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Al-Khazneh is one of the most elaborate temples in Petra, a city of the Nabatean Kingdom inhabited by the Arabs in ancient times. As with most of the other buildings in this ancient town, including the Monastery, this structure was carved out of a sandstone rock face; the structure is believed to have been the mausoleum of the Nabatean King Aretas IV in the 1st century AD. It is one of the most popular tourist attractions in the region, it became to be known as "Al-Khazneh", or The Treasury, in the early 19th century by the area's Bedouins as they had believed it contained treasures. Al-Khazneh was built as a mausoleum and crypt at the beginning of the 1st century AD during the reign of Aretas IV Philopatris, its Arabic name Treasury derives from one legend that bandits or pirates hid their loot in a stone urn high on the second level. Significant damage from bullets can be seen on the urn. Local lore attributes this to Bedouins, who are said to have shot at the urn in the early 20th century, in hopes of breaking it open and spilling out the "treasure"—but the decorative urn is in fact solid sandstone.

Another legend is. Many of the building's architectural details have eroded away during the two thousand years since it was carved and sculpted from the cliff; the sculptures are thought to be those of various mythological figures associated with the afterlife. On top are figures of four eagles that would carry away the souls; the figures on the upper level are dancing Amazons with double-axes. The entrance is flanked by statues of the twins Castor and Pollux who lived on Olympus and in the underworld. In 1812, the city of Petra and Al-Khazneh was rediscovered by Swiss explorer Johann Ludwig Burckhardt; as Western Europe continued to explore the Middle East, tourism became more common, by the 1920s, a small hotel had opened near Petra. While Petra was not as popular as larger, more central cities like Cairo, tourism started to change the economy and social structure of the Bedouin people who lived nearby. Tourism is now the main source of income in Jordan. Hotels, souvenir shops and horse rental services are all found within a few-mile radius of Petra itself.

While the economic effects have been positive, the site faces threats from the increased tourism. Humidity from large crowds of people visiting the site can cause damage to the dry sandstone. White spots have appeared on walls and columns from stearic acid deposition due to hands resting against the walls; the Khazneh surface itself has receded by 40 mm in less than ten years from touching, leaning, or rubbing on the walls of the Khazneh. The Treasury has appeared in many Hollywood films, gaining particular fame after being featured in climactic scenes in the popular 1989 film Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, in which its facade is represented as the entrance to the final resting place of the Holy Grail near Hatay; the interior scenes of the temple were filmed at Elstree Studios in England. Ancient Megastructures: Petra, a television series from National Geographic Channel, is dedicated to the Khazneh, explaining how it was created through human resourcefulness and courageous endeavour; the Treasury is depicted in Hergé's The Red Sea Sharks, one of the Adventures of Tintin and the Eye of the Tiger, Sky 1 travel series An Idiot Abroad, The Sisters of Mercy 1988 music video for Dominion, the history series The Naked Archeologist, the Korean drama Misaeng.

The Treasury was spatially documented in 2012 by the non-profit research group Zamani Project, which specialises in 3D digital documentation of tangible cultural heritage. A 3D model can be viewed at The data generated by the Zamani Project create a permanent record that can be used for research, education and conservation. Biblical archaeology List of megalithic sites Media related to Al Khazneh at Wikimedia Commons "Solving the Enigma of Petra and the Nabataeans" Biblical Archaeology Review Over 110 pictures, many details A three-dimensional representation of the temple

2008 IIHF World U18 Championships

The 2008 IIHF World U18 Championships were held in Kazan, Russia. The championships began on April 13, 2008, finished on April 24, 2008. Games were played at Arena Kazan in Kazan. Canada defeated Russia 8–0 in the final to claim the gold medal, while the United States defeated Sweden 6–3 to capture the bronze medal. Note: The following matches from the preliminary round carry forward to the relegation round: April 14, 2008: Slovakia 5–2 Denmark April 16, 2008: Switzerland 4–2 Belarus Belarus and Denmark are relegated to Division I for the 2009 IIHF World U18 Championships. Goaltender: Jake Allen Defensemen: Victor Hedman, Vyacheslav Voinov Forwards: Nikita Filatov, Kirill Petrov, Mattias Tedenby Top Goaltender: Jake Allen Top Defenseman: Erik Karlsson Top Forward: Kirill Petrov Jake Allen The following teams took part in Group A of the Division I tournament, played in Toruń, Poland from April 2 through April 8, 2008. Czech Republic is promoted to the Championship tournament and Slovenia is relegated to Division II for the 2009 IIHF World U18 Championships.

