SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Al Capone

Alphonse Gabriel Capone, sometimes known by the nickname "Scarface", was an American gangster and businessman who attained notoriety during the Prohibition era as the co-founder and boss of the Chicago Outfit. His seven-year reign as crime boss ended when he went to prison at age 33. Capone was born in New York City in 1899 to Italian immigrant parents, he joined the Five Points Gang as a teenager, became a bouncer in organized crime premises such as brothels. In his early twenties, he moved to Chicago and became a bodyguard and trusted factotum for Johnny Torrio, head of a criminal syndicate that illegally supplied alcohol—the forerunner of the Outfit—and was politically protected through the Unione Siciliana. A conflict with the North Side Gang was instrumental in Capone's fall. Torrio went into retirement after North Side gunmen killed him, handing control to Capone. Capone expanded the bootlegging business through violent means, but his mutually profitable relationships with mayor William Hale Thompson and the city's police meant he seemed safe from law enforcement.

Capone reveled in attention, such as the cheers from spectators when he appeared at ball games. He made donations to various charities and was viewed by many as "modern-day Robin Hood". However, the Saint Valentine's Day Massacre, in which seven gang rivals were murdered in broad daylight, damaged Chicago's and Capone's image, leading influential citizens to demand government action and newspapers to dub Capone "Public Enemy No. 1". The federal authorities prosecuted him in 1931 for tax evasion. During a publicized case, the judge admitted as evidence Capone's admissions of his income and unpaid taxes during prior negotiations to pay the government taxes he owed, he was sentenced to 11 years in federal prison. After conviction, he replaced his defense team with experts in tax law, his grounds for appeal were strengthened by a Supreme Court ruling, but his appeal failed. Capone showed signs of neurosyphilis early in his sentence and became debilitated before being released after eight years of incarceration.

On January 25, 1947, Capone died of cardiac arrest after suffering a stroke. Capone was born in Brooklyn, New York on January 17, 1899, his parents were Teresa Capone. His father was a barber and his mother was a seamstress, both born in Angri, a town in the Province of Salerno. Gabriele and Teresa had eight other children: Vincenzo Capone, who changed his name to Richard Hart and became a Prohibition agent in Homer, Nebraska. Ralph and Frank worked with him in his criminal empire. Frank did so until his death on April 1, 1924. Ralph ran the bottling companies early on, was the front man for the Chicago Outfit for some time until he was imprisoned for tax evasion in 1932; the Capone family immigrated to the United States, after first moving to Fiume in Austria-Hungary in 1893. From that port city, they traveled on a ship to the U. S. where they settled in the Navy Yard section of downtown Brooklyn. Gabriele Capone worked at a nearby barber shop at 29 Park Avenue; when Al was 11, the Capone family moved to 38 Garfield Place in Brooklyn.

Capone showed promise as a student, but had trouble with the rules at his strict parochial Catholic school. His schooling ended at the age of 14, after he was expelled for hitting a female teacher in the face, he worked at odd jobs including a candy store and a bowling alley. During this time, Capone was influenced by gangster Johnny Torrio, whom he came to regard as a mentor. Capone became involved with small-time gangs that included the Junior Forty Thieves and the Bowery Boys, he joined the Brooklyn Rippers, the powerful Five Points Gang based in Lower Manhattan. During this time, he was employed and mentored by fellow racketeer Frankie Yale, a bartender in a Coney Island dance hall and saloon called the Harvard Inn. Capone inadvertently insulted a woman while working the door at a Brooklyn night club and was slashed by her brother Frank Gallucio; the wounds led to the nickname "Scarface". When he was photographed, he hid the scarred left side of his face, saying that the injuries were war wounds.

