The Damdami Taksal is a Sikh educational organization in India. Its headquarters are located in the town of Chowk Mehta 25 miles north of the city of Amritsar. In 1706, after the Battle of Muktsar, Guru Gobind Singh camped at Sabo Ki Talwandi; the place became known as Damdama i.e. a halting place, this place is now referred to as Damdama Sahib. Damdami Taksal claims to be over 300 years old and names Guru Gobind Singh as its founder. However, some scholars, such as Harjot Oberoi, assert that there is no firm evidence to support this claim; the word taksal refers to an education institute or community of students who associate themselves to a particular sant or prominent spiritual leader. "In 1706..... Gobind Singh...... is said to have founded a distinguished school of exegesis". It was headed up by Baba Deep Singh According to the Damdami Taksal, it was entrusted with the responsibility of teaching the reading and recitation of the Sikh scriptures by Guru Gobind Singh. Damdami Taksal's or Jatha Bhindran Mehta has its main center located at Gurdarshan Parkash gurdwara at Mehta near Mehta Chownk, Punjab in Amritsar.
Damdami Taksal is a branch of bhindran Taksal, a major religious school of traditional Sikh learning. The name Bhindran Taksal was made after the village of Bhindran Kalan where its head Gurbachan Singh Bhindranwale lived. Jatha Bhindran Mehta or Bhindran Taksal is considered the current Damdami Taksal. During the first part of the 20th century Gurbachan Singh Bhindranwale was a prominent Sant teaching a large number of students and today remains an influential figure. In 1975, a large event to commemorate the 300th anniversary martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur was attended by Indira Gandhi and the leader of the Damdami Taksal; this was the starting point of tensions between the Indian Congress Government. The dispute was about, the leader and who had the greater authority over the Sikh people, the Guru Granth Sahib or Indira Gandhi; the Damdami Taksal was brought to wider attention by Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and the 1978 massacre, the Anandpur Resolution with the Dharm Yudh Morcha of 1982, the Khalistan movement.
During British Colonial rule, Sunder Singh Bhindranwale set about purging diversity in Sikh doctrine and practice, hoping to have a uniform Sikh community. Part of this strategy was to have a standardized code of conduct. Sant Kartar Singh established Gurdwara Gurdarshan Parkash at Amritsar district. Sant Sunder Singh was succeeded by Sant Gurbachan Singh Bhindranwale in 1930, after whom Sant Kartar Singh Bhindranwale continued his work in 1961. In 1977, after the death of Sant Kartar Singh, Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale became the head of Damdami Taksal. Baba Thakur Singh Bhinderwale took over his Taksal when Sant Jarnail Singh was killed in 1984 by the military assault on Harmander Sahib, referred to as Operation Bluestar. Baba Thakur singh is taken responsibility of damdami Taksal after the Saheedi of Sant Jarnail Singh ji in June 1984. Baba Ji continuing the taksal with the Grace of guru sahib,baba ji called as the mother of damdami taksal. Baba ji provided homes and money help to kharku families.
Baba ji visited countries like America,Australia,england for parchar of sikhism. Baba thakur singh choose Giani Ram Singh as a next sewadar of damdami takal gurudwaras in 17June, 2003 in USA, but due to some issues giani ram singh is rejected by baba Takhur Singh ji and release a press note about ram singh.ram singh started its own derra near sangrawan and named it new headquarters of damdami taksal in the presence of baba thakur singh ji. But after some time baba thakur singh ji left for sachkhand without announcing the next mukhi of damdami taksal on 24 December 2004. After antim sanskar of baba ji students of damdami taksal and jathedars choose new leader sant giani Harnam Singh Khalsa bhindrawle on the bhog ceremony of Baba Thakur Singh at Mehta Chowk.baba harnam singh is accepted by sangat,all jathebandis and students of damdami taksal with a large gathering at bhog ceremony. After being leader of damdami taksal baba harnam singh done some noteable works like placing images of sant jarnail singh ji and baba thakur singh ji in sikh azaibghar baba harnam singh started path bodh smagams at patiala.after some time in baba harnam singh khalsa is successful in constructing gurudwara yaadgar shaheeda in darbar sahib complex near akal takht sahib and inaugurated gurudwara janamasthan sant jarnail singh khalsa bhindrawale,gurudwara sant khalsa pind rode on 22 -feb-2018.