The following teams will take part in Group B of the Division I tournament, which will be played in Riga, Latvia from April 2 through April 8, 2008. Norway is promoted to the Championship tournament and Netherlands is relegated to Division II for the 2009 IIHF World U18 Championships; the following teams took part in Group A of the Division II tournament, played in Meribel and Courchevel, France from March 30 through April 5, 2008. France is promoted to Division I and Australia is relegated to Division III for the 2009 IIHF World U18 Championships; the following teams took part in Group B of the Division II tournament, played in Tallinn, Estonia at Arena Premia from March 23 through March 29, 2008. Hungary is promoted to Division I and Israel is relegated to Division III for the 2009 IIHF World U18 Championships. Division III consisted of two separate tournaments; the Group A tournament was held between 2 and 8 March 2008 in Mexico City and the Group B tournament was held between 3 and 9 March 2008 in İzmit, Turkey.

Mexico and Serbia won the Group A and Group B tournaments and gained promotion to Division II for the 2009 IIHF World U18 Championships. Final standings 2008 IIHF World U18 Championship Division I 2008 IIHF World U18 Championship Division II 2008 IIHF World U18 Championship Division III Official results and statistics from the International Ice Hockey Federation Championship Division I – Group A Division I – Group B Division II – Group A Division II – Group B Division III – Group A Division III – Group B

Agata Pyzik

Agata Pyzik is a Polish journalist and cultural critic who has written on politics, art and culture. In 2014 she wrote a book - Poor But Sexy: Culture Clashes in Europe East and West examined the artistic and cultural history of late-20th century Eastern Europe under socialism and its eventual transition to neoliberal capitalism, her writing has appeared in The Wire, The Guardian, New Statesman and New Humanist. She divides her time between London. Pyzik attended private school as a teenager. In Warsaw, she pursued academic studies in philosophy, art history and American studies, she wrote for Polish magazines such as Gazeta Wyborcza and Polityka, as well as music magazine Glissando and smaller literary magazines. Her recent interests have turned toward political forms of resistance, her study of Eastern Europe, Poor But Sexy, was published by Zero Books in 2014. The following year, Pyzik was commissioned by Bloomsbury Publishing to write an addition to the 33⅓ series of music books on British band Japan's 1981 album Tin Drum.

In a review of Poor But Sexy for The Guardian, Sukhdev Sandhu wrote that Pyzik wants to reassess the culture of the cold war period, to give the lie to the held impression that eastern Europe must have been uniformly dour and artistically sterile, to explore the heady mixture of fear and yearning that fuelled the imaginative traffic between east and west. Ideas, some more developed than others, tumble from each page creating a kind of swarm energy that's a pleasing antidote to the tasteful mourning found in so many books about eastern Europe. There's an urgency and intensity to Poor But Sexy that's in keeping with Pyzik's assertion that the key cultural feature of pre-1989 Poland was high-mindedness. Critic Simon Reynolds called the book a fascinating and provocative study of Eastern Europe in the quarter-century since the Soviet Bloc began to disintegrate, looking at both the realities of post-communist life and at the fantasies and misunderstandings that East and West entertain about each other, as figured through pop, fashion and art.

Poor But Sexy: Culture Clashes in Europe East and West. Japan's Tin Drum

Wilkes (horse)

Wilkes was a French Thoroughbred racehorse who became a leading sire in Australia. He had two victories, over 1,500 metres in the Prix Sans Souci at Maisons-Laffitte and the 2,000 metres Prix Edgard de la Charm at Saint-Cloud, for 1,446,200 francs in stakes, he was by the successful English sire Court Martial, his dam Sans Tares was by Sind from Tara by Teddy. Wilkes was a half-brother to two Washington, D. C. International Stakes winners in Mahan and Worden II, a good sire. Sans Tares was a half-sister to Norseman, a sire of stakes-winners. Like Northern Dancer, Wilkes was a great-great-grandson in the sire-line of Phalaris. Wilkes was a tall, long-barrelled chestnut with a prominent white blaze and one white sock, said to resemble that of his sire Court Martial and his paternal grandsire Fair Trial. Wilkes did not start as a two-year-old, but had two wins, in the Prix Sans Souci and the Prix Edgard de la Charm at Saint-Cloud, for a total of 1,446,200 francs in stakes as a three-year-old from three race starts.

