The Ōu Mountains are a mountain range in the Tōhoku region of Honshū, Japan. The range is the longest range in Japan and stretches 500 km south from the Natsudomari Peninsula of Aomori Prefecture to the Nasu volcanoes at the northern boundary of the Kantō region. Though long, the range is only about 35 kilometres wide; the highest point in the range is 2,038 metres. The range includes several known mountains: Hakkōda Mountains, Mount Iwate, Mount Zaō, Mount Azuma, Mount Adatara; these mountains formed the boundary between historical provinces of Mutsu and Dewa. The kanji for the name of the mountain range was created from one kanji of the two provinces, 奥 and 羽, respectively; the Ōu Mountains began to form in the Pliocene. They sit over the middle of the inner arc of the Northeastern Japan Arc; this is the result of the Pacific Plate subducting under the Okhotsk Plate. A chain of Quaternary volcanoes along the range forms the volcanic front
Romanization of Japanese
The romanization of Japanese is the use of Latin script to write the Japanese language. This method of writing is sometimes referred to in Japanese as rōmaji (. There are several different romanization systems; the three main ones are Hepburn romanization, Kunrei-shiki romanization, Nihon-shiki romanization. Variants of the Hepburn system are the most used. Japanese is written in a combination of logographic characters borrowed from Chinese and syllabic scripts that ultimately derive from Chinese characters. Rōmaji may be used in any context where Japanese text is targeted at non-Japanese speakers who cannot read kanji or kana, such as for names on street signs and passports, in dictionaries and textbooks for foreign learners of the language, it is used to transliterate Japanese terms in text written in English on topics related to Japan, such as linguistics, literature and culture. Rōmaji is the most common way to input Japanese into word processors and computers, may be used to display Japanese on devices that do not support the display of Japanese characters.
All Japanese who have attended elementary school since World War II have been taught to read and write romanized Japanese. Therefore all Japanese are able to read and write Japanese using rōmaji, although it is rare in Japan to use this method to write Japanese, most Japanese are more comfortable reading kanji and kana; the earliest Japanese romanization system was based on Portuguese orthography. It was developed around 1548 by a Japanese Catholic named Yajiro. Jesuit priests used the system in a series of printed Catholic books so that missionaries could preach and teach their converts without learning to read Japanese orthography; the most useful of these books for the study of early modern Japanese pronunciation and early attempts at romanization was the Nippo jisho, a Japanese–Portuguese dictionary written in 1603. In general, the early Portuguese system was similar to Nihon-shiki in its treatment of vowels; some consonants were transliterated differently: for instance, the /k/ consonant was rendered, depending on context, as either c or q, the /ɸ/ consonant as f.
The Jesuits printed some secular books in romanized Japanese, including the first printed edition of the Japanese classic The Tale of the Heike, romanized as Feiqe no monogatari, a collection of Aesop's Fables. The latter continued to be read after the suppression of Christianity in Japan. Following the expulsion of Christians from Japan in the late 1590s and early 17th century, rōmaji fell out of use and was used sporadically in foreign texts until the mid-19th century, when Japan opened up again. From the mid-19th century onward, several systems were developed, culminating in the Hepburn system, named after James Curtis Hepburn who used it in the third edition of his Japanese–English dictionary, published in 1887; the Hepburn system included representation of some sounds. For example, Lafcadio Hearn's book Kwaidan shows the older kw- pronunciation. In the Meiji era, some Japanese scholars advocated abolishing the Japanese writing system and using rōmaji instead; the Nihon-shiki romanization was an outgrowth of that movement.
Several Japanese texts were published in rōmaji during this period, but it failed to catch on. In the early 20th century, some scholars devised syllabary systems with characters derived from Latin that were less popular since they were not based on any historical use of the Latin script. Today, the use of Nihon-shiki for writing Japanese is advocated by the Oomoto sect and some independent organizations. During the Allied occupation of Japan, the government of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers made it official policy to romanize Japanese. However, that policy failed and a more moderate attempt at Japanese script reform followed. Hepburn romanization follows English phonology with Romance vowels, it is an intuitive method of showing Anglophones the pronunciation of a word in Japanese. It was standardized in the United states as American National Standard System for the Romanization of Japanese, but that status was abolished on October 6, 1994. Hepburn is the most common romanization system in use today in the English-speaking world.