Baba harnam singh started 6 june shaheedi smagam at mehta chowk celebrated every year with large number of gathering. Current leader of Damdami Taksal is Sant giani harnam singh khalsa and Gurdwara Gurdarshan Prakash, Jatha bhindran mehtaas a Headquaters of Damdami Taksal. Http://damdamitaksal.co.in/historyofdamdamitaksal/ Baba ram singh created his own headquarters at sangrawan The Damdami Taksal have their own Sikh Code of Conduct, the Gurmat Rehat Maryada, which differs from the Rehat Maryada published by the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee. Some differences include the reading of Ragmala after Akhand Path and not eating meat and eggs. Damdami Taksal is somewhat influenced by the Nirmale school of thought as the eleventh leader of Damdami Taksal, Sant Baba Bishan Singh Muralewale, studied under Nirmale Sants such as Pundit Tara Singh and Pundit Sadhu Singh during the late 19th century. Khalsa Nirmale Giani Jaswant singh Manji Sahib Book ~ Chi
Guru Hargobind, revered as the sixth Nanak, was the sixth of ten Gurus of the Sikh religion. He had become Guru at the young age of eleven, after the execution of his father, Guru Arjan, by the Mughal emperor Jahangir. Guru Hargobind introduced the process of militarization to Sikhism as a response to his father's execution and to protect the Sikh community, he symbolized it by representing the dual concept of miri and piri. In front of the Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar, Guru Hargobind constructed the Akal Takht, as a court for consideration of temporal issues and administration of justice; the Akal Takht represents the highest seat of earthly authority of the Khalsa today. Guru Hargobind had the longest tenure as Guru, lasting 9 months and 3 days. Hargobind was born in 1595 in Wadali Guru, a village 7 km west of Amritsar, the only son of Guru Arjan, the fifth Sikh Guru, he suffered from smallpox as a child and survived a poisoning attempt by an uncle, as well as another attempt on his life, when a cobra was thrown at him.
He studied religious texts with Bhai Gurdas and trained in swordsmanship and archery with Baba Buddha. On 25 May 1606 Guru Arjan selected Hargobind as his successor and instructed his son to start a military tradition to protect the Sikh people and always keep himself surrounded by armed Sikhs for protection. Shortly afterwards, Guru Arjan was arrested and killed by order of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir, Guru Hargobind's succession ceremony took place on 24 June 1606, he put on two swords: one indicated his spiritual authority and the other, his temporal authority. He followed his martyred father's advice and always kept himself surrounded by armed Sikhs for protection; the number fifty two was special in his life, his retinue consisted of fifty two armed men. He thus founded the military tradition in the Sikh faith. Guru Hargobind had three wives: Damodari and Mahadevi, he had children from all three wives. Two of his eldest sons from the first wife died during his lifetime. Tegh Bahadur, his son from Nanaki, became the ninth Sikh Guru.
The Guru was a martial artist, an avid hunter and, according to Persian records, unlike earlier Gurus, he and the Sikh Gurus that followed him were meat eaters. Guru Hargobind encouraged people to maintain physical fitness and keep their bodies ready for physical combat, he had his own Darbar. The arming and training of some of his devoted followers began; the Guru came to possess seven hundred horses and his Risaldari grew to three hundred horsemen and sixty musketeers. He nominated his grandson to succeed him as the seventh Guru Har Rai, he died in 1644 at Kiratpur Sahib, a town situated on the banks of river Sutlej, was cremated on the banks of River Sutlej, where now stands Gurdwara Patalpuri. Guru Hargobind led the Sikh response against Mughal power after Guru Arjan's execution, he nominally accepted Shah Jahan's authority but resisted the Islamic persecution, fighting four wars against Shah Jahan's armies. His attempts to transform the Sikh community brought him in conflict with the Mughal authority.