He was called "Snorky" by a term for a sharp dresser. Capone married Mae Josephine Coughlin at age 19, on December 30, 1918, she was Irish Catholic and earlier that month had given birth to their son Albert Francis "Sonny" Capone. Albert lost most of his hearing in his left ear as a child. Capone was under the age of 21, his parents had to consent in writing to the marriage. By all accounts, the two had a happy marriage despite his gang life. In 1919, Capone left New York City for Chicago at the invitation of Johnny Torrio, imported by crime boss James "Big Jim" Colosimo as an enforcer. Capone began in Chicago as a bouncer in a brothel. Timely use of Salvarsan could have cured the infection, but he never sought treatment. In 1923, he purchased a small house at 7244 South Prairie Avenue in the Park Manor neighborhood on the city's south side for US$5,500. In the early years of the decade, his name began appearing in newspaper sports pages where he was described as a boxing promoter. Torrio took over Colosimo's crime empire after

Karen Russell

Karen Russell is an American novelist and short story writer. Her debut novel, Swamplandia!, was a finalist for the 2012 Pulitzer Prize for Fiction. She was the recipient of a MacArthur Foundation "Genius Grant" in 2013. In 2009 the National Book Foundation named her a 5 under 35 honoree. After graduating from Coral Gables Senior High School in Miami in 1999, Russell received a B. A. in Spanish from Northwestern University in 2003. She graduated from the MFA program at Columbia University in 2006. A Miami native, as of 2019 she lives in Portland, Oregon with her husband, editor Tony Perez, their son Oscar, her brother, Kent Russell, is a writer. Russell's stories have been featured in The Best American Short Stories, Granta, The New Yorker, Oxford American, Zoetrope, she was named a National Book Foundation "5 Under 35" young writer honoree at a November 2009 ceremony for her first book of short stories, St. Lucy's Home for Girls Raised by Wolves, her second book and first novel, Swamplandia!, about a family of alligator wrestlers and their shabby amusement park in the Everglades, was long-listed for the Orange Prize 2011.

It was included in the New York Times' "10 Best Books of 2011" and won the New York Public Library's 2012 Young Lions Fiction Award. Swamplandia! was a finalist for the 2012 Pulitzer Prize for Fiction. Russell's second collection of short stories, Vampires in the Lemon Grove, was published by Vintage Contemporaries in February 2013, her third short story collection, Orange World and Other Stories, was released in May 2019. Russell won the Bard Fiction Prize in 2011 for her book St. Lucy's Home for Girls Raised by Wolves, her short story "The Hox River Window," published in Zoetrope: All-Story, won the 2012 National Magazine Award for fiction. She is the recipient of the Mary Ellen von der Heyden Berlin Prize and was awarded a fellowship at the American Academy in Berlin for Spring 2012. In 2013, Russell received a MacArthur Foundation "Genius Grant."In 2010 Russell spent time as a visiting writer at the Iowa Writers' Workshop. She served as an artist in residence at Yaddo in Saratoga Springs, NY.

In Fall 2013, Russell was a distinguished guest teacher of creative writing in the MFA program at Rutgers University-Camden. Russell has been the Endowed Chair in Creative Writing at Texas State University’s MFA program since 2017. St. Lucy's Home for Girls Raised by Wolves. Knopf. 2006. ISBN 978-0-307-26398-8.. 2007, ISBN 978-0-307-27667-4 Swamplandia!. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. 2011. ISBN 978-0-307-26399-5.. 2011, ISBN 978-0-307-26399-5 Vampires in the Lemon Grove: Stories. Knopf. 2013. ISBN 978-0-307-95723-8.. 2013, ISBN 978-0-307-96108-2 Sleep Donation: A Novella. Atavist Books. 2014. ISBN 978-1-937-89428-3.. Orange World and Other Stories. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. 2019. ISBN 978-0-525-65613-5.. Random House Author Page 2011 podcast interview at The Bat Segundo Show "A Conversation with Karen Russell about her first novel, Swamplandia!", BookBrowse "Interview with Karen Russell: Author of St. Lucy's Home For Girls Raised By Wolves", In the Labyrinth, June 16, 2010 "20 Under 40: Q. & A. Karen Russell", The New Yorker, June 14, 2010 Willing Davidson.

"This Weird Short Story I've Been Working On". Karen Russell at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Haunting Olivia ZZ's Sleep-Away Camp for Disordered Dreamers by Karen Russell The Graveless Doll of Eric Mutis

Bondi Junction, New South Wales

Bondi Junction is an eastern suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is 6 kilometres east of the Sydney central business district and is part of the local government area of the Waverley. Bondi Junction is a commercial area which has undergone many changes since the late 20th century. There have been many major commercial and residential developments around the main street and surrounding area, notably a new bus/rail interchange and large shopping mall. Many of the original pubs have been maintained, the Nelson Hotel, so named because of its location on Nelson Street. Bondi Beach is a neighbouring suburb to the east with a world-famous beach. Bondi and North Bondi are neighbouring suburbs. Bondi Junction and the neighbouring area is well known for its famous rugby league team, the Sydney Roosters, still known as the Eastern Suburbs District Rugby League Football Club; the clubhouse of the team is centrally located in Bondi Junction. Bondi is an Aboriginal word meaning water breaking over rocks.

