click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Aksai Chin

Aksai Chin is a region administered by China as part of its Xinjiang and Tibet autonomous regions, claimed by India as part of the union territory of Ladakh and constituting the eastern portion of the larger Kashmir region, the subject of a dispute between India and China since 1962. The etymology of both words in Aksai Chin is disputed. Majority of the sources interpret Aksai to be a word of Turkic or Uyghur origin with the meaning "white stone desert", this includes British colonial sources, modern Western sources, Chinese sources, number of Indian sources. Instead of a desert, some modern sources interpret it to mean "white brook". However, at least one source interpret Askai to mean "eastern" of Yarkandi dialect; the meaning regarding the word "Chin" is disputed. It is taken to mean "China" by most Chinese sources some Western sources, few Indian sources. At least one source take it to mean "pass". Most other sources leave it out of their interpretations; because of its 5,000 metres elevation, the desolation of Aksai Chin meant that it had no human importance other than as an ancient trade route, which provided a temporary pass during summer for caravans of yaks between Xinjiang and Tibet.

For military campaigns, the region held great importance, as it was on the only route from Tarim Basin to Tibet, passable all year round. The Dzungar Khanate used this route to enter Tibet in 1717. One of the earliest treaties regarding the boundaries in the western sector was signed in 1842. Ladakh was conquered a few years earlier by the armies of Raja Gulab Singh under the suzerainty of the Sikh Empire. Following an unsuccessful campaign into Tibet in 1840, Gulab Singh and the Tibetans signed a treaty, agreeing to stick to the "old, established frontiers", which were left unspecified; the British defeat of the Sikhs in 1846 resulted in the transfer of the Jammu and Kashmir region including Ladakh to the British, who installed Gulab Singh as the Maharaja under their suzerainty. British commissioners contacted Chinese officials to negotiate the border, who did not show any interest; the British boundary commissioners fixed the southern end of the boundary at Pangong Lake, but regarded the area north of it as terra incognita.

William Johnson, a civil servant with the Survey of India proposed the "Johnson Line" in 1865, which put Aksai Chin in Kashmir. This was the time of the Dungan revolt, when China did not control most of Xinjiang, so this line was never presented to the Chinese. Johnson presented this line to the Maharaja of Kashmir, who claimed the 18,000 square kilometres contained within, by some accounts territory further north as far as the Sanju Pass in the Kun Lun Mountains; the Maharajah of Kashmir constructed a fort at Shahidulla, had troops stationed there for some years to protect caravans. Most sources placed Shahidulla and the upper Karakash River within the territory of Xinjiang. According to Francis Younghusband, who explored the region in the late 1880s, there was only an abandoned fort and not one inhabited house at Shahidulla when he was there – it was just a convenient staging post and a convenient headquarters for the nomadic Kirghiz; the abandoned fort had been built a few years earlier by the Kashmiris.

In 1878 the Chinese had reconquered Xinjiang, by 1890 they had Shahidulla before the issue was decided. By 1892, China had erected boundary markers at Karakoram Pass. In 1897 a British military officer, Sir John Ardagh, proposed a boundary line along the crest of the Kun Lun Mountains north of the Yarkand River. At the time Britain was concerned at the danger of Russian expansion as China weakened, Ardagh argued that his line was more defensible; the Ardagh line was a modification of the Johnson line, became known as the "Johnson-Ardagh Line". In 1893, Hung Ta-chen, a senior Chinese official at St. Petersburg, gave maps of the region to George Macartney, the British consul general at Kashgar, which coincided in broad details.:pp. 73, 78 In 1899, Britain proposed a revised boundary suggested by Macartney and developed by the Governor General of India Lord Elgin. This boundary placed the Lingzi Tang plains, which are south of the Laktsang range, in India, Aksai Chin proper, north of the Laktsang range, in China.

This border, along the Karakoram Mountains, was proposed and supported by British officials for a number of reasons. The Karakoram Mountains formed a natural boundary, which would set the British borders up to the Indus River watershed while leaving the Tarim River watershed in Chinese control, Chinese control of this tract would present a further obstacle to Russian advance in Central Asia; the British presented this line, known as the Macartney–MacDonald Line, to the Chinese in 1899 in a note by Sir Claude MacDonald. The Qing government did not respond to the note. According to some commentators, China believed. Both the Johnson-Ardagh and the Macartney-MacDonald lines were used on British maps of India; until at least 1908, the British took the Macdonald line to be the boundary, but in 1911, the Xinhai Revolution resulted in the collapse of central power in China, by the end of World War I, the British used the Johnson Line. However they took no steps to assert actual control on the ground.

