SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Aten

Aten was the focus of Atenism, the religious system established in ancient Egypt by the Eighteenth Dynasty pharaoh Akhenaten. The Aten was the disc of the sun and an aspect of Ra, the sun god in traditional ancient Egyptian religion, but Akhenaten made it the sole focus of official worship during his reign. In his poem "Great Hymn to the Aten", Akhenaten praises Aten as the creator, giver of life, nurturing spirit of the world. Aten is mentioned in the Book of the Dead; the worship of Aten was eradicated by Horemheb. The first known reference to Aten the sun-disk as a deity is in The Story of Sinuhe from the 12th dynasty, in which the deceased king is described as rising as a god to the heavens and uniting with the sun-disk, the divine body merging with its maker. By analogy, the term "silver aten" was sometimes used to refer to the moon; the solar Aten was extensively worshipped as a god in the reign of Amenhotep III when it was depicted as a falcon-headed man much like Ra. In the reign of Amenhotep III's successor, Amenhotep IV, the Aten became the central god of the Egyptian state religion, Amenhotep IV changed his name to Akhenaten to reflect his close link with the new supreme deity.

The full title of Akhenaten's god was "Ra-Horakhty who rejoices in the horizon, in his Name as the Light, in the sun disc." This lengthy name was shortened to Ra-Horus-Aten or just Aten in many texts, but the god of Akhenaten raised to supremacy is considered a synthesis of ancient gods viewed in a new and different way. The god is considered to be both masculine and feminine simultaneously. All creation was thought to exist within the god. In particular, the god was not depicted in anthropomorphic form, but as rays of light extending from the sun's disk. Furthermore, the god's name came to be written within a cartouche, along with the titles given to a Pharaoh, another break with ancient tradition. Ra-Horus, more referred to as Ra-Horakhty, is a synthesis of two other gods, both of which are attested from early on. During the Amarna period, this synthesis was seen as the invisible source of energy of the sun god, of which the visible manifestation was the Aten, the solar disk, thus Ra-Horus-Aten was a development of old ideas.

The real change, as some see it, was the apparent abandonment of all other gods Amun-Ra, prohibition of idolatry, the debatable introduction of quasi-monotheism by Akhenaten. The syncretism is apparent in the Great Hymn to the Aten in which Re-Herakhty and Aten are merged into the creator god. Others see Akhenaten as a practitioner of an Aten monolatry, as he did not deny the existence of other gods. Other scholars call the religion henotheistic. In the Old Kingdom the word "Aten" was a noun meaning "disc" which referred to anything flat and circular. Only in the Middle Kingdom, did it come to be the name of a god during Akhenaten's rule. Aten's name is displayed in two cartouches, carrying royal implications in the framework around the name; some have interpreted this to mean that Akhenaten was the embodiment of Aten, the worship of Aten is directly worship of Akhenaten. Principles of Aten's religion were recorded on the rock tomb walls of Akhetaten. In the religion of Aten, night is a time to fear.

Work is done best when Aten, is present. Aten cares for every creature, created a Nile river in the sky for the Syrians. Aten created all people; the rays of the sun disk only holds out life to the royal family. There is only one known instance of the Aten talking, "said by the'Living Aten': my rays illuminate..."When a good person dies, they continue to live in the City of Light for the dead in Akhetaten. The conditions are the same after death; the explanation as to why Aten could not be represented was that Aten was beyond creation. Thus the scenes of gods carved in stone depicted animals and human forms, now showed Aten as an orb above with life-giving rays stretching toward the royal figure; the king was depicted singularly in relation to divine power. This power transcended animal form. Akhenaten represented himself not as a god, but as a son of Aten, shifting the previous methods of pharaohs claiming to be the embodiment of Horus; this contributes to the belief that Atenism should be considered a monotheistic religion where "the living Aten beside whom there is no other.