Because of the execution of Guru Arjan by Mughal Emperor Jahangir, Guru Hargobind from the start was a dedicated enemy of the Mughal rule. He advised Sikhs to fight the Mughals; the death of his father at the hands of Jahangir prompted him to emphasise the military dimension of the Sikh community. He symbolically wore two swords, which represented piri, he created a formal court, Akal Takht. Jahangir responded by jailing the 14 year old Guru Hargobind at Gwalior Fort in 1609, on the pretext that the fine imposed on Guru Arjan had not been paid by the Sikhs and Guru Hargobind, it is not clear as to. The year of his release appears to have been either 1611 or 1612, when Guru Hargobind was about 16 years old. Persian records, such as Dabistan i Mazahib suggest he was kept in jail for twelve years, including over 1617-1619 in Gwalior, after which he and his camp were kept under Muslim army's surveillance by Jahangir, it is unclear. Scholars suggest that Jahangir had more or less reverted to tolerant policies of Akbar by about 1611 after he felt secure about his throne, the Sunnis and Naqshbandhi court officials at the Mughal court had fallen out of his favour.
Another theory states that Jahangir discovered the circumstances and felt Guru Hargobind was harmless, so he ordered his release. According to Surjit Singh Gandhi, 52 Rajas who were imprisoned in the fort as hostages for "millions of rupees" and for opposing the Mughal empire were dismayed as they were losing a spiritual mentor. Guru Hargobind requested Jehangir to let these Rajas be freed along with him and he stood surety for their loyal behaviour. Jahangir accepted his request but ordered the release of only as many as could hold onto the hem of his cloak when he walked out. So Guru Hargobind got an large cloak made and wore it the day of his release; as Guru Hargobind left the fort, the other 52 captive rajas held the hem of this cloak and thus were permitted to came out along with him. After his release, Guru Hargobind more discreetly strengthened the Sikh army and reconsolidated the Sikh community, his relations with Jahangir remained friendly. He accompanied Jahangir to Kashmir and Rajputana and subdued Tara Chand of Nalagarh, who had continued for a long time in open rebellion and all efforts to subdue him had failed.
During Jahangir's reign, Guru Hargobind fought a battle against the Mughals at Rohilla. The battl
Jathedar of Akal Takht
The Jathedar of the Akal Takht, is the appointed head of the Akal Takht and the Sikhs of the world. Sikh clergy consists of one each from five Takhts. Known as Akal Bunga, the building directly opposite the Darbar Sahib was built by Guru Hargobind as a place of justice and consideration of temporal issues. During the 18th and 19th century, Jathedars of Akal Takht were appointed by the Sarbat Khalsa, a biannual deliberative assembly of the Sikhs held at Amritsar, Punjab. From 1921, Jathedars of Takhts have been appointed by Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, an elected body of the Sikhs controlled by Shiromani Akali Dal, a political party in the state of Punjab and an ally of Bharatiya Janata Party. A Sarbat Khalsa convened by Sikh organisations in 2015 appointed Jagtar Singh Hawara as the Jathedar of Akal Takht. Ex-SGPC president Avtar Singh Makkar however condemned the convening as against the principles of Sikhism and it's decisions null and void, he added that the removal of Jathedars came under Sikh Gurdwaras Act, 1925 and no one could challenge the SGPC's authority.
Colour key Sarbat Khalsa SGPC
Guru Ram Das
Guru Ram Das was the fourth of the ten Gurus of Sikhism. He was born on 24 September 1534 in a poor Hindu family based in Lahore, part of what is now Pakistan, his birth name was Jetha, he was orphaned at age 7, thereafter grew up with his maternal grandmother in a village. At age 12, Bhai Jetha and his grandmother moved to Goindval; the boy thereafter served him. The daughter of Guru Amar Das got married to Bhai Jetha, he thus became part of Guru Amar Das's family; as with the first two Gurus of Sikhism, Guru Amar Das instead of choosing his own sons, chose Bhai Jetha as his successor and renamed him as Ram Das or "servant or slave of god ". Ram Das became the Guru of Sikhism in 1574 and served as the Sikh leader until his death in 1581, he faced hostilities from the sons of Amar Das, shifted his official base to lands identified by Amar Das as Guru-ka-Chak. This newly founded town was eponymous Ramdaspur to evolve and get renamed as Amritsar – the holiest city of Sikhism, he is remembered in the Sikh tradition for expanding the manji organization for clerical appointments and donation collections to theologically and economically support the Sikh movement.
