Prohibition in the United States

Prohibition in the United States was a nationwide constitutional ban on the production, importation and sale of alcoholic beverages from 1920 to 1933. Prohibitionists first attempted to end the trade in alcoholic beverages during the 19th century. Led by pietistic Protestants, they aimed to heal what they saw as an ill society beset by alcohol-related problems such as alcoholism, family violence and saloon-based political corruption. Many communities introduced alcohol bans in the late 19th and early 20th century, enforcement of these new prohibition laws became a topic of debate. Prohibition supporters, called "drys", presented it as a battle for public morals and health; the movement was taken up by social Progressives in the Prohibition and Republican parties and gained a national grassroots base through the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. After 1900, it was coordinated by the Anti-Saloon League. Opposition from the beer industry mobilized "wet" supporters from the wealthy Catholic and German Lutheran communities, but the influence of these groups receded from 1917 following the entry of the US into the First World War against Germany.

The brewing industry was curtailed by a succession of state legislatures, ended nationwide under the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1920, which passed "with a 68 percent supermajority in the House of Representatives and 76 percent support in the Senate" as well as ratification by 46 out of 48 states. Enabling legislation, known as the Volstead Act, set down the rules for enforcing the federal ban and defined the types of alcoholic beverages that were prohibited. Not all alcohol was banned. Private ownership and consumption of alcohol were not made illegal under federal law, but local laws were stricter in many areas, with some states banning possession outright. Following the ban, criminal gangs gained control of the liquor supply in many cities. By the late 1920s, a new opposition to prohibition emerged nationwide. Critics attacked the policy as causing crime, lowering local revenues, imposing "rural" Protestant religious values on "urban" America. Prohibition ended with the ratification of the Twenty-first Amendment, which repealed the Eighteenth Amendment on December 5, 1933, though prohibition continued in some states.

To date, this is the only time in American history in which a constitutional amendment was passed for the purpose of repealing another. Some research indicates that alcohol consumption declined due to Prohibition. Rates of liver cirrhosis, alcoholic psychosis, infant mortality declined. Prohibition's effect on rates of crime and violence is disputed. Despite this, it lost supporters every year it was in action, lowered government tax revenues at a critical time before and during the Great Depression. In the United States, after the battle against slavery was won, social moralists turned to other issues, such as Mormon polygamy and the temperance movement. On November 18, 1918, prior to ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment, the U. S. Congress passed the temporary Wartime Prohibition Act, which banned the sale of alcoholic beverages having an alcohol content of greater than 1.28%. The Wartime Prohibition Act took effect June 30, 1919, with July 1, 1919 becoming known as the "Thirsty-First"; the U.

S. Senate proposed the Eighteenth Amendment on December 18, 1917. Upon being approved by a 36th state on January 16, 1919, the amendment was ratified as a part of the Constitution. By the terms of the amendment, the country went dry one year on January 17, 1920. On October 28, 1919, Congress passed the Volstead Act, the popular name for the National Prohibition Act, over President Woodrow Wilson's veto; the act established the legal definition of intoxicating liquors as well as penalties for producing them. Although the Volstead Act prohibited the sale of alcohol, the federal government lacked resources to enforce it. Prohibition was successful in reducing the amount of liquor consumed, cirrhosis death rates, admissions to state mental hospitals for alcoholic psychosis, arrests for public drunkenness, rates of absenteeism. While some allege that Prohibition stimulated the proliferation of rampant underground and widespread criminal activity, two academics maintain that there was no increase in crime during the Prohibition era and that such claims are "rooted in the impressionistic rather than the factual."

By 1925, there were anywhere from 30,000 to 100,000 speakeasy clubs in New York City alone. Wet opposition talked of personal liberty, new tax revenues from legal beer and liquor, the scourge of organized crime. On March 22, 1933, President Franklin Roosevelt signed into law the Cullen–Harrison Act, legalizing beer with an alcohol content of 3.2% and wine of a low alcohol content. On December 5, 1933, ratification of the Twenty-first Amendment repealed the Eighteenth Amendment. However, United States federal law still prohibits the manufacture of distilled spirits without meeting numerous licensing requirements that make it impractical to produce spirits for personal beverage use. Consumption of alcoholic beverages has been a contentious topic in America since the colonial period. In May 1657, the General Court of Massachusetts made the sale of strong liquor "whether known by the name of rum, wine, etc." to the Indians illegal. In general, informal social controls in the home and community helped maintain the expectation that the abuse of alcohol was unacceptable.

"Drunkenness was condemned and punished, but only as an a

Tom Hopper

Thomas Edward Hopper is an English actor. He has appeared as Sir Percival in Merlin, Billy Bones in Black Sails, Dickon Tarly in Game of Thrones, Luther Hargreeves in The Umbrella Academy. Thomas Edward Hopper was born on 28 January 1985 in Leicestershire, he attended Ashby School. He enrolled in a drama class and appeared in a production of the musical Return to the Forbidden Planet, he studied acting at Rose Bruford College. Hopper was cast in As You Like It at the Watford Palace Theatre and has appeared in various television programmes and films including Saxon, Casualty and Doctors. Hopper portrayed Marcus in the comedy-horror film, Tormented about a bullied teenager who comes back from the dead to take revenge on his classmates. In 2010, he was in an episode of Doctor. Hopper played Sir Percival in the BBC series Merlin, he joined the series in the third season in 2010, was a regular for the next two seasons. After Merlin ended in 2012, he featured in Good Cop in 2012. In 2013, Hopper starred in Cold and written by his Merlin co-star Eoin Macken.

