Akhenaten, known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV, was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty, who ruled for 17 years and died in 1336 BC or 1334 BC. He is noted for abandoning traditional Egyptian polytheism and introducing worship centered on the Aten, sometimes described as monolatristic, henotheistic, or quasi-monotheistic. An early inscription likens the Aten to the sun as compared to stars, official language avoids calling the Aten a god, giving the solar deity a status above mere gods. Akhenaten tried to shift his culture from Egypt's traditional religion, but the shifts were not accepted. After his death, his monuments were dismantled and hidden, his statues were destroyed, his name excluded from the king lists. Traditional religious practice was restored, when some dozen years rulers without clear rights of succession from the 18th Dynasty founded a new dynasty, they discredited Akhenaten and his immediate successors, referring to Akhenaten himself as "the enemy" or "that criminal" in archival records.
The stele of Merneptah values Amun, represented giving the cemetery of victory to him, is written on the back of a stele of Akhenaten stolen from one of his temples in Karnak. He was all but lost from history until the discovery during the 19th century of the site of Akhetaten, the city he built and designed for the worship of Aten, at Amarna. Early excavations at Amarna by Flinders Petrie sparked interest in the enigmatic pharaoh, a mummy found in the tomb KV55, unearthed in 1907 in a dig led by Edward R. Ayrton, is that of Akhenaten. DNA analysis has determined that the man buried in KV55 is the father of King Tutankhamun, but its identification as Akhenaten has been questioned. Modern interest in Akhenaten and his queen Nefertiti comes from his connection with Tutankhamun from the unique style and high quality of the pictorial arts he patronized, from ongoing interest in the religion he attempted to establish; the future Akhenaten was a younger son of Chief Queen Tiye. The eldest son Crown Prince Thutmose was recognized as the heir of Amenhotep III but he died young and the next in line for the throne was a prince named Amenhotep.
There is much controversy around whether Amenhotep IV succeeded to the throne on the death of his father Amenhotep III or whether there was a coregency. Current literature by Eric Cline, Nicholas Reeves, Peter Dorman and other scholars comes out against the establishment of a long coregency between the two rulers and in favour of either no coregency or a brief one lasting one to two years at the most. Other literature by Donald Redford, William Murnane, Alan Gardiner and more by Lawrence Berman in 1998 contests the view of any coregency whatsoever between Akhenaten and his father. In February 2014, the Egyptian Ministry for Antiquities announced what it called conclusive evidence that Akhenaten shared power with his father for at least 8 years; the evidence came from the inscriptions found in the Luxor tomb of Vizier Amenhotep-Huy. A team of Spanish archeologists has been working at this tomb. Amenhotep IV was crowned in Thebes and there he started a building program, he decorated the southern entrance to the precincts of the temple of Amun-Re with scenes of his worshiping Re-Harakhti.
He soon decreed the construction of a temple dedicated to the Aten in Eastern Karnak. This Temple of Amenhotep IV was called the Gempaaten; the Gempaaten consisted of a series of buildings, including a palace and a structure called the Hwt Benben, dedicated to Queen Nefertiti. Other Aten temples constructed at Karnak during this time include the Rud-menu and the Teni-menu, which may have been constructed near the Ninth Pylon. During this time he did not repress the worship of Amun, the High Priest of Amun was still active in the fourth year of his reign; the king appears as Amenhotep IV in the tombs of some of the nobles in Thebes: Kheruef and the tomb of Parennefer. In the tomb of Ramose, Amenhotep IV appears on the west wall in the traditional style, seated on a throne with Ramose appearing before the king. On the other side of the doorway, Amenhotep IV and Nefertiti are shown in the window of appearance, with the Aten depicted as the sun disc. In the Theban tomb of Parennefer, Amenhotep IV and Nefertiti are seated on a throne with the sun disk depicted over the king and queen.