It has been spelt a number of different ways over time: for example, Boondi and Bundye. The first house in the area was Waverley House, built by Barnett Levey in 1827, on the current site of Waverley Street; the house changed hands many times over the years before being demolished. When Waverley Municipality was proclaimed in 1859, the name was taken from Waverley House. Henry Hough was first given a grant of land on the site of Bondi Junction in 1832. On his estate, he built a wind-powered flour mill; this was accessed by a track leading off the suburb's main thoroughfare. In 1854, the first hotel in the area opened, it was named The Waverley Tea Gardens and the surrounding area took that name shortened to "Tea Gardens", which stuck for the next 30 years. By 1878 steam had supplanted wind in milling and the estate was closed. In May 1881 it was subdivided. Streets in this subdivision that exist today are Hough Street; the subdivision of the estate coincided with the opening of the first tramway to the area – steam trams began operation from Taylor Square in Darlinghurst on 12 March 1881.

With the extension of the tram lines to Bondi Beach, Charing Cross and Bronte in the decade, the term Bondi Junction was coined. It referred to the junction of the Bondi and Bronte tram lines at the corner of the now Oxford Street and Bronte Road. With the subdivision of surrounding suburbs complete by 1930, Bondi Junction grew into a major entertainment and commercial centre. Tram lines ran to Bondi Beach via Birriga Road, Bondi Beach via Bondi Road, Bronte Beach and The Spot and the City at Circular Quay and Central railway station. A tram depot was established on the corner of the present day York Road. Oxford Street became crowded and congested. By the 1960s traffic was at the point that Bondi Junction was one of the worst bottlenecks in Sydney; the suburb was divided by the border of Waverley and Woollahra councils. In 2002 the boundary was realigned from Oxford Street to the bypass road, giving Waverley Council full control of the commercial areas of the suburb. Bondi Junction railway station is an underground station, the eastern terminus of the Eastern Suburbs Line on the Sydney Trains network.

The station is the terminus of limited South Coast Line services. A bus interchange is located at ground level, above the railway station and below residential towers; the Sydney tram network was closed in the Waverley Tram Depot converted to a bus depot. This temporarily reduced the traffic problem in the area. A railway to Sydney's eastern suburbs was first proposed by John Young, Mayor of Sydney in the 1870s; this was subsequently incorporated into the Bradfield Scheme for improving Sydney's railways. The line was never built as Bradfield envisaged, however. In 1976, with construction of the railway underway and the NSW Government resolving to complete the project as far as Bondi Junction, construction was begun on an elevated freeway-standard bypass of Bondi Junction; the Bondi Junction Bypass, unlike the railway, was constructed opening on 6 January 1979. The road runs around the northern side of the business district from Oxford Street at Ocean Street to Oxford Street at Bondi Road and is elevated at about five metres above the ground.

It is constructed as a continuous concrete plank bridge. At less than 2 km, it is noted as the shortest freeway in Sydney; the freeway is, in fact, the only section built of a much longer planned road known as the Eastern Freeway, a proposed freeway abandoned in the 1960s, which would have travelled between the Sydney CBD and Bondi. With the railway opening in June 1979, major changes to traffic flow were made in Bondi Junction; the main thoroughfare, Oxford Street became devoted to buses only between Adelaide Street and Bronte Road and a pedestrian mall was created between Bronte Road and Newland Street, known as Bondi Junction Mall. The opening of the railway provided the opportunity to rationalise bus services in the Eastern Suburbs, with most city services eliminated or terminated at the new Bondi Junction Bus–Rail Interchange. Due to cost cutting, the pedestrian mall, bus–rail interchange, indeed the railway station itself were of poor design and construction. Nonetheless, the popularity of the railway was manifest and Bondi Junction interchange became the largest suburban bus terminus in Australia.

In 1998, Wooll