Muhammad bin Tughluq
Muhammad bin Tughluq was the Sultan of Delhi from 1325 to 1351. He was the Turko-Indian founder of the Tughluq dynasty, he was born in New Delhi. His wife was the daughter of the Raja of Dipalpur. Ghiyas-ud-din sent the young Muhammad to the Deccan to campaign against king Prataparudra of the Kakatiya dynasty whose capital was at Warangal in 1321 and 1323. Muhammad ascended to the Delhi throne upon his father's death in 1325, he was interested in medicine and was skilled in several languages — Persian, Arabic and Sanskrit. Ibn Battuta, the famous traveler and jurist from Morocco, was a guest at his court and wrote about his suzerainty in his book. From his accession to the throne in 1325 until his death in 1351, Muhammad contended with 22 rebellions, pursuing his policies and ruthlessly. Muhammad bin Tughluq was born to Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq, in turn the son of a Turkic slave father and a Hindu Indian concubine mother, was the founder of the Tughluq dynasty after taking control of the Delhi Sultanate.
His mother was known by the title Makhduma-i-Jahan, known for being a philanthropist, having founded many hospitals. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq came to throne after death of his father Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq. While he had good intentions of inviting learned men to his court and implementing new policies, he remained unsuccessful and failed in most of his enterprises, he had been a man of controversies and crisis. He faced attacks of Mongols, dissension within his own support group, rebellions from a large and diverse population. In an effort to adapt to his growing empire, he attempted to shift his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad, supposed to be a more central location, but it was a disastrous decision and was costly. After the death of his father Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, Muhammad bin Tughlaq ascended the throne of Tughlaq dynasty of Delhi in February, 1325 A. D. Unlike the Khaljis who did not annex stable kingdoms, Tughluq would annex kingdoms around his sultanate. In his reign, he conquered Warangal Malabar and Madurai, areas up to the modern day southern tip of the Indian state of Karnataka.
In the conquered territories, Tughluq created a new set of revenue officials to assess the financial aspects of the area. Their accounts helped the audit in the office of the wazir. In 1327, Tughluq passed an order to move his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad in the Deccan region of India. Tughluq said that it would help him to establish control over the fertile land of the Deccan plateau and to create a more accessible capital since his empire had grown more in the south, he felt that it would make him safe from the Mongol invasions which were aimed at Delhi and regions in north India. It was not always possible to operate an army from Delhi for the occupation of Southern states. Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq himself had spent a number of years as a prince on campaign in the southern states during the reign of his father. Daulatabad was situated at a central place so the administration of both the north and the south could be possible. All facilities were provided for those, it is believed that the general public of Delhi was not in favour of shifting the base to Daulatabad.
This seems to have annoyed Tughluq, for he ordered all people of Delhi to proceed to Daulatabad with their belongings. Ibn Batuta cites. Ziauddin Barani observes: "Without consultation or weighting the pros and cons, he brought ruin on Delhi which for 170 to 180 years had grown in prosperity and rivaled Baghdad and Cairo; the city with its Sarais and suburbs and villages spread over four or five leagues, all was destroyed. Not a cat or a dog was left."A broad road was constructed for convenience. Shady trees were planted on both sides of the road. Provisions for food and water were made available at the stations. Tughluq established a khanqah at each of the station. A regular postal service was established between Daulatabad. In 1329, his mother went to Daulatabad, accompanied by the nobles. By around the same year, Tughluq summoned all the slaves, servants, sufis to the new capital; the new capital was divided into wards called mohalla with separate quarters for different people like soldiers, judges, nobles.
Grants were given by Tughluq to the immigrants. Though the citizens migrated, they showed dissent. In the process, many died on the road due to exhaustion. Moreover, coins minted in Daulatabad around 1333, showed that Daulatabad was "the second capital". However, in 1334 there was a rebellion in Mabar. While on his way to suppress the rebellion, there was an outbreak of bubonic plague at Bidar due to which Tughluq himself became ill, many of his soldiers died. While he retreated back to Daulatabad and Dwarsamudra broke away from Tughluq control; this was followed by a revolt in Bengal. Fearing that the sultanate's northern borders were exposed to attacks, in 1335, he decided to shift the capital back to Delhi, allowing the citizens to return to their previous city. Impact of the Change of Capital While most of the Medieval historians, including Barani and Ibn Battuta, tend to have implied that Delhi was emptied, it is believed that this is just an exaggeration; such exaggerated accounts imply that Delhi suffered a downfall in its stature and trade.