The Revised Hepburn system of romanization uses a macron to indicate some long vowels and an apostrophe to note the separation of confused phonemes. For example, the name じゅんいちろう is written with the kana characters ju-n-i-chi-ro-u, romanized as Jun'ichirō in Revised Hepburn. Without the apostrophe, it would not be possible to distinguish this correct reading from the incorrect ju-ni-chi-ro-u; this system is used in Japan and among foreign students and academics. Nihon-shiki romanization, which predates the Hepburn system, was invented as a method for Japanese to write their own language in Latin characters, rather than to transcribe it for Westerners as Hepburn was, it follows the Japanese syllabary strictly, with no adjustments for changes in pronunciation. It is therefore the only major system of romanization that allows near-lossless mapping to and from kana, it has been st
The Mogami River is a river in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. It is 224 km long and has a watershed of 7,040 km², it is regarded as one of the three most rapid rivers of Japan. The river rises from southern Yamagata Prefecture and flows to the north, turns west at Shinjō and flows into the Sea of Japan at Sakata. Water transportation once flourished on the river and carried local products such as safflowers and rice to the Kansai region; the Mogami River appears as an utamakura in Japanese poetry, with the influential 17th-century poet Matsuo Bashō composing several hokku regarding the river during his travels alongside it. Some were revised as haiku in the memoir of his journeys, including this well-known poem: 五月雨をあつめて早し最上川 samidare o atsumete hayashi Mogami-gawagathering the rains of the wet season — swift the Mogami River The character Yūko Aioi in the Nichijou manga has inner monologues in haiku form, all ending with the name of the river as a complete non sequitur. Mogami-gawa is the name of the anthem of Yamagata Prefecture written by Emperor Hirohito.
The Japanese Navy had two different cruisers named Mogami. 38°55′23″N 139°48′32″E
Norihisa Satake is a Japanese politician. A former two-term mayor of Akita City in Akita Prefecture, first elected in 2001, he is the Governor of Akita Prefecture after winning election on April 12, 2009, he is a native of Senboku, Akita known as Kakunodate Village in Senboku District, a graduate of Tohoku University with a B. E. degree in Precision Engineering. He is a descendant of the North Satake branch of the Satake clan. After graduating from Tohoku University in 1971, he joined the Akita Prefectural Office in 1972 and held a series of positions until 1997. In that year, he helped to establish the Regional Economic Research Council. In July 2001, he won his first of two elections for the post of Mayor of Akita City. During his time in office, he was the chairman and vice-chairman of the National Mayors Association of Japan and the Governmental Select Committee on Taxation. While still Mayor of Akita City, he became a candidate for Governor of Akita Prefecture in February 2009. Though being a political independent, he earned the support of the local Liberal Democratic Party Alliance and the Social Democratic Party Alliance in Akita Prefecture.
He won election for the post over several other candidates on April 12, 2009. 秋田県知事選 佐竹氏当選確実. NHK. Retrieved April 12, 2009. 佐竹のりひさプロフィール. 佐竹のりひさ.net. Retrieved April 12, 2009
Districts of Japan
The district is today a geographical and statistical unit comprising one or several rural municipalities in Japan. It was used as an administrative unit in Japan in antiquity and between 1878 and 1921 and was equivalent to the county of the United States, ranking at the level below prefecture and above town or village, same as city; the district was called kōri and has ancient roots in Japan. Although the Nihon Shoki says they were established during the Taika Reforms, kōri was written 評, it was not until the Taihō Code that kōri came to be written as 郡. Under the Taihō Code, the administrative unit of province was above district, the village was below; as the power of the central government decayed over the centuries, the provinces and districts, although never formally abolished and still connected to administrative positions handed out by the Imperial court lost their relevance as administrative units and were superseded by a hierarchy of feudal holdings. In the Edo period, the primary subdivisions were the shogunate cities, governed by urban administrators, the shogunate domain, major holdings, there was a number of minor territories such as spiritual holdings.