In 1927, the line was adjusted again as the government of British India abandoned the Johnson line in favor of a line along the Karakoram range further south. However, the maps still showed the Johnson Line. From 1917 to 1933, the Postal Atlas of China

Elaine Fantham

Elaine Fantham was a British-Canadian classicist whose expertise lay in Latin literature comedy, epic poetry and rhetoric, in the social history of Roman women. Much of her work was concerned with the intersection of Greek and Roman history, she spoke fluent Italian and French and presented lectures and conference papers around the world—including in Germany, the Netherlands, Norway and Australia. Her commentaries on Senecan tragedy and Ovid's Fasti in particular led to renewed interest in these subjects, her articles on aspects of the representation and realities of women at Rome remain a foundation for academic work in these areas. She was classics commentator on NPR's Weekend Edition. Fantham was Giger Professor of Latin at Princeton University from 1986 to 1999. Fantham studied at Somerville College, where she read Literae Humaniores and received a first class BA in 1954, converted to an MA in 1957, she held a Leverhulme Research Fellowship at the University of Liverpool 1956–58. She completed her PhD at the University of Liverpool in 1965.

Its thesis was entitled'A Commentary on the Curculio of Plautus', was examined by R. B. Austin and O. Skutsch. Fantham taught in a secondary school for girls in St Andrews, for seven years, at the University of St Andrews, she moved to Indiana University Bloomington, was a Visiting Lecturer for two years. Following this, Fantham moved to Toronto where she taught at the University of Toronto for eighteen years, being appointed a Visiting Professor at Ohio State University, in Columbus, Ohio in 1983, she was chair of the Department of Classics at Princeton University from 1989 to 1992. In 1986 the university appointed her Giger Professor of Latin, a position which she held until her retirement in 2000. After retiring from Princeton University, Fantham lived in Toronto with her daughter, continued to make significant contributions to the department of Classics at the University of Toronto, she taught an annual course there from 2003. She was active around the world. Between 1976 and 1979 Fantham was a member of the editorial committee of Phoenix, a journal of the Classical Association of Canada and did much to establish the international reputation of the journal.

Fantham was Vice-President of the Classical Association of Canada from 1982 to 1984, Vice-President and President of the Canadian Society for the History of Rhetoric. From 2003 to 2004 Fantham was President of the American Philological Association and, from 2001 to 2006, she was Honorary President of the Classical Association of Canada. On 5 January 2008 Fantham was given the Distinguished Service Award of the American Philological Association. In 2012 she was made an Honorary Fellow of University of Toronto. In May 2015 Fantham was awarded the Classical Association of Canada's Award of Merit. Elaine Fantham was born in United Kingdom, she was married to the mathematician Peter Fantham and had two children and Roy. Comparative Studies in Republican Latin Imagery ISBN 0802052622 Women in the Classical World: Image and Text ISBN 0-19-506727-4. Roman Literary Culture: From Cicero to Apuleius ISBN 0-8018-5204-8. Ovid's Metamorphoses, ISBN 0-19-515409-6; the Roman World of Cicero's De Oratore, ISBN 0-19-926315-9.

Julia Augusti. The Emperor's Daughter ISBN 0-415-33146-3. Latin Poets and Italian Gods ISBN 978-1-4426-4059-7 Roman Literary Culture: From Plautus to Macrobius Rolando Ferri, J. Mira Seo, Katharina Volk, Callida Musa: Papers on Latin Literature in Honor of R. Elaine Fantham. Materiali e discussioni per l'analisi dei testi classici 61 ISBN 9788862271752.'Elaine Fantham', The Classical World, by Judith P. Hallett, vol. 99, no. 4 442 Greek Tragedy and its Legacy: Essays Presented to D. J. Conacher, edited by Martin Cropp, Elaine Fantham, S. E. Scully Caesar Against Liberty?: Perspectives on His Autocracy, edited by Elaine Fantham and Francis Cairns The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome, edited by Michael Gagarin and Elaine Fantham The Emperor Nero: A Guide to the Ancient Sources, edited by Anthony A. Barrett, Elaine Fantham, John C. Yardley Seneca, Troades: A Literary Introduction with Text and Commentary Ovid, Fasti IV, introduction and commentary in English with the Latin text by Elaine Fantham Lucan, De Bello Civili Book II, edited by Elaine Fantham with the Latin text and commentary Cicero's pro L. Murena Oratio and commentary by Elaine Fantham, American Philological Association Texts and Commentaries Series Seneca's Troades: A Literary Introduction with Text and Commentary Erasmus, Erasmus: Literary and Educational Writings, co-edited with Erika Rummel Virgil, translated by Peter Fallon.

