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Al-Kindi

Abu Yūsuf Yaʻqūb ibn ʼIsḥāq aṣ-Ṣabbāḥ al-Kindī was an Arab Muslim philosopher, mathematician and musician. Al-Kindi was the first of the Islamic peripatetic philosophers, is hailed as the "father of Arab philosophy". Al-Kindi was educated in Baghdad, he became a prominent figure in the House of Wisdom, a number of Abbasid Caliphs appointed him to oversee the translation of Greek scientific and philosophical texts into the Arabic language. This contact with "the philosophy of the ancients" had a profound effect on him, as he synthesized and promoted Hellenistic and Peripatetic philosophy in the Muslim world, he subsequently wrote hundreds of original treatises of his own on a range of subjects ranging from metaphysics, ethics and psychology, to medicine, mathematics, astronomy and optics, further afield to more practical topics like perfumes, jewels, dyes, tides, mirrors and earthquakes. In the field of mathematics, al-Kindi played an important role in introducing Indian numerals to the Islamic world, subsequently the Arabic numerals to the Christian world, along with Al-Khwarizmi.

Al-Kindi was one of the fathers of cryptography. Building on the work of Al-Khalil, Al-Kindi's book entitled Manuscript on Deciphering Cryptographic Messages gave rise to the birth of cryptanalysis, was the earliest known use of statistical inference, introduced several new methods of breaking ciphers, notably frequency analysis. Using his mathematical and medical expertise, he was able to develop a scale that would allow doctors to quantify the potency of their medication; the central theme underpinning al-Kindi's philosophical writings is the compatibility between philosophy and other "orthodox" Islamic sciences theology. And many of his works deal with subjects; these include the nature of the soul and prophetic knowledge. But despite the important role he played in making philosophy accessible to Muslim intellectuals, his own philosophical output was overshadowed by that of al-Farabi and few of his texts are available for modern scholars to examine. Al-Kindi was born in Kufa to an aristocratic family of the Kinda tribe, descended from the chieftain al-Ash'ath ibn Qays, a contemporary of Muhammad.

The family belonged to the most prominent families of the tribal nobility of Kufa in the early Islamic period, until it lost much of its power following the revolt of Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn al-Ash'ath. His father Ishaq was the governor of Kufa, al-Kindi received his preliminary education there, he went to complete his studies in Baghdad, where he was patronized by the Abbasid caliphs al-Ma'mun and al-Mu'tasim. On account of his learning and aptitude for study, al-Ma'mun appointed him to the House of Wisdom, a established centre for the translation of Greek philosophical and scientific texts, in Baghdad, he was well known for his beautiful calligraphy, at one point was employed as a calligrapher by al-Mutawakkil. When al-Ma'mun died, his brother, al-Mu'tasim became Caliph. Al-Kindi's position would be enhanced under al-Mu ` tasim, but on the accession of al-Wāthiq, of al-Mutawakkil, al-Kindi's star waned. There are various theories concerning this: some attribute al-Kindi's downfall to scholarly rivalries at the House of Wisdom.

Henry Corbin, an authority on Islamic studies, says that in 873, al-Kindi died "a lonely man", in Baghdad during the reign of al-Mu'tamid. After his death, al-Kindi's philosophical works fell into obscurity and many of them were lost to Islamic scholars and historians. Felix Klein-Franke suggests a number of reasons for this: aside from the militant orthodoxy of al-Mutawakkil, the Mongols destroyed countless libraries during their invasion. However, he says the most probable cause of this was that his writings never found popularity amongst subsequent influential philosophers such as al-Farabi and Avicenna, who overshadowed him. According to Ibn al-Nadim, al-Kindi wrote at least two hundred and sixty books, contributing to geometry and philosophy, physics. Although most of his books have been lost over the centuries, a few have survived in the form of Latin translations by Gerard of Cremona, others have been rediscovered in Arabic manuscripts, his greatest contribution to the development of Islamic philosophy was his efforts to make Greek thought both accessible and acceptable to a Muslim audience.