For this reason alone, they were impractical as geographical units, in addition, Edo period feudalism was tied to the nominal income of a territory, not the territory itself, so the shogunate could and did redistribute territories between domains, their borders were subject to change if in some places holdings remained unchanged for centuries. Provinces and districts remained the most important geographical frame of reference throughout the middle and early modern ages up to the restoration and beyond – the prefectures were created in direct succession to the shogunate era feudal divisions and their borders kept shifting through mergers and territorial transfers until they reached their present state in the 1890s. Cities, since their introduction in 1889, have always belonged directly to prefectures and are independent from districts. Before 1878, districts had subdivided the whole country with only few exceptions. In 1878, the districts were reactivated as administrative units, but the major cities were separated from the districts.
All prefectures were – except for some remote islands – contiguously subdivided into districts/counties and urban districts/cites, the precursors to the 1889 shi. Geographically, the rural districts were based on the ancient districts, but in many places they were merged, split up or renamed, in some areas, prefectural borders went through ancient districts and the districts were reorganized to match. District administrations were set up in 1878, but district assemblies were only created in 1890 with the introduction of the district code as part of the Prussian-influenced local government reforms of 1888-90. From the 1890s, district governments were run by a collective executive council, headed by the appointed district chief and consisting of 3 additional members elected by the district assembly and one appointed by the prefectural governor – similar to cities and prefectures. In 1921, Hara Takashi, the first non-oligarchic prime minister, managed to get his long-sought abolition of the districts passed – unlike the municipal and prefectural assemblies, an early platform for the Freedom and People's Rights Movement before the Imperial Diet was established and became bases of party power, the district governments were considered to be a stronghold of anti-liberal Yamagata Aritomo's followers and the centralist-bureaucratic Home Ministry tradition.
The district assemblies and governments were abolished a few years later. As of today and villages belong directly to prefectures. However, for geographical and statistical purposes, districts continue to be used and are updated for municipal mergers or status changes: i
The Satake clan was a Japanese samurai clan that claimed descent from the Minamoto clan. Its first power base was in Hitachi Province; the clan was subdued by Minamoto no Yoritomo in the late 12th century, but entered Yoritomo's service as vassals. In the Muromachi period, the Satake served as provincial deputy of Hitachi Province, under the aegis of the Ashikaga shogunate; the clan sided with the Western Army during the Battle of Sekigahara, was punished by Tokugawa Ieyasu, who moved it to a smaller territory in northern Dewa Province at the start of the Edo period. The Satake survived as lords of the Kubota Domain. Over the course of the Edo period, two major branches of the Satake clan were established, one ruled the fief of Iwasaki, the other one the fief of Kubota-Shinden. During the Boshin War of 1868–69, the Satake were signatories to the pact that formed the Ōuetsu Reppan Dōmei, but after internal debate and a disagreement with the Sendai Domain, the clan switched sides and joined the imperial forces in subduing the alliance.
As with all other daimyō families, the Satake clan was relieved of its title in 1871. The Satake clan claimed descent from Satake Masayoshi, the grandson of the prominent 11th century warrior Minamoto no Yoshimitsu. Yoshimitsu received land in Mutsu Province and Hitachi Province as a reward for his military service, took up residence at Satake village, in Hitachi. Yoshimitsu willed the territory around Satake village to Yoshinobu. Yoshinobu, in turn, passed it on to Masayoshi; the Satake clan would remain in Hitachi until they were ordered to move in 1602. In 1106, Masayoshi led a rebellion against Minamoto no Yoshikuni, a power figure in neighboring Shimotsuke Province, but was defeated and killed by Yoshikuni, who followed him back to Hitachi. During the Genpei War, Masayoshi's son Takayoshi sided with Taira no Kiyomori; the Satake clan was defeated by Minamoto no Yoritomo in 1180, its territory confiscated. Hideyoshi served in the attack on Mutsu Province; the Satake clan returned to its old territory in Hitachi.