Besides, it is believed that onl
Brahmin is a varna in Hinduism specialising as priests and protectors of sacred learning across generations. The traditional occupation of Brahmins was that of priesthood at the Hindu temples or at socio-religious ceremonies and rite of passage rituals such as solemnising a wedding with hymns and prayers. Theoretically, the Brahmins were the highest ranking of the four social classes. In practice, Indian texts suggest that Brahmins were agriculturalists, warriors and have held a variety of other occupations in the Indian subcontinent; the earliest inferred reference to "Brahmin" as a possible social class is in the Rigveda, occurs once, the hymn is called Purusha Sukta. According to this hymn in Mandala 10, Brahmins are described as having emerged from the mouth of Purusha, being that part of the body from which words emerge; this Purusha Sukta varna verse is now considered to have been inserted at a date into the Vedic text as a charter myth. Stephanie Jamison and Joel Brereton, a professor of Sanskrit and Religious studies, state, "there is no evidence in the Rigveda for an elaborate, much-subdivided and overarching caste system", "the varna system seems to be embryonic in the Rigveda and, both and a social ideal rather than a social reality".
Ancient texts describing community-oriented Vedic yajna rituals mention four to five priests: the hotar, the adhvaryu, the udgatar, the Brahmin and sometimes the ritvij. The functions associated with the priests were: The Hotri recites invocations and litanies drawn from the Rigveda; the Adhvaryu is the priest's assistant and is in charge of the physical details of the ritual like measuring the ground, building the altar explained in the Yajurveda. The adhvaryu offers oblations; the Udgatri is the chanter of hymns set to melodies and music drawn from the Samaveda. The udgatar, like the hotar, chants the introductory and benediction hymns; the Brahmin recites from the Atharvaveda. The Ritvij is the chief operating priest. According to Kulkarni, the Grhya-sutras state that Yajna, dana pratigraha are the "peculiar duties and privileges of brahmins"; the term Brahmin in Indian texts has signified someone, good and virtuous, not just someone of priestly class. Both Buddhist and Brahmanical literature, states Patrick Olivelle define "Brahmin" not in terms of family of birth, but in terms of personal qualities.
These virtues and characteristics mirror the values cherished in Hinduism during the Sannyasa stage of life, or the life of renunciation for spiritual pursuits. Brahmins, states Olivelle, were the social class; the Dharmasutras and Dharmasatras text of Hinduism describe the expectations and role of Brahmins. The rules and duties in these Dharma texts of Hinduism, are directed at Brahmins; the Gautama's Dharmasutra, the oldest of surviving Hindu Dharmasutras, for example, states in verse 9.54–9.55 that a Brahmin should not participate or perform a ritual unless he is invited to do so, but he may attend. Gautama outlines the following rules of conduct for a Brahmin, in Chapters 8 and 9: Be always truthful Teach his art only to virtuous men Follow rules of ritual purification Study Vedas with delight Never hurt any living creature Be gentle but steadfast Have self-control Be kind, liberal towards everyoneChapter 8 of the Dharmasutra, states Olivelle, asserts the functions of a Brahmin to be to learn the Vedas, the secular sciences, the Vedic supplements, the dialogues, the epics and the Puranas.
The text lists eight virtues that a Brahmin must inculcate: compassion, lack of envy, tranquility, auspicious disposition and lack of greed, asserts in verse 9.24–9.25, that it is more important to lead a virtuous life than perform rites and rituals, because virtue leads to achieving liberation. The Dharma texts of Hinduism such as Baudhayana Dharmasutra add charity, refraining from anger and never being arrogant as duties of a Brahmin; the Vasistha Dharmasutra in verse 6.23 lists discipline, self-control, truthfulness, Vedic learning, erudition and religious faith as characteristics of a Brahmin. In 13.55, the Vasistha text states that a Brahmin must not accept weapons, poison or liquor as gifts. The Dharmasastras such as Manusmriti, like Dharmsutras, are codes focussed on how a Brahmin must live his life, their relationship with a king and warrior class. Manusmriti dedicates 1,034 verses, the largest portion, on laws for and expected virtues of Brahmins, it asserts, for example, A well disciplined Brahmin, although he knows just the Savitri verse, is far better than an undisciplined one who eats all types of food and deals in all types of merchandise though he may know all three Vedas.