Al-Kindi carried out this mission from the House of Wisdom, an institute of translation and learning patronized by the Abbasid Caliphs, in Baghdad. As well as translating many important texts, much of what was to become standard Arabic philosophical vocabulary originated with al-Kindi. In his writings, one of al-Kindi's central concerns was to demonstrate the compatibility between philosophy and natural theology on the one hand, revealed or speculative theology on the other (though in fact he rejected

My Kitchen Rules (series 10)

The tenth season of the Australian competitive cooking competition My Kitchen Rules premiered on the Seven Network on Monday 28 January, 2019. Before the airing of this series, The Best of MKR was shown to review the journey of MKR in the last 10 years. Applications for contestants opened during the airing of the ninth season. Pete Evans and Manu Feildel returned as judges, with Colin Fassnidge acting as a judge/mentor in the challenge/elimination rounds. MKR Restaurant – The previous Kitchen Headquarters has been replaced with an MKR restaurant, featuring two kitchens and a dining area, it is used for the Finals. Perfect Strangers – Milly and Karolina are the first two people that haven't known each other before working as a team. Open Houses – From Top 10, two teams from each group will work together to make a three-course meal for Pete, the teams and the public. At the end of this round, the two teams that have the lowest score will compete against each other in a Sudden Death Cook-Off. New Quarterfinal - In the first three quarterfinals, instead of cooking food just for the judges, contestants have to serve for the public, VIPs, contestants from past seasons and adults in the MKR Restaurant.

The team with the highest score will progress to the semi-finals. Triple Elimination Quarterfinal - For the first time, three teams will be eliminated from the competition in the last quarterfinal. Judges on the Grand Finale - Instead of having six judges to score the dishes, a total of ten judges will be present, including the six judges in the semifinals and Guy Turland, Shannon Martinez, Sean Connoly and Rachel Khoo. During the Instant Restaurant rounds, each team hosts a three-course dinner for judges and fellow teams in their allocated group, they are scored and ranked among their group, with the two lowest scoring teams sent to the Sudden Death Cook-Off at the MKR restaurant, with a risk of being eliminated. Episodes 1 to 8 Airdate — 28 January to 10 February Description — The first of the two instant restaurant groups are introduced into the competition in Round 1; the two lowest scoring teams at the end of the round will go to the Sudden Death Cook-Off at the MKR restaurant, with a risk of being eliminated.

Episode 9 Airdate — 11 February Description — Being the two bottom scoring teams from Round 1, Josh & Austin and Karito & Ian will face off in a Sudden Death Cook-Off. The lower scoring team is eliminated; the Sudden Death Cook-Off is held in the MKR Restaurant with seven new Group 2 teams invited as the guests and jury. Episodes 10 to 17 Airdate — 12 February to 25 February Description — The second group now start their instant restaurant round; the same rules from the previous round apply and the two lowest scoring teams will go to the Sudden Death Cook-Off at the MKR restaurant, with a risk of being eliminated. Episode 18 Airdate — 26 February Description — Being the two lowest scoring teams from Round 2, Milly & Karolina and Veronica & Piper will face off in the second Sudden Death Cook-Off at the MKR restaurant; the lower scoring team is eliminated. The seven remaining Group 1 teams are invited as jury. Episode 19 Airdate — 27 February Description — All teams headed into the first challenge in a Group 1 vs Group 2 cook-off.

In the first round, both groups nominated one team to cook a good dish from a previous season. The winning team saved their entire group from elimination; the losing team and their group faced off individually in a Sudden Death Cook-Off, tasked to create a dish that received a perfect score from a previous season. The team with the worst dish judged by Pete and Colin was eliminated. Episode 20 Airdate - 3 March Guest Mentor - Shannon Martinez Description - Teams from Group 2 cooked and served diner-style dishes at Archie Brothers Cirque Electriq. Guests and teams from Group 1 were invited to taste the food and score the dish out of 10; the team that performed best would be given a scoring advantage at the Sudden Death Cook-Off. The weakest team as determined by Pete and Colin would be sent to Sudden Death and the MKR Restaurant. Episode 21 Airdate - 4 March Guest Mentor - Guy Turland Description - Teams from Group 1 cooked and served brunch-style dishes at Bondi Surf Life Bathers Club. Guests and teams from Group 2 were invited to taste the food and score the dish out of 10.

The team that performed best would be given a scoring advantage at the Sudden Death Cook-Off. The weakest team as determined by Pete and Colin would be sent to Sudden Death and the MKR Restaurant. Episode 22 Airdate — 5 March Description — Anne & Jennifer and Mick & Jodie-Anne were the weakest teams in the group challenges, will face off in a Sudden Death Cook-Off at Elimination House, where one team is eliminated. All guest teams score both meals out of 10. Victor & G and Ibby & Romel, as People's Choice winners, had the advantage of having each team member score both meals, meaning their scores would be doubled. Judges Pete and Manu scored each dish out of 10. Ibby & Romel were explicit in strategic voting giving 1 for the group two and 10 for group 1. Episode 23 Airdate — 6 March Guest Mentor - Curtis Stone Description — Teams from Group 1 were asked to make a sophisticated, fine dining dish, showcasing beautiful farm produce for Australian farmers. Guests and teams from Group 2 were invited to taste the food and score the dish out of 10.