He appointed his own son as his successor, unlike the first four Gurus who were not related through descent, the fifth through tenth Sikh Gurus were the direct descendants of Ram Das. Guru Ram Das was born in a Sodhi Khatri family in Lahore, his father was mother Daya Kaurboth of whom died when he was aged seven. He was brought up by his grandmother, he married the younger daughter of Amar Das. They had three sons: Prithi Chand and Guru Arjan. Guru Ram Das died on 1 September 1581, in Goindval town of Punjab. Of his three sons, Ram Das chose the youngest, to succeed him as the fifth Sikh Guru; the choice of successor, as throughout most of the history of Sikh Guru successions, led to disputes and internal divisions among the Sikhs. The elder son of Ram Das named Prithi Chand is remembered in the Sikh tradition as vehemently opposing Arjan, creating a faction Sikh community which the Sikhs following Arjan called as Minas, is alleged to have attempted to assassinate young Hargobind. However, alternate competing texts written by the Prithi Chand led Sikh faction offer a different story, contradict this explanation on Hargobind's life, present the elder son of Ram Das as devoted to his younger brother Arjan.
The competing texts do acknowledge disagreement and describe Prithi Chand as having become the Sahib Guru after the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev and disputing the succession of Guru Hargobind, the grandson of Ram Das. Ram Das is credited with founding the holy city of Amritsar in the Sikh tradition. Two versions of stories exist regarding the land. In one based on a Gazetteer record, the land was purchased with Sikh donations, for 700 rupees from the owners of the village of Tung. According to the Sikh historical records, the site was chosen by Guru Amar Das and called Guru Da Chakk, after he had asked Ram Das to find land to start a new town with a man made pool as its central point. After his coronation in 1574, the hostile opposition he faced from the sons of Amar Das, Ram Das founded the town named after him as "Ramdaspur", he started by completing the pool, building his new official Guru centre and home next to it. He invited artisans from other parts of India to settle into the new town with him.
The town expanded during the time of Arjan constructed by voluntary work. The town grew to become the city of Amritsar, the pool area grew into a temple complex after his son built the gurdwara Harmandir Sahib, installed the scripture of Sikhism inside the new temple in 1604; the construction activity between 1574 and 1604 is described in Mahima Prakash Vartak, a semi-historical Sikh hagiography text composed in 1741, the earliest known document dealing with the lives of all the ten Gurus. Ram Das composed about ten percent of hymns in the Guru Granth Sahib, he was a celebrated poet, composed his work in 30 ancient ragas of Indian classical music. These cover a range of topics: One who calls himself to be a disciple of the Guru should rise before dawn and meditate on the Lord's Name. During the early hours, he should rise and bathe, cleansing his soul in a tank of nectar, while he repeats the Name the Guru has spoken to him. By this procedure he washes away the sins of his soul. – GGS 305 The Name of God fills my heart with joy.
My great fortune is to meditate on God's name. The miracle of God's name is attained through the perfect Guru, but only a rare soul walks in the light of the Guru's wisdom. – GGS 94 O man! The poison of pride is killing you. Your body, the colour of gold, has been discoloured by selfishness. Illusions of gradeur turn black. – GGS 776 Guru's Bani is part of Nanakshahi calendar and Kirtan Sohila, the daily prayers of Sikhs. His compositions continue to be sung daily in Harimandir Sahib of Sikhism. Ram Das, along with Amar Das, are credited with various parts of the Anand and Laavan composition in Suhi mode, it is a part of the ritual of four clockwise circumambulation of the Sikh scripture by the bride and groom to solemnize the marriage in Sikh tradition. This was intermittently used, its use lapsed in late 18th century. However, sometime in 19th or 20th century by conflicting accounts, the composition of Ram Das came back in use along with Anand Karaj ceremony, replacing the Hindu ritual of circumambulation around the fire.