In the Muromachi period, the Satake family's heads served as hereditary governors of Hitachi Province. They were vassals of the Ashikaga shogunate's Kamakura-kubō, the Kamakura-based official who oversaw the Ashikaga shogunate's affairs in the Kantō region; the Satake clan saw a great deal of military service under the Ashikaga banner. In the Sengoku period, the Satake worked toward unifying the rebellious clans of the Hitachi region under their control. Satake Yoshishige, family head during the early Sengoku period, was renowned for his ferocity in battle, he fought against the Later Hōjō clan, who were extending their power into southern Hitachi. One such encounter was the Battle of Numajiri, where 20,000 men under Yoshishige fought 80,000 Hōjō troops; the Satake due in part to the use of over 8600 matchlock rifles by their troops. In 1588 and again in 1589, the Satake fought with the Date clan at Sukagawa, but were defeated by forces under the command of Date Masamune. In 1590, under the headship of Yoshishige's son Satake Yoshinobu, the Satake clan pledged fealty to Toyotomi Hideyoshi during the Siege of Odawara.
After the fall of Odawara, Hideyoshi accepted them as vassals, guaranteed their lordship of a 540,000 koku swath of territory in Hitachi Province. Having received recognition from Hideyoshi as the ruler of Hitachi Province, Yoshinobu's drive for unifying the province under his rule was strengthened, he brought nearly all of the province under his control, with the exception of the Tsuchiura and Shimodate areas, the control of which Hideyoshi had assured to the Yūki clan. In 1593, the Satake clan joined in Hideyoshi's invasion of Korea, deploying troops to Nagoya Castle in Hizen Province. In 1600, the Satake sided with the Western Army at the Battle of Sekigahara, were discovered to be in secret communication with Ishida Mitsunari, the leader of the Western Army. After the Western Army's defeat by the Eastern forces of Tokugawa Ieyasu, the Satake clan was allowed to remain where they were in Hitachi but they would be punished by the victorious Tokugawa; the clan's income was reduced and in 1602 the clan was ordered to relocate to Kubota, a much smaller fief in northern Japan, where they remained until 1871.
Kubota's income level was 205,000 koku, it was classified as an outside daimyō. The income level remained constant throughout its history; the domain had agricultural crises, which resulted in several peasant uprisings throughout the course of its history. It was beset by an internal o-ie sōdō conflict, the Satake disturbance, brought on by financial issues. Satake Yoshiatsu, the 8th generation lord of Kubota, was an accomplished artist. Yoshiatsu painted a number of paintings in the Dutch style, produced three treatises on European painting techniques, including the depiction of perspective, he was a student of Dutch studies scholar Hiraga Gennai, who he had invited up to Akita to advise him on management of the domain's copper mines. It was during Yoshiatsu's lifetime that the Akita school of art was born and flourished; the Kubota domain was uncommon in that it contained more than one castle, despite the Tokugawa shogunate's "one castle per domain" rule. The main castle was Kubota Castle, but there were castles at Yokote and Ōdate, five fortified estat
Ono no Komachi
Ono no Komachi was a Japanese waka poet, one of the Rokkasen — the six best waka poets of the early Heian period. She was renowned for her unusual beauty, Komachi is today a synonym for feminine beauty in Japan, she counts among the Thirty-six Poetry Immortals. Nothing of Komachi's life is known for certain, save for the names of various men with whom she engaged in romantic affairs and whose poetry exchanges with her are preserved in the Kokin Wakashū, she was born between 820 and 830, she was most active in composing poetry around the middle of the ninth century. Extensive study has gone into trying to ascertain her place of birth, her family and so on, but without conclusive results; the Edo-period scholar Arai Hakuseki advanced the theory that there was more than one woman named Komachi and that the legends about her referred to different people. This theory was expanded to conjecture that there were four "Komachis", it has been conjectured that she was a lady-of-the-bedchamber in the service of Emperor Ninmyō, when the latter died in 850 she started relationships with other men.