The film was released in the United States as Leopard. In 2014, Hopper starred as Asbjörn in Northmen: A Viking Saga. Hopper became the first actor to join the Starz series Black Sails, in which he portrayed Billy Bones; the pirate drama serves as a prequel to Robert Louis Stevenson's Treasure Island. Hopper deliberately chose to play Bones as a "selfless person, looking out for his crew", believing that the character would have changed in the time period between Black Sails and Treasure Island; the show was filmed on location in South Africa. In 2016, Hopper appeared in an episode of Barbarians Rising; the following year, he joined the cast of the HBO series Game of Thrones in season 7 as Dickon Tarly, replacing Freddie Stroma who had appeared in the role in season 6. In 2018, Hopper appeared alongside Amy Schumer in I Feel Pretty. In 2019, Hopper appeared as Luther Hargreeves in The Umbrella Academy. For the role, Hopper wore a muscle suit to achieve the correct look and underwent martial arts training.

Hopper will appear in the 2020 film SAS: Red Notice. In March 2019, he joined the cast of The Hitman's Wife's Bodyguard. Hopper married actress Laura Higgins in 2014, they have a daughter. Tom Hopper on IMDb Tom Hopper on Instagram

Mar del Plata railway station

Mar del Plata is a former railway station in the homonymous city of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Opened in 1886, the station was closed when the new railway and bus terminal was opened in 2011. In August 1861, Edward Lumb, a British entrepreneur, requested the concession of a railway line projected to run from Constitución to Chascomús, 120 km from Buenos Aires. During a visit to Mar del Plata, Governor of Buenos Aires, Dardo Rocha, saw the potential of the city, assuring a promising future for it. Before leaving the city, he promised to call manager of Buenos Aires Great Southern Railway, Guillermo Moores, to request the extension of the railway line from Maipú to Mar del Plata. Moreover, Rocha stated that in case the BAGSR declined the request, the Provincial Government would finance the construction of the line to the coast city. On September 26, 1886, the first train arrived to the city of Mar del Plata, the main tourist destination during summer season. By 1910 Mar del Plata was the main beach city of Argentina, receiving a huge number of tourists during the summer.

Due to the intense traffic of passengers, the railway station exceeded its capacity and the Municipality demanded the company to increase the facilities. The company had always denied to this request alleging that the station was only overcrowded during two months per year. During the first decade of the 20th century, the urban development of Mar del Plata moved from the downtown to the South West so the train station was far from the residences and hotels where the tourist were hosted. In June 1908, the Congress promulgated Law 5.535, authorizing the BAGSR to build a new station in Mar del Plata. Although the construction of a new station had been approved, a residents' committee opposed the old station being demolished, requesting its preservation. Percy Clarke, manager of the company had to accept the residents' claim; the other point of conflict with the inhabitants of the city was the path of the new line. While the company wanted to build the new station near to the coast, the residents demanded that the station should be located far from the most populated areas of the city.

The BAGSR agreed to build the new station where the neighbours had demanded. With a project designed by Belgian Architect Jules Dormal, works began in 1909 and finished one year when the station building began to be constructed; the project of the company included to extend the tracks to the city of Miramar. The new station in Mar del Plata was opened on December 1, 1910, although the main building was not still finished, so a provisional wooden-structure was opened to the public for the 1910–11 summer season; as Mar del Plata Norte remained active, the Sud station would be only used during the summer seasons. It had two large platforms, the main building, a post warehouse, a signal cabin; when the new station opened, all the trains that arrived to the old station were reprogrammed to make their arrival to the South station. It totalled four services per day, including the two express services. A few days before the inauguration, the BAGSR requested to the Government that only the express services arrived to the new station, due to the other three trains programmed having to end their routes in Miramar and could not change their path to the south station.

The request was approved and therefore only the express services stopped at the new station. When the entire Argentine railway network was nationalised in 1948, Mar del Plata became part of General Roca Railway, one of the six divisions of state-owned Ferrocarriles Argentinos. On May 3, 1949, the Mar del Plata Sud station was definitively closed so Mar del Plata Norte became the only station in the city. In 1951 Ferrocarriles Argentinos acquired a total of 46 coaches from American Budd Company, used for The Marplatense, a luxury service from Buenos Aires to Mar del Plata. In 1952 the FADEL locomotives were added to tow the Marplatense express with a journey time of 3 hours and 45 minutes. FA ran trains until 1993 when the service was taken over by Ferrobaires, a company owned by the Buenos Aires Province. Ferrobaires operated the standard services between Mar del Plata and Buenos Aires until its closure in 2018. In 2009, the bus terminus moved to a new building close to the still active railway station in the centre of the city.

It was announced that the old building would be preserved as a cultural centre, designed by Arq. César Pelli. Two years rail tracks were extended to connect with the bus station, adding new platforms to receive trains arriving from Constitución in Buenos Aires, therefore the old station entered into disuse. Mar del Plata railway and bus station Ferrobaires Mar del Plata López, Mario. Historia de los Ferrocarriles de la Provincia de Buenos Aires: 1857-1886. Buenos Aires: Ediciones Lumiere