The cult centre of Aten was at the new city Akhetaten. The principles of Aten's cult were recorded on the rock walls of tombs of Amarna. Different from other ancient Egyptian temples, temples of Aten were open-roofed to allow the rays of the sun. Doorways had raised thresholds. No statues of Aten were allowed. However, these were replaced by functionally equivalent representations of Akhenaten and his family venerating the Aten and receiving the ankh from him. Priests had less to do since offerings were limited, oracles were not needed. Temples of Aten did not collect tax. Elite women we

Palazzo delle Assicurazioni Generali, Florence

The Palazzo delle Assicurazioni Generali is a building in the Piazza della Signoria in Florence, Italy. The Palazzo Fenzi, built for the Fenzi banking family and designed in the Neo-Renaissance style by Giuseppe Martelli and is one of the few purpose built commercial buildings in the centre of the city though it housed on the upper floors reception rooms for the Fenzi family; the site was occupied by the "Pisan Loggia" and the "Chiese de Santa Cecilia" While the architecture of the palazzo is undoubtedly inspired by that of the Palazzo Medici Riccardi in Florence, the Palazzo delle Assicurazioni Generali was never intended to be a private house but the local headquarters of the General Insurance Company, founded in Trieste in 1831. There are other Palazzi delle Assicurazioni Generali in other Italian cities most notably Rome and Milan. During the latter half of the 19th century the Assicurazioni Generali were expanding not only in Italy but throughout Europe; the Assicurazioni Generali employed retrospective architectural style to reflect the surroundings of their offices in Rome the palazzo imitates the Palazzo Venezia which it faces, while in Milan the Palazzo delle Assicurazioni Generali is in a form of 19th century Baroque Palazzo delle Assicurazioni Generali, Milano</ref> known as Beaux Arts.

The Florence Palazzo delle Assicurazioni unsuccessfully vies for dominance in the piazza with the more historical and architecturally important Palazzo Signoria, today known as the Palazzo Vecchio. In spite of its height and size the architecture of the Palazzo delle Assicurazioni Generali harmonises with that of the surrounding buildings, does not appear as a new imposter in the piazza. However, this is not a view shared by all, one source describes those buildings of Piazza della Signoria occupied by banks and Insurance companies as "seeming to belong to some cold northern climate rather than to the city that gave birth to the colour and vitality of the Renaissance" Part of the ground floor is home to one of Florence's more fashionable and historical cafés – "Rivoire", founded in 1872. Florence Monuments, Piazza della Signoria Palazzo delle Assicurazioni Generali, Milano The Generali Group Lord, Maria. Insight City Guide, Florence. Singapore: APA Publications

Daniel Wise (playwright)

Daniel S. Wise is an American playwright, director and author. Born in Chicago April 5, 1969, his productions have been presented New York City, on and off Broadway, as well as in Japan, China, South Korea, Singapore and South Africa, he pioneered the first major Broadway production in Russia. As artistic director of the Philharmonia Europa, he brought Eastern European musicians together with an American cast for a two-year North American tour of Troika/Columbia Artists Management's The Music of Andrew Lloyd Webber, starring Michael Bolton, he produced The Gathering on Broadway, a play about a Holocaust survivor's personal struggle in coming to terms with the next generation of Jews and Germans, starring Hal Linden. Wise has collaborated on original works with Joseph Stein, Sheldon Harnick, Marvin Hamlisch, Stephen Schwartz, David Shire, Elizabeth Swados and Franco Zeffirelli, he is playwright and director of Soul Doctor, a new Broadway musical about the life of the father of contemporary Jewish Music Shlomo Carlebach, which opened at Circle in the Square Theatre, in August 2013 to rave reviews.

Wise grew up in New York City as a yeshiva student. He studied the violin with Vladimir Zyskind. While in his teens, he began writing freelance journalism for newspapers and comedy shorts for television, he went on to study Talmudic jurisprudence at the Rabbinical College of Canada, where he was ordained by the Chief Rabbi of Montreal Pinhas Hirschprung. He published a multi-volume codification of Talmudic law, studied as curriculum in many Talmudic academies