According to one tradition, she was born in what is now Akita Prefecture, daughter of Yoshisada, Lord of Dewa. The Noh play Sotoba Komachi by Kan'ami describes her as "the daughter of Ono no Yoshizane, the governor of Dewa", her social status is uncertain. She may have been a lady-in-waiting of an emperor; the headnote to poem #938 in the Kokinshū implies she had some sort of connection to Fun'ya no Yasuhide. Legends about Komachi had developed as early as the eleventh century, they were used extensively by the writers of Noh plays. Stories abound of Komachi in love. One of the legends about her is that she was a lover of Ariwara no Narihira, her contemporary poet and a member of the Rokkasen, it has been speculated that this legend may derive from the perhaps-accidental placement of one her poems next to one of Narihira's. Another group of legends concern her cruel treatment of her lovers, notably Fukakusa no Shōshō, a high-ranking courtier. Komachi promised that if he visited her continuously for a hundred nights she would become his lover.
He died on the ninety-ninth night. A third type of legend tells of an aged Komachi, forced to wander in ragged clothes, her beauty faded and her appearance so wretched that she is mocked by all around her, as punishment for her earlier mistreatment of her lovers, yet another group of legends concern her skull lying in a field. A different categorization system for Komachi legends was given by Masako Nakano, she gives five groupings: "tales of beauty" "tales of sensuality" "tales of haughtiness" "tales of poetry/poetic virtue" "tales of downfall/bemoaning old age" Almost all of Komachi's extant poems are melancholic. Poet and translator Kenneth Rexroth and Ikuko Atsumi said of her poetry: Her beauty may be legendary but her rank as one of the greatest erotic poets in any language is not, her poems begin the extreme verbal complexity which distinguishes the poetry of the Kokinshū Anthology from the presentational immediacy of the Man'yōshū. Most of her waka are about solitude or passionate love.
In the Kokinshū, all but one of her poems—the one that appeared in the Hyakunin Isshu, quoted below—were classified as either "love" or "miscellaneous" poems. She is the only female poet referred to in the kana preface of the anthology, which describes her style as "containing naivety in old style but delicacy". One of her poems was included as #9 in Fujiwara no Teika's Ogura Hyakunin Isshu: The poem was included in the Kokinshū as #133, in the section dedicated to seasonal poetry; the poem is filled with many layers of significance, with every word carrying more than one meaning. It was the subject of a short essay appended to Peter McMillan's translation of the Ogura Hyakunin Isshu. In his Seeds in the Heart, translator and literary historian Donald Keene said that "he intensity of emotion expressed in poetry not only was without precedent but would be encountered in years. Komachi's poetry, however extravagant in expression, always seems sincere." He praised her poetry along with that of the other poets of the “dark age” of waka in the ninth century in the following terms: The passionate accents of the waka of Komachi and Narihira would never be surpassed, the poetry as a whole is of such charm as to make the appearance of the Kokinshū seem less a brilliant dawn after a dark night than the culmination of a steady enhancement of the expressive powers of the most typical Japanese poetic art.
The many legends about her have made her the best-known of the Rokkasen in modern times. Until recently, when the title "Miss XYZ" became common in Japan, the woman considered most beautiful in such-and-such town or region would be dubbed "XYZ Komachi", she and her contemporary Ariwara no Narihira are considered archetypes of female and male beauty and both feature in literary works Noh plays. Komachi features in later-period literature, including five Noh plays: Sotoba Komachi, Sekidera Komachi, Ōmu Komachi, Sōshi Arai Komachi and Kayoi Komachi; these works tend to focus on her talent for waka and her love affairs and the vanity of a life spent indulging in romantic liaisons. Komachi's old age is frequently portrayed: when she has lost her beauty, has been abandoned by her former lo