The composition of Ram
The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of Indian Armed Forces. The President of India is the Supreme Commander of the Indian Army, it is commanded by the Chief of Army Staff, a four-star general. Two officers have been conferred with the rank of field marshal, a five-star rank, a ceremonial position of great honour; the Indian Army originated from the armies of the East India Company, which became the British Indian Army, the armies of the princely states, which became the national army after independence. The units and regiments of the Indian Army have diverse histories and have participated in a number of battles and campaigns across the world, earning a large number of battle and theatre honours before and after Independence; the primary mission of the Indian Army is to ensure national security and national unity, defending the nation from external aggression and internal threats, maintaining peace and security within its borders. It conducts humanitarian rescue operations during natural calamities and other disturbances, like Operation Surya Hope, can be requisitioned by the government to cope with internal threats.
It is a major component of national power alongside the Indian Air Force. The army has been involved in four wars with neighbouring one with China. Other major operations undertaken by the army include: Operation Vijay, Operation Meghdoot and Operation Cactus. Apart from conflicts, the army has conducted large peace time exercises like Operation Brasstacks and Exercise Shoorveer, it has been an active participant in numerous United Nations peacekeeping missions including those in: Cyprus, Congo, Cambodia, Namibia, El Salvador, Mozambique, South Sudan and Somalia; the Indian Army has a regimental system, but is operationally and geographically divided into seven commands, with the basic field formation being a division. It comprises more than 80 % of the country's active defence personnel, it is the 2nd largest standing army in the world, with 1,237,117 active troops and 960,000 reserve troops. The army has embarked on an infantry modernisation program known as Futuristic Infantry Soldier As a System, is upgrading and acquiring new assets for its armoured and aviation branches.
A Military Department was created within the Government of the East India Company at Kolkata in the year 1776. Its main function was to sift and record orders relating to the Army that were issued by various Departments of the East India Company for the territories under its control. With the Charter Act of 1833, the Secretariat of the Government of the East India Company was reorganised into four Departments, including a Military Department; the army in the Presidencies of Bengal and Madras functioned as respective Presidency Armies until 1 April 1895 when they were unified into a single Indian Army. For administrative convenience, it was divided into four commands at that point, namely Punjab, Bengal and Bombay; the British Indian Army was a critical force for the primacy of the British Empire both in India and across the world. Besides maintaining the internal security of the British Raj, the Army fought in many other theatres: the Anglo-Burmese Wars and Second Anglo-Sikh Wars, First and Third Anglo-Afghan Wars and Second Opium Wars in China and the Boxer Rebellion in China.
In the 20th century, the Indian Army was a crucial adjunct to the British forces in both world wars. 1.3 million Indian soldiers served in World War I with the Allies, in which 74,187 Indian troops were killed or missing in action. In 1915 there was a mutiny by Indian soldiers in Singapore; the United Kingdom made promises of self-governance to the Indian National Congress in return for its support but reneged on them after the war, following which the Indian Independence movement gained strength. The "Indianisation" of the British Indian Army began with the formation of the Prince of Wales Royal Indian Military College at Dehradun in March 1912 with the purpose of providing education to the scions of aristocratic and well-to-do Indian families, to prepare selected Indian boys for admission into the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. Indian officers were given a King's commission after passing out and were posted to one of the eight units selected for Indianisation; because of the slow pace of Indianisation, with just 69 officers being commissioned between 1918 and 1932, political pressure was applied leading to the formation of the Indian Military Academy in 1932 and greater numbers of officers of Indian origin being commissioned.