John Bussanich states that the ethical precepts set for Brahmins, in ancient Indian texts, are similar to Greek virtue-ethics, that "Manu's dharmic Brahmin can be compared to Aristotle's man of practical wisdom", that "the virtuous Brahmin is not unlike the Platonic-Aristotelian philosopher" with the difference that the latter was not sacerdotal. According to Abraham Eraly, "Brahmin as a varna hardly had any presence in historical records before the Gupta Empire era", when Buddhism dominated the land. "No Brahmin, no sacrifice, no ritualistic act of any kind even once, is referred to" in any Indian texts between third century BCE and
Hukkeri is a Town Municipal Council and taluka in Belagavi district in the Indian state of Karnataka. Hukkeri is located at 16.23°N 74.6°E / 16.23. It is 50 km from Belagavi on north direction. About the Transportation – Nearest Airport – Belagavi 50 km. Nearest Railway stations – Belagavi 50 km, Ghataprabha – 18 km River – Hiranyakesi, Near Factories – Hira Sugar Factory,Sangam Sugar Factory, Vishwanath Sugar Factory, Nearby picknic spots – Gokak falls, Hidkal Dam, Gudachana malaki falls and Colleges – Hukkeri has good schools in different medium like Kannada and English, it has Arts, Science. It has nearby Diploma colleges in Nidasoshi. Hukkeri is a name, derived from two words'hoovina' +'kere' means it was a place where plenty of flowers were grown and were supplied to Adilshah of Bijapur. There are 3. One is used as other 2 are just left. Agriculture is the major occupation. Major crops are ground nut, sugar cane and maize. For higher education most of the students study Social Work. Local temples include Shree Prabhudevar, Shree Mallikarjun, Shree Lakshmidevi, Shree Siddharood, Shree Brahmadevar, Shree Duradundeshwar, Shree Hanuman and Shree Veerabhadreswar.
As of 2001 India census, Hukkeri had a population of 19,906. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Hukkeri has an average literacy rate of 63%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 72%, female literacy is 55%. In Hukkeri, 14% of the population is under 6 years of age; the Hukkeri Rural Electric Co-Operative Society Ltd is the First Rural Electric Co-operative Society to be registered in India. Hukkeri Society is one of the last surviving epitomes of the co-operative movement in India.. The Society is daring all odds as amidst 74% IP set consumption, the highest for any distribution areas in the state, without receiving any subsidy from the Government. Whole of Hukkeri Taluk and some villages of Belgaum and Chikkodi taluks are serviced by Hukkeri Rural Electricity Co-operative Society. HRECS covers an area of 30.00 sq km, with a population of over 4Lacs. The organization has five zones which are called as Hukkeri Hukkeri Sankeshwar Yamakanmardi Hidkal DamHukkeri Society is the only Rural Electric Cooperative Society in the state of Karnataka serving about 83,000 consumers in Hukkeri, Taluka,Sutagatti and Maranahole villages of Belgaum taluk, Kamatyanatti of Chikkodi taluk and water supply works of Mallapur village in Gokak taluk.
The organization was formed as a co-operative society under the Karnataka Co-operative Societies Act, 1959 as one of the five pilot Rural Electric Co-operative Societies established on 21-07-1969 through Rural Electrification Corporation Limited, New Delhi, as per the decision of Government of India and based on sponsorship from United States Agency for International Development in collaboration with National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, of the United States of America. The Government of Karnataka granted the license for distribution of electricity to the Society on 12-10-1970. Since the Society is engaged in the distribution of electricity to Hukkeri Taluk. Thereafter, Karnataka Electric Regulatory Commission was constituted under the Karnataka Electricity Reforms Act, 1999; the Society was granted the license for a period of five years, in October, 2001 thereafter, KERC, by its order No L/1/06 dated 14 November 2006 for a period of twenty five years from 19 October 2006 Vallabhgad Vallabhgad Fort is a fort in the Belgaum district of Karnataka state, India.