Among the latter-known documents referring to Amenhotep IV are two copies of a letter from the Steward Of Memphis Apy to the pharaoh. The documents were found in Gurob and are dated to regnal year 5, third month of the Growing Season, day 19. On day 13, Month 8, in the fifth year of his reign, the king arrived at the site of the new city Akhetaten. A month before that Amenhotep IV had changed his name to Akhenaten. Amenhotep IV changed most of his 5 fold titulary in year 5 of his reign; the only name he kept was his throne name of Neferkheperure. While modern Egyptological pronunciation renders his name as Akhenaten, at the time of his reign his name was pronounced as Akhey-niyatnu. Akhenaten placed much emphasis on the worship of the Egyptian sun whic
Herma Hill Kay was the Barbara Nachtrieb Armstrong Professor of Law at UC Berkeley School of Law. She served as dean of Boalt from 1992 to 2000, she specialized in family conflict of laws. Kay was born in Orangeburg, South Carolina in 1934 to a third-grade teacher mother, Herma Lee Crawford, an Army chaplain father, Charles Esdorn Hill, she studied English at Southern Methodist University and graduated magna cum laude in 1956. At SMU, she was inducted into Phi Beta Kappa, she attended law school at the University of Chicago, graduating third in her class in 1959. After law school, she clerked for one year for Justice Roger Traynor of the California Supreme Court, she joined the faculty at Boalt Hall in 1960 and became dean of that faculty in 1992. Kay died on June 10, 2017, at the age of 82. In 1966, Kay served on the California Governor's Commission on the Family, which proposed that California adopt a no-fault regime for divorce; the state of California adopted a law based on that recommendation, the first of its kind in the United States, in 1970.
Along with Robert Levy, she was co-reporter of the committee that prepared the Uniform Marriage and Divorce Act. In 1969, along with Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Kenneth M. Davidson, authored the first casebook on sex discrimination, Sex-Based Discrimination: Text and Materials. In 1985, Kay was elected to the Council of the American Law Institute. Kay was president of the Association of American Law Schools in 1989 and secretary of the American Bar Association Section on Legal Education and Admissions to the Bar from 1999 to 2001, she received 1992 Margaret Brent Award to Women Lawyers of Distinction and the 2003 Boalt Hall Alumni Association Faculty Lifetime Achievement Award. Kay has been recognized for her teaching, receiving the UC Berkeley Distinguished Teaching Award, in 1962, the Society of American Law Teachers Teaching Award. In 1999, the Boalt Hall Women's Association created a fellowship in Kay's name to support students pursuing "public interest work benefiting women."Berkeley established the Herma Hill Kay Memorial Lecture series.
S. Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg. Articles"Same-Sex Divorce in the Conflict of Laws," 15 Kings College L. J. 63. "'Making Marriage and Divorce Safe for Women' Revisited," 32 Hofstra L. Rev. 71. "U. C.'s Women Law Faculty," 36 U. C. Davis L. Rev. 331. "Women Law School Deans: A Different Breed, Or Just One Of The Boys?" 14 Yale J. L. & Feminism 219. "No-Fault Divorce and Child Custody: Chilling Out the Gender Wars," 36 Fam. L. Q. 27. "The Challenge to Diversity in Legal Education," 34 Ind. L. Rev. 55. "From the Second Sex to the Joint Venture: An Overview of Women's Rights and Family Law in the United States During the Twentieth Century," 88 Calif. L. Rev. 2017. "Adoption in the Conflict of Laws: The UAA, Not the UCCJA, Is the Answer," 84 Calif. L. Rev. 703. "Beyond No-Fault: New Directions in Divorce Reform," in Divorce Reform at the Crossroads 6–36. "An Appraisal of California's No-Fault Divorce Law," 75 Calif. L. Rev. 291. "Equality and Difference: The Case of Pregnancy," 1 Berkeley Women's L. J. 1.
"Marvin v. Marvin: Preserving the Options," 65 Calif. L. Rev. 937. "Making Marriage and Divorce Safe for Women" — review of M. Rheinstein, Marriage Stability and the Law in 60 Calif. L. Rev. 1683. CasebooksKenneth M. Davidson, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Herma Hill Kay, Sex-Based Discrimination: Text and Materials Herma Hill Kay's faculty page at UC Berkeley School of Law
Toshihira Inoguchi was a Japanese Vice-Admiral and served as the commander of the Yamato-Class Battleship Musashi during World War II until his death. Inoguchi held various commands within the Imperial Japanese Navy and had a reputation as its best gunnery theorist. During the Battle of Sibuyan Sea, Musashi was attacked by staggered waves of US Navy dive bombers and torpedo bombers and was sunk. Inoguchi was wounded, chose to go down with the ship. Midshipman—November 21, 1918 Ensign—August 1, 1919 Sublieutenant—December 1, 1921 Lieutenant—December 1, 1924 Lieutenant Commander—November 30, 1929 Commander—November 15, 1934 Captain—November 15, 1939 Rear Admiral—October 15, 1944 Vice Admiral—October 24, 1944