In World War II Indian soldiers fought alongside the Allies. In 1939, British officials had no plan for expansion and training of Indian forces, which comprised about 130,000 men, their mission was internal security and defence against a possible Soviet threat through Afghanistan. As the war progressed, the size and role of the Indian Army expanded and troops were sent to battlefronts as soon as possible; the most serious problem was lack of equipment. Indian units served in Burma, where in 1944–45, five Indian divisions were engaged along with one British and three African divisions. Larger numbers operated in the Middle East; some 87,000 Indian soldiers died in the war. By the end of the war it had become the largest volunteer army in history, rising to over 2.5 million men in August 1945. In the African and Middle-Eastern Campaigns, captured Indian troops were given a choice to join the German Army to "liberate" India from Great
Takht or Taḵẖata, which means a throne or seat of authority, is a relic of the religion of Sikhism. There are five Takhts and these Takhts are five gurudwaras which have a special significance for the Sikh community; the first and the most important one was established by Guru Hargobind in 1609. It is called'Akal Takht' and is situated just opposite the gate of Harmandir Sahib – The Golden Temple, Amritsar. While the Harmandir Sahib, or Golden Temple, represents Sikh spiritual guidance, the Akal Takht symbolizes the dispensing of justice and temporal activity, it is the highest seat of temporal authority of the Khalsa and the seat of the Sikh religion's earthly authority. Here the Guru decided matters of military strategy and political policy. On, the Sikh Nation took decisions here on matters of peace and war and settled disputes between the various Sikh groups; the Sarangi singers sung the ballads of the Sikh Gurus and warriors at this place and robes of honour were awarded to persons who rendered distinguished services of the community of men in general.
From December 2010, The Deccan Odyssey train, taken on charter from Government of Maharashtra started with aim to have a journey across four Sikh takhts, with a flight by devout and sightseers to the fifth takht. A special train named Panj Takht Special train for the pilgrimage of five Sikh takhts, was flagged off on 16 February 2014. Akal Takhat Sahib means Eternal Throne, it is part of the Golden Temple complex in Amritsar. Its foundation was laid by the sixth Sikh Guru; the Akal Takhat are connected by a passage. The building of the Akal Takht opposite the Golden Temple has a special meaning. While the Golden Temple stands for spiritual guidance the Akal Takhat symbolizes the dispensing of justice and temporal activity. In earlier days all Sikh warriors sought blessings here before going to battle fields. During the 18th century while Sikhs were fighting a guerrilla war in the forests they used to gather at the Akal Takat on special occasions such as Vaisakhi. Here the community used to approve resolutions.
The Akal Takht is the oldest of the Five Takhats. Takht Sri Keshgarh Sahib is situated at Anandpur Sahib, it is the birthplace of the Khalsa, founded here by Guru Gobind Singh in 1699. Some of the weapons of Guru Gobind Singh are displayed here. Takht Sri Damdama Sahib is situated in the village of Talwandi Sabo near Bathinda. Guru Gobind Singh stayed here for about a year and compiled the final edition of Guru Granth Sahib known as the Damdama Sahib Bir in 1705. Takht Sri Patna Sahib is situated in Patna city, the capital of Bihar state. Guru Gobind Singh Ji was born here in 1666 and He spent his early childhood here before moving to Anandpur Sahib. Besides being the birthplace of Guru Gobind Singh Ji, Patna was visited by Guru Nanak Dev Sahib Ji and Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib Ji at different points of time. Here stayed Guru Gobind Singh Ji's mother, Mata Gujri Ji. In the house of salis rai jaohri. Nanded is one of the historical places in Marathwada region of Maharashtra State, it is situated on the north bank of Godavari River, in the southeastern part of Maharashtra, bordering Telangana.
It is a town of great antiquity. In 1708, Guru Gobind Singh the tenth spiritual leader of the Sikhs came over to Nanded, His permanent abode, it was He who preached amongst the Sikhs that there need not be any Human Guru for them after Him and they should take Guru Granth Sahib as their living Guru and there will be no difference between Him and Guru Granth Sahib. A monument has been constructed at the place where Guru Gobind Singh left his body to merge with the omnipresent. A Gurudwara has been constructed there, it is known as Shri Huzur Abchalnagar Sachkhand Gurudwara. Official Website - https://web.archive.org/web/20100612061821/http://sgpc.net/holy%20takhat/holy_takhat_english.asp
Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee
The Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee is an organization in India responsible for the management of gurdwaras, Sikh places of worship in three states of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh and union territory of Chandigarh. SGPC administers Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar; the SGPC is governed by the chief minister of Punjab. The SGPC manages the security, facility maintenance and religious aspects of Gurdwaras as well as keeping archaeologically rare and sacred artifacts, including weapons, clothes and writings of the Sikh Gurus. Bibi Jagir Kaur became the first woman to be elected president of the SGPC for the second time in September 2004, she had held the same post from March 1999 to November 2000. In 1920 the emerging Akali leadership summoned a general assembly of the Sikhs holding all shades of opinion on 15 November 1920 in vicinity of the Akal Takht in Amritsar; the purpose of this assembly was to elect a representative committee of the Sikhs to administer the Harimandir Sahib Complex and other important historical gurdwaras.