It dates back to 1674, is said to have been built by the Maratha ruler Shivaji. SAAMANGAD: This fort has fables woven around it. Situated in the Gadhinglaj taluka the fort has secret bastions. PAARGAD: Surrounded by a forest, the fort has bronze statues of Shivaji and a temple of Bhagawati Bhawani. KALANIDHIGAD: Is said to have been built by the Maratha ruler Shivaji. BHUDARGAD: This fort is situated on a huge vertical rock amidst mountain ranges, it is said to resemble from a distance, the crescent moon in the matted hair of the god Shiva.. RAMTEERTH: A picnic spot in Ajra taluka, with ancient temples, a river, an old coffee plantation and an orchard. According to legend, the place is so named because Rama stayed here during his vanvaas or exile in the forest. AMBOLI: Situated in the southern ranges of the Sahyadri hills, Amboli at an altitude of 690 m is the last mountain resort before the coastal highlands
The Krishna River is the fourth-biggest river in terms of water inflows and river basin area in India, after the Ganga and Brahmaputra. The river is 1,400 kilometres long; the river is called Krishnaveni. It is one of the major sources of irrigation for Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh; the Krishna river originates in the Western Ghats near Mahabaleshwar at an elevation of about 1,300 metres, in the state of Maharashtra in central India. It is one of the longest rivers in India; the Krishna river is around 1,400 km in length. The Krishna river's source is at Mahabaleswar near the Jor village in the extreme north of Wai Taluka, Satara District, Maharashtra in the west and empties into the Bay of Bengal at Hamasaladeevi in Andhra Pradesh, on the east coast, it flows through the state of Karnataka before entering Telangana State. The delta of this river is one of the most fertile regions in India and was the home to ancient Satavahana and Ikshvaku Sun Dynasty kings. Vijayawada is the largest city on the River Krishna.
It causes heavy soil erosion during the monsoon floods. It flows fast and furious reaching depths of over 75 feet. There is a saying in Marathi: "Shant vaahate Krishnamaai" which means "quiet flows Krishna"; this term is used to describe. The largest tributary of the Krishna River is the Tungabhadra River with a drainage basin measuring 71,417 km2, running for about 531 km, but the longest tributary is the Bhima River, which makes a total run of 861 km and has an large drainage area of 70,614 km2. Three tributaries Panchganga and Yerla meet Krishna river near Sangli; these places are considered holy. It is said. Sangameswaram of Kurnool district in Andhra Pradesh is a famous pilgrim center for Hindus where Tungabhadra and Bhavanasi rivers join the Krishna river; the Sangameswaram temple is now drowned in the Srisailam reservoir, visible for devotees only during summer when the reservoir's water level comes down. Krishna Basin extends over an area of 258,948 km2, nearly 8% of the total geographical area of the country.
This large basin lies in the states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. The Krishna river rises in the Western Ghats, at an elevation of about 1,337 m just north of Mahabaleshwar, about 64 km from the Arabian Sea, it outfalls into the Bay of Bengal. The principal tributaries joining Krishna are the Ghataprabha River, Malaprabha River, Bhima River, Tungabhadra River and Musi River. Most of this basin comprises rolling and undulating country, except for the western border, formed by an unbroken line of the Western Ghats; the important soil types found in the basin are black soils, red soils and lateritic soils, mixed soils and black soils and saline and alkaline soils. An average annual surface water potential of 78.1 km3 has been assessed in this basin. Out of this, 58.0 km3 is utilizable water. Culturable area in the basin is about 203,000 km2, 10.4% of the total cultivable area of the country. As the water availability in the Krishna river was becoming inadequate to meet the water demand, Godavari River is linked to the Krishna river by commissioning the Polavaram right bank canal with the help of Pattiseema lift scheme in the year 2015 to augment water availability to the Prakasam Barrage in Andhra Pradesh.
The irrigation canals of Prakasam Barrage form part of National Waterway 4. Agumbe which receives second highest rainfall in India, is located in the Krishna river basin. Mullayanagiri peak in Karnataka at an altitude of 1,930 m above msl, is the highest point of the Krishna basin; this river is revered by Hindus as sacred. The river is believed to remove all sins of people by taking a bath in this river; the centre of attraction is the Krishna Pushkaram fair, held once in twelve years on the banks of the Krishna river. There are many pilgrimage places in Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh on the course of the river; the first holy place on the river Krishna is at Wai, known for the Mahaganpati Mandir and Kashivishweshwar temple. It has seven ghats along the river. Temples like Dattadeva temple, revered by the people of Maharashtra, are located on the banks of Krishna at Narsobawadi and Audumbar near Sangli. Located on the banks of the river Krishna are the Sangameshwar Shiva temple at Haripur, goddess Kanaka Durga Temple in Vijayawada and Ramling temple near Sangli, Mallikarjuna Jyotirlinga, Amareshwara Swamy Temple, Dattadeva temple, Sangameshwara Shiva temples at Alampur in Telangana.
