geographical conditions, it rains in Mount Abu during the monsoons. During the rainy season the temperature falls. Normal summer clothing works, it is wise to carry an umbrella to avoid being caught in the rain. Winters are cool in Mount Abu, with mercury hovering around 16 °C to 22 °C. Nights are chilly, the average night temperature is around 4 to 12 °C; the temperature has dipped to as low as −2 to −3 °C.
Heavy winter clothing is preferable. In the daytime, light pullovers are sufficient. According to the 2011 Census of India, Mount Abu has a population of 22,943. Out of which 54.7% are males and 45.3% are females. It has an average literacy rate of 81.15%, higher than the national average of 74.04%: male literacy is 90.12%, female literacy is 70.23%. In Mount Abu, 12.34% of the population is under 6 years of age.89.31% of people are Hindus, 7.69% are Muslims while 1.45% are Christians. Shri Achaleshwar Mahadev Mandir Mount Abu Coordinates Mount Abu Population Abu Winter Festival Mount Abu Virtual Tour 360 Mount Abu Panorama Mount Abu Tour Mount Abu Blog "Abu". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921