John William Kelly purchased Wilkes for £5,000 sterling in 1956 and imported him to stand at his Newhaven Park Stud, New South Wales in Australia. Wilkes commenced stud duties here in 1956 and was an immediate sire success from first foal crop, which produced nine winners including the champion mare Wenona Girl, he sired three winners of the Golden Slipper Stakes, John's Hope and Vivarchi. His progeny included 45 stakeswinners for 121 stakeswins, including the following: Attentive Anjudy, Blue Roc, Bogan Road, Bye Bye, Farnworth John's Hope, won 1974 New Zealand Derby Nebo Road, Pardon Me, The Tempest, Vain, an exceptional sprinter in Australia, winning 12 of his 14 starts and the leading sire in Australia in 1984. Vivarchi, Young Brolga. Wilkes was humanely destroyed at the age of 24 years on 20 May 1976 after developing a bladder infection. A 21st season of 18 specially selected mares had been nominated at a fee of $6,000 with a live foal guarantee. List of leading Thoroughbred racehorses Wilkes' pedigree and partial racing stats

Gospel Mission

Gospel Mission is an album by American jazz trumpeter and arranger Shorty Rogers, issued by Capitol Records in 1963. It would be the last album released under Roger's leadership for two decades when he focussed on arrangements for film and TV. Allmusic awarded the album 3 stars. All compositions by Shorty Rogers. "Gospel Mission" "Gonna Shout - All The Way to Heaven" "Wake Up and Shout" "Sit Down Shorty" "Freedom's Coming" "Swinging Gold Chariots" "Preacherman Gonna Stop By Here" "Great Days Ahead" "Climbing to Heaven" "Joshua's Saxes" "We´re On Our Way Shout" "Talk About Rain" Shorty Rogers - flugelhorn, conductor Unidentified orchestra featuring: Plas Johnson - tenor saxophone

Const (computer programming)

In the C, C++, D, JavaScript and Julia programming languages, const is a type qualifier: a keyword applied to a data type that indicates that the data is read only. While this can be used to declare constants, const in the C family of languages differs from similar constructs in other languages in being part of the type, thus has complicated behavior when combined with pointers, composite data types, type-checking; when applied in an object declaration, it indicates that the object is a constant: its value may not be changed, unlike a variable. This basic use – to declare constants – has parallels in many other languages. However, unlike in other languages, in the C family of languages the const is part of the type, not part of the object. For example, in C, int const x = 1; this has two subtle results. Firstly, const can be applied to parts of a more complex type – for example, int const * const x. Secondly, because const is part of the type, it must match as part of type-checking. For example, the following code is invalid: because the argument to f must be a variable integer, but i is a constant integer.

This matching is a form of program correctness, is known as const-correctness. This allows a form of programming by contract, where functions specify as part of their type signature whether they modify their arguments or not, whether their return value is modifiable or not; this type-checking is of interest in pointers and references – not basic value types like integers – but for composite data types or templated types such as containers. It is concealed by the fact that the const can be omitted, due to type coercion and C being call-by-value; the idea of const-ness does not imply that the variable as it is stored in computer memory is unwritable. Rather, const-ness is a compile-time construct that indicates what a programmer should do, not what they can do. Note, that in the case of predefined data, C const is unwritable. While a constant does not change its value while the program is running, an object declared const may indeed change its value while the program is running. A common example are read only registers within embedded systems like the current state of a digital input.

The data registers for digital inputs are declared as const and volatile. The content of these registers may change without the program doing anything but you shall not write to them either. In addition, a member-function can be declared as const. In this case, the this pointer inside such a function is of type object_type const * const rather than of type object_type * const; this means that non-const functions for this object cannot be called from inside such a function, nor can member variables be modified. In C++, a member variable can be declared as mutable, indicating that this restriction does not apply to it. In some cases, this can be useful, for example with caching, reference counting, data synchronization. In these cases, the logical meaning of the object is unchanged, but the object is not physically constant since its bitwise representation may change. In C, C++, D, all data types, including those defined by the user, can be declared const, const-correctness dictates that all variables or objects should be declared as such unless they need to be modified.

Such proactive use of const makes values "easier to understand and reason about," and it thus increases the readability and comprehensibility of code and makes working in teams and maintaining code simpler because it communicates information about a value's intended use. This can help the compiler as well as the developer, it can enable an optimizing compiler to generate more efficient code. For simple non-pointer data types, applying the const qualifier is straightforward, it can go on either side of some types for historical reasons. On some implementations, using const twice generates a warning but not an error. For pointer and reference types, the meaning of const is more complicated – either the pointer itself, or the value being pointed to, or both, can be const. Further, the syntax can be confusing. A pointer can be declared as a const pointer to writable value, or a writable pointer to a const value, or const pointer to const value. A const pointer cannot be reassigned to point to a different object from the one it is assigned, but it can be used to modify the value that it points to.

Reference variables in C++ are an alternate syntax for const pointers. A pointer to a const object, on the other hand, can be reassigned to point to another memory location, but it cannot be used to modify the memory that it is pointing to. A const pointer to a const object can be declared and can neither be used to modify the pointee nor be reassigned to point to another object; the following code illustrates these subtleties: Following usual C convention for declarations, declaration follows use, the * in a pointer is written on the pointer, indicating dereferenc