The team that performed best would be given a scoring advantage at the Sudden Death Cook-Off. Despite the departure of Stacey & Ash, the weakest team would still be determined by Pete and Colin and would be sent to Sudden Death and the MKR Restaurant. Episode 24 Airdate — 10 March Guest Mentor - Sean Connoly Description — Group 2 were asked to make fine dining sea

Fin and flipper locomotion

Fin and flipper locomotion occurs in aquatic locomotion, in terrestrial locomotion. From the three common states of matter — gas and solid, these appendages are adapted for liquids fresh or saltwater and used in locomotion and balancing of the body. Locomotion is important in order to escape predators, acquire food, find mates and bury for shelter, nest or food. Aquatic locomotion consists of swimming, whereas terrestrial locomotion encompasses walking,'crutching', digging as well as covering; some animals such as sea turtles and mudskippers use these two environments for different purposes, for example using the land for nesting, the sea to hunt for food. Fish live in Fresh or Saltwater habitats and some exceptions are capable of coming on land. Most fish have a line of muscle blocks, called myomeres, along each side of the body. To swim, they alternately contract one side and relax the other side in a progression which goes from the head to the tail. In this way, an undulatory locomotion results, first bending the body one way in a wave which travels down the body, back the other way, with the contracting and relaxing muscles switching roles.

They use their fins to propel themselves through the water in this swimming motion. Actinopterygians, the ray-finned fish show an evolutionary pattern of fine control ability to control the dorsal and ventral lobe of the caudal fin. Through developmental changes, intrinsic caudal muscles were added, which enable fish to exhibit such complex maneuvers such as control during acceleration and backing. Studies have shown that the muscles in the caudal fin, have independent activity patterns from the myotomal musculature; these results show specific kinematic roles for different part of the fish's musculature. A curious example of fish adaption is the Ocean sunfish known as the Mola mola; these fish have undergone significant developmental changes reducing their spinal cord, giving them a disk like appearance, investing in two large fins for propulsion. This adaptation gives them the appearance that they are as long as they are tall, they are amazing fish in that they hold the world record in weight gain from fry to adult.

Swimming mammals, such as whales, dolphins,and sea lions, use their flippers to move forward through the water column. During swimming sea lions have a thrust phase, which lasts about 60% of the full cycle, the recovery phase lasts the remaining 40%. A full cycle duration lasts about 0.5 to 1.0 seconds. Changing direction is a rapid maneuver, initiated by head movement towards the back of the animal, followed by a spiral turn with the body. Due to their pectoral flippers being so located to their center of gravity, sea lions are capable of displaying astounding maneuverability in the pitch and yaw direction and are therefore not constrained, turning stochastically as they please, it is hypothesized. Hunting occurs in difficult environments containing rocky inshore/kelp forest communities, with many niches for prey to hide, therefore requiring speed and maneuverability for capture; the complex skills of a sea lion are learned early on in ontogeny and most are perfected by the time the pups reach one year.

Whales and dolphins are more constrained in their movements. However, dolphins are capable of accelerating as fast as sea lions, but they are not capable of turning as and as efficiently. For both whales and dolphins, their center of gravity does not line up with their pectoral flippers in a straight line, causing a much more rigid and stable swimming pattern. Aquatic reptiles such as sea turtles predominantly use their pectoral flippers to propulse through the water and their pelvic flippers for maneuvering. During swimming they move their pectoral flippers in a clapping motion underneath their body and pull them back up into an airplane position, causing forward motion. During the swimming motion it is important that they rotate their front flipper in order to decrease drag through the water column and increase their efficiency. Sea turtles exhibit a natural suite of behavior skills that help them direct themselves towards the ocean as well as identify the transition from sand to water after hatching.

If rotated in the pitch, yaw or roll direction the hatchlings are capable of counteracting the forces acting upon them by correcting with either their pectoral or pelvic flippers and redirecting themselves towards the open ocean. Terrestrial locomotion poses new obstacles such as gravity and new media, including sand, twigs, debris and many more. Fins and flippers are aquatically adapted appendages and aren't useful in such an environment, it could be hypothesized that fish would try to "swim" on land, but studies have shown that some fish evolved to cope with the terrestrial environment. Mudskippers, for example demonstrate a'crutching' gait which enables them to'walk' over muddy surfaces as well as dig burrows to hide in. Mudskippers are able to jump up to 3 cm distances; this behavior is described as starting with a J-curvature of the body at about 2/3 of its body length, followed by a straightening of their body which propulses them like a projectile through the air. This behavior enables them to cope with the new environment and opens their habitat to new food sources as well as new predators.

Reptiles, such as sea turtles spend most of their lives in the ocean. However, their life cycle requires the females to lay their nests on the beach; the hatchlings emerge from the sand and have to run toward the water. Depending on