People Places
History Art

Presidencies and provinces of British India

The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in India. Collectively, they were called British India. In one form or another, they existed between 1612 and 1947, conventionally divided into three historical periods: Between 1612 and 1757 the East India Company set up "factories" in several locations in coastal India, with the consent of the Mughal emperors or local rulers, its rivals were the merchant trading companies of Portugal, the Netherlands, France. By the mid-18th century three Presidency towns: Madras and Calcutta, had grown in size. During the period of Company rule in India, 1757–1858, the Company acquired sovereignty over large parts of India, now called "Presidencies". However, it increasingly came under British government oversight, in effect sharing sovereignty with the Crown. At the same time, it lost its mercantile privileges. Following the Indian Rebellion of 1857 the Company's remaining powers were transferred to the Crown.

Under the British Raj, administrative boundaries were extended to include a few other British-administered regions, such as Upper Burma. However, the unwieldy presidencies were broken up into "Provinces". In 1608, Mughal authorities allowed the English East India Company to establish a small trading settlement at Surat, this became the company's first headquarters town, it was followed in 1611 by a permanent factory at Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast, in 1612 the company joined other established European trading companies in Bengal in trade. However, the power of the Mughal Empire declined from 1707, first at the hands of the Marathas and due to invasion from Persia and Afghanistan. By the mid-19th century, after the three Anglo-Maratha Wars the East India Company had become the paramount political and military power in south Asia, its territory held in trust for the British Crown. Company rule in Bengal was terminated by the Government of India Act 1858, following the events of the Bengal Rebellion of 1857.

Henceforth known as British India, it was thereafter directly ruled as a colonial possession of the United Kingdom, India was known after 1876 as the Indian Empire. India was divided into British India, regions that were directly administered by the British, with Acts established and passed in British Parliament, the Princely States, ruled by local rulers of different ethnic backgrounds; these rulers were allowed a measure of internal autonomy in exchange for recognition of British suzerainty. British India constituted a significant portion of India both in population. In addition, there were French exclaves in India. Independence from British rule was achieved in 1947 with the formation of two nations, the Dominions of India and Pakistan, the latter including East Bengal, present-day Bangladesh; the term British India applied to Burma for a shorter time period: beginning in 1824, a small part of Burma, by 1886 two thirds of Burma had been made part of British India. This arrangement lasted until 1937.

British India did not apply to other countries in the region, such as Sri Lanka, a British Crown colony, or the Maldive Islands, which were a British protectorate. At its greatest extent, in the early 20th century, the territory of British India extended as far as the frontiers of Persia in the west, it included the Aden Province in the Arabian Peninsula. The East India Company, incorporated on 31 December 1600, established trade relations with Indian rulers in Masulipatam on the east coast in 1611 and Surat on the west coast in 1612; the company rented a small trading outpost in Madras in 1639. Bombay, ceded to the British Crown by Portugal as part of the wedding dowry of Catherine of Braganza in 1661, was in turn granted to the East India Company to be held in trust for the Crown. Meanwhile, in eastern India, after obtaining permission from the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan to trade with Bengal, the Company established its first factory at Hoogly in 1640. A half-century after Mughal Emperor Aurengzeb forced the Company out of Hooghly for its tax evasion, Job Charnock purchased three small villages renamed Calcutta, in 1686, making it the Company's new headquarters.

By the mid-18th century, the three principal trading settlements including factories and forts, were called the Madras Presidency, the Bombay Presidency, the Bengal Presidency — each administered by a Governor. Madras Presidency: established 1640. Bombay Presidency: East India Company's headquarters moved from Surat to Bombay in 1687. Bengal Presidency: established 1690. After Robert Clive's victory in the Battle of Plassey in 1757, the puppet government of a new Nawab of Bengal, was maintained by the East India Company. However, after the invasion of Bengal by the Nawab of Oudh in 1764 and his subsequent defeat in the Battle of Buxar, the Company obtained the Diwani of Bengal, which included the right to administer an


The Pliensbachian is an age of the geologic timescale and stage in the stratigraphic column. It is part of the Early or Lower Jurassic epoch or series and spans the time between 190.8 ± 1.5 Ma and 182.7 ± 1.5 Ma. The Pliensbachian is followed by the Toarcian; the Pliensbachian ended with the extinction event called the Toarcian turnover. During the Pliensbachian, the middle part of the Lias was deposited in Europe; the Pliensbachian is coeval with the Charmouthian regional stage of North America. The Pliensbachian takes its name from the hamlet of Pliensbach in the community of Zell unter Aichelberg in the Swabian Alb, some 30 km east of Stuttgart in Germany; the name was introduced into scientific literature by German palaeontologist Albert Oppel in 1858. The base of the Pliensbachian is at the first appearances of the ammonite species Bifericeras donovani and genera Apoderoceras and Gleviceras; the Wine Haven profile near Robin Hood's Bay has been appointed as global reference profile for the base.

The top of the Pliensbachian is at the first appearance of ammonite genus Eodactylites. The Pliensbachian contains five ammonite biozones in the boreal domain: zone of Pleuroceras spinatum zone of Amaltheus margaritatus zone of Prodactylioceras davoei zone of Tragophylloceras ibex zone of Uptonia jamesoniIn the Tethys domain, the Pliensbachian contains six biozones: zone of Emaciaticeras emaciatum zone of Arieticeras algovianum zone of Fuciniceras lavinianum zone of Prodactylioceras davoei zone of Tragophylloceras ibex zone of Uptonia jamesoni Gradstein, F. M.. G. & Smith, A. G.. Howart, M. K.. Geology Series 58, p. 81–152, Cambridge University Press, The Natural History Museum, Meister, C.. A.. P.. W.. D.. Oppel, C. A.. GeoWhen Database - Pliensbachian Lower Jurassic timescale, at the website of the subcommission for stratigraphic information of the ICS Stratigraphic chart of the Lower Jurassic, at the website of Norges Network of offshore records of geology and stratigraphy

2014 Campeonato Paulista

The 2014 Campeonato Paulista de Futebol Profissional da Primeira Divisão - Série A1 was the 113th season of São Paulo's top professional football league. In the first stage the twenty teams are drawn, with seeding, into four groups of five teams each, with each team playing once against the fifteen clubs from the other three groups. After each team has played fifteen matches, the top two teams of each group qualify for the quarter-final stage. After the completion of the first stage, the four clubs with the lowest number of points, regardless of the group, will be relegated to the Campeonato Paulista Série A2. If all four clubs with the lowest number of points are from the same group, the best third-placed club from the other groups will qualify for the quarter-final stage; the teams are ranked according to points. If two or more teams are equal on points on completion of the group matches, the following criteria are applied to determine the rankings: Higher number of points obtained. Source: Futebol Paulista Player of the SeasonThe Player of the Year was awarded to Cícero Santos.

Young Player of the SeasonThe Young Player of the Year was awarded to Geuvânio. Countryside Best Player of the SeasonThe Countryside Best Player of the Year was awarded to Léo Costa. Top scorer of the SeasonThe top scorer of the season – TBD