Tony Carpenter

Tony Carpenter is a fictional character from the BBC soap opera EastEnders, played by Oscar James, from 28 February 1985 until 28 May 1987. Happy-go-lucky Tony tries to carve himself a successful business and steady home for his family, but nothing he does is good enough for his nagging wife. Trinidadian born Tony is married to his second wife, Hannah Carpenter, with whom he has two children, Kelvin Carpenter and Cassie Carpenter; however and Hannah are separated and Hannah is in a relationship with another man. Kelvin lives with Tony. Tony has various altercations with the local villain Nick Cotton, is understandably furious when he discovers that Nick has joined a racist organisation. After Nick taunts Kelvin about the colour of his skin, Tony teaches him a lesson, which at least manages to scare him out of spreading his racial hatred for a while. In February 1985, Tony secures himself a job renovating The Queen Victoria public house and gives the unemployed Arthur Fowler a job as his aid, it is whilst.

Angie has grown tired of her cheating husband, Den Watts, whilst he is on a holiday in Spain with his mistress, Angie seduces Tony and they embark on an affair. Tony takes the relationship but Angie is only using him to get back at Den and make him jealous; the affair is conducted in secret, but after Angie initiates a kiss in The Queen Vic with Tony, she is caught by her adoptive daughter, Sharon Watts. Angie is forced to use bribery to keep her daughter from informing her husband. Upon Den's return, Angie calls off the affair but it is not long before Sharon tells her father that Angie has been unfaithful. However, Den cares more about his reputation than her and tells her that he does not care about the affair, so long as it is done discreetly. Tony is hurt by the whole ordeal, but he is more concerned for his own safety, should Den find out that it was him his wife was seeing. Tony's identity is never disclosed to Den, though Den works it out. Hannah arrives at Tony's house with the disturbing news that her new lover, Neville Agard, had been beating both her and their daughter Cassie.

Tony is furious and promptly confronts Neville, returning with Hannah and Cassie's belongings and a cut lip. Tony and Hannah reunite and she and Cassie move in, Tony is confused when Hannah wants to live in the flat above Tony's instead of with him. Problems still persist and Hannah nags Tony and makes it clear to him that Walford is not good enough for her. Things reach a climax. Hannah can not condone Tony's violent actions. Hannah subsequently decides that the marriage is over and she leaves Walford to live with her sister. Tony spends the rest of the year driving a car for Ali Osman's cab firm, he gets himself into trouble when he buys some stolen silverware from Nick, who tries to blackmail him. Tony tires of life in Walford and a few months he departs Albert Square for Trinidad, leaving Kelvin in charge of his property. Tony Carpenter was one of the original twenty-three characters invented by the creators of EastEnders, Tony Holland and Julia Smith. Tony was intended to be named Alan, his son Kelvin Carpenter was named Kevin.

They were the first black characters to appear in the soap. Black and Asian characters were two ethnic minorities, under-represented in British soap before EastEnders aired. Holland and Smith knew that for the soap to succeed there needed to be a varied group of characters, so that several different sections of the audience had someone to identify with. Additionally, if the programme was to be realistic, it had to reflect the cross-section of society that existed in the real location. For these reasons, different sexes, classes and races were all included in the original character line-up. Both Holland and Smith had been at the forefront of the move towards'integrated casting' in television and had encountered an array of ethnic diversities in the process. Though the ethnic minority groups were deemed the hardest to research and Smith called upon their contacts to relay information about their origins and lifestyles and were able to portray Walford's most recent immigrants more realistically.