Two days before the proposed conference the British government set up its own committee consisting of 36 Sikhs to manage the Harimandir Sahib. Sikhs held their scheduled meeting and elected a bigger committee consisting of 175 members and named it Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee; the members of the government appointed committee were included in it. Harbans Singh Attari became vice president and Sunder Singh Ramgarhia became secretary of the committee. By that time Master Tara Singh had started taking interest in Sikh religious affairs, he was one of the 175 members elected to the committee. The formation of Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee provided a focal point for the movement for the reformation of Sikh religious places; the Committee began to take over management of gurdwaras one by one, were resisted by incumbent mahants. Starting in late 1920, a large number of reformers both in urban and rural Punjab had joined to form separate and independent religious orders called jathas.
The primary purpose of a jatha was to gain control over local gurdwaras. A jatha under the command of a jathedar would occupy a shrine and try to take over management in its favor from its current incumbents. Sometimes the transfer went peacefully in the case of smaller Gurdwaras with less income resources; this was done sometimes with the threat of force. The Sikh leadership was aware of the importance of the press for the success of any movement, it enlisted the active support and sympathy of some of the important nationalist papers in the country like'The Independent', The Tribune, Kesri, Milap and Bande Matram. Two of the vernacular dailies Akali and the Akali-te-Pardesi, edited by Master Tara Singh played an important role, it brought the necessary awakening among the Sikh masses and prepared them to undertake the struggle for reform. With the direct and indirect support of the Central Sikh League, the Indian National Congress and the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, the Shiromani Akali Dal started a non-violent struggle against the government for the control of the Gurdwaras.
The reports of some immoral acts perpetrated at Tarn-Taran reached the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee at its meeting on 14 January 1921. A fortnight earlier a local jatha was beaten up and not allowed to perform kirtan at the gurdwara, it decided to send a jatha from Amritsar under Jathedar Teja Singh Bhuchar. Jathedar Kartar Singh Jhabbar with Akalis from'Khara Sauda Bar' joined him. On 25 January, a group of about forty workers took over the control of Sri Darbar Sahib Tarn-Taran from its Mahant. In the ensuing conflict two Akalis were killed and several others wounded by the henchmen of the Mahants; the Mahants were ousted from the Gurdwara and the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee appointed a managing committee. At the same time Malcolm Hailey, the governor of the Punjab showed his readiness to assist the Sikhs in taking possession of all the important Gurdwaras in the province through a five-member committee constituted by the Sikh members of the legislative council. Hailey presented a draft of a new Gurdwara Bill to the Akali leaders imprisoned in Lahore fort.
Master Tara Singh, Bhag singh Advocate, gurcharn singh Advocate, Teja Singh Akerpuri Sohan Singh Josh and Sardar Teja Singh Samundri studied each clause of the bill carefully. The bill met all the Akali demands and was passed into law on 28 July 1925 by the Governor General of India after its ratification by the Punjab legislative council; the Act came into force on 1 November 1925 with a gazette notification from the government of Punjab. According to the Act a Central Gurdwara Board elected by the Sikhs was to be the custodian of all-important Sikh places of worship; the first meeting of the Gurdwara board passed a resolution that its designation be changed to Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, accepted by the government. Thus ended what came to be known in common parlance as the'Third Sikh War'; the Punjab government withdrew its orders declaring the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee and other Akali organs as unlawful associations and recognized the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee as a representative body of the Sikhs.
In making the Punjab government agree to such recognition, the Akali leadership undoubtedly scored a victory over the bureaucracy. The Sikh Gurdwara bill met most of the demands of the Sikhs, but the government was willing to release the prisoners conditionally i.e. on the understanding to be given by the Akalis that they would agree to work for the Gurdwara Act. The Shiromani Akali Dal and the executive declared conditions imposed for the release of prisoners as wholly unnecessar