Tony's original character outline as written by Smith and Holland appeared in an abridged form in their book, EastEnders: The Inside Story. "Alan is Caribbean: one of the "came here when ten" from an idylic life in Trinidad with his gran.... A confusing childhood and, at first, he hated England, he felt different, felt coloured, suffered abuse from the white kids... He met Hannah, she was several cuts above him socially. He liked the idea of a "princess" and she liked the idea of a "a bit of rough". In the beginning this made their marriage all the more exciting... But he was short on staying power... In and out of jobs... Boredom always setting in early... A constant desire for change at any price... Hannah meanwhile became more and more stubborn... They set themselves on a collision course... Hannah became too housebound, too disciplined with the two children, too rigid, not seeing the wood for the trees. Alan became too anarchic, too sleeping-around, too devil-may-care and up-yours not seeing the wood for the booze...

If they split, they could find themselves again?... Alan has bought a house in the Square, his sixteen year old s

Omicron1 Eridani

Omicron¹ Eridani named Beid, is a variable star in the constellation of Eridanus. With an average apparent visual magnitude of 4.04, it is visible to the naked eye on a clear, dark night. Based upon parallax measurements, it lies 122 light-years from the Sun. Ο¹ Eridani is the star's Bayer designation. The system bears the traditional name Beid derived from the Arabic word بيض bayḍ meaning "eggs". In 2016, the International Astronomical Union organized a Working Group on Star Names to catalogue and standardize proper names for stars; the WGSN approved the name Beid for this star on 12 September 2016 and it is now so included in the List of IAU-approved Star Names. In Chinese, 九州殊口, meaning Interpreters of Nine Dialects, refers to an asterism consisting of Omicron¹ Eridani, 39 Eridani, Xi Eridani, Nu Eridani, 56 Eridani and 55 Eridani; the Chinese name for Omicron¹ Eridani itself is 九州殊口二. Omicron¹ Eridani is an evolved F-type giant star with a stellar classification of F0 III, it is a Delta Scuti variable star that undergoes non-radial pulsations, with a variation of just 0.03 magnitude over a period of 0.0747 days.

The star is spinning with a projected rotational velocity of 108.1 km/s and a rotation period of less than around 1.9 days. This is creating an equatorial bulge, 11% wider than the polar radius. Omicron¹ Eridani has nearly double the mass of the Sun, 3.7 times the Sun's radius, shines with 27 times the solar luminosity from an outer atmosphere at an effective temperature of 6,963 K. Kaler, James B. "Beid", University of Illinois, retrieved 2016-10-11

2018 in Myanmar

Events in the year 2018 in Myanmar. President: Htin Kyaw, Win Myint State Counsellor: Aung San Suu Kyi First Vice President: Myint Swe Second Vice President: Henry Van Thio 5 January – A military convoy was ambushed in Turaing, Rakhine State, by the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army. Seven people were wounded. 16 January – Rakhine protesters rioted near a government building in the town of Mrauk U, in Rakhine State, after a ban was issued by local authorities on an event that commemorated the anniversary of the Kingdom of Mrauk U's dissolution. In response to protesters attempting to seize the government building, police fired live ammunition into the crowd, killing seven and wounding twelve. 21 February – a bomb exploded between two banks in Lashio, Shan State, killing two employees of Yoma Bank and injuring 22 others. 24 February – three bombs exploded around Sittwe, the capital of Rakhine State, injuring two people. 21 March – Htin Kyaw resigned from his position as President of Myanmar due to ill health.

21 March – Myint Swe became the Acting President of Myanmar. 30 March – Win Myint became the 10th President of Myanmar. 2 January – Yell Htwe Aung, comedian and model 5 April – Saw O Moo, environmental activist 13 October – U Thuzana, Theravada Buddhist monk and leader of the DKBA

John Baer (actor)

John Baer was an American actor. He appeared in over 60 film and television productions between 1950 and 1974. Among the highlights of his career was the leading role in the television series Terry and the Pirates. One of his better-known film roles was as Paul Trochard, the greedy heir who gets killed by a snake, in Michael Curtiz's comedy We're No Angels. While he spent most of his film career in supporting roles or bit parts, Baer played the lead role in Night of the Blood Beast, a horror film by Gene and Roger Corman; when his roles declined during the 1960s, Baer started a second career in real estate business. He retired from acting after a guest appearance in Gunsmoke in 1974. John Baer on IMDb John Baer at AllMovie John Baer at Aveleyman