Wide spread area near to the Krishna river holds the rich fauna. The last surviving Mangrove forests in the Krishna estuary have been declared as the Krishna Wildlife Sanctuary; the sanctuary is the home to the large number of migratory birds. Fishing cat, Estuarine crocodile, spotted deer, black buck, snake and jackal can be spotted in the sanctuary; the sanctuary supports rich vegetation with plants like Rhizophora and Aegiceros. The following are few other wildlife sanctuaries located in the river basin; the following are few other waterfalls located in the river basin The Krishna River is spanned by several bridges along its course, some of which are listed below. Krishna Bridge, Maharashtra – This bridge, located in the Dharmpuri Peth area of the town of Wai, is one o
Daulatabad known as Devagiri, is a 14th-century fort city in Maharashtra state of India, about 16 kilometres northwest of Aurangabad. The place was named Devagiri when it was an important uplands city along caravan routes, but the intervening centuries have reduced it to a village; however it is considered to be one of the seven wonders of Maharashtra and a developing tourist spot. The historical triangular fort of Daulatabad was built by first Yadava king Bhillama V in 1187. Starting 1327, it famously remained the capital of Tughlaq dynasty, under Muhammad bin Tughluq, who changed its name, forcibly moved the entire population of Delhi for two years before it was abandoned for lack of water and Tughluq was known to shift the capital from Delhi to Daulatabad and Daulatabad to Delhi. There is a belief that Devagiri was built in 1203 AD by a Dhangar or herdsman who acquired vast wealth by his good fortune, he had a brother, a shepherd named'Raja Ram' and in correlation with it he assumed the rank of a Raja.
Lord Shiva is believed to have been stayed on the hills surrounding this region. Hence the fort was known as Devagiri, literally; the area of the city the hill-fortress of Devagiri. It stands on a conical hill, about 200 meters high. Much of the lower slopes of the hill has been cut away by Yadava dynasty rulers to leave 50 meter vertical sides to improve defenses; the fort is a place of extraordinary strength. The only means of access to the summit is by a narrow bridge, with passage for not more than two people abreast, a long gallery, excavated in the rock, which has for the most part a gradual upward slope. About midway along this gallery, the access gallery has steep stairs, the top of, covered by a grating destined in time of war to form the hearth of a huge fire kept burning by the garrison above. At the summit, at intervals on the slope, are specimens of massive old cannon facing out over the surrounding countryside. At the mid way, there is a cave entrance meant to confuse the enemies.
The fort had the following specialities which are listed along with their advantages: No separate exit from the fort, only one entrance/exit - This is designed to confuse the enemy soldiers to drive deep into the fort in search of an exit, at their own peril. No parallel gates - This is designed to break the momentum of the invading army; the flag mast is on the left hill, which the enemy will try to capitulate, thus will always turn left. But the real gates of the fort are on the right & the false ones on the left, thus confusing the enemy. Spikes on the gates - In the era before gunpowder, intoxicated elephants were used as a battering ram to break open the gates; the presence of spikes ensured. Complex arrangement of entryways, curved walls, false doors - Designed to confuse the enemy, but well-designed gates on the left side lured the enemy soldiers in & trapped them inside feeding them to crocodiles; the hill is shaped like a smooth tortoise back - this prevented the use of mountain lizards as climbers, because they cannot stick to it.
Devagiri is located at a distance of 15 km northwest of Aurangabad, the district headquarters and midway to Ellora group of caves. The original widespread capital city is now unoccupied and has been reduced to a village. Much of its survival depends on the tourists to the adjacent fort; the site had been occupied since at least 100 BCE, now has remains of Hindu & Buddhist temples similar to those at Ajanta and Ellora. The city is said to have been founded c. 1187 by Bhillama V, a Yadava prince who renounced his allegiance to the Chalukyas and established the power of the Yadava dynasty in the west. During the rule of the Yadava king Ramachandra, Alauddin Khalji of Delhi Sultanate raided Devagiri in 1296, forcing the Yadavas to pay a hefty tribute; when the tribute payments stopped, Alauddin sent a second expedition to Devagiri in 1308, forcing Ramachandra to become his vassal. In 1328, Muhammad bin Tughluq of Delhi Sultanate transferred the capital of his kingdom to Devagiri, renamed it Daulatabad.
Some scholars ague that the idea behind transferring the capital was rational, because it lay more or less in the centre of the kingdom, geographically secured the capital from the north-west frontier attacks. In the Daulatabad fort, he found. Hence he built a huge reservoir for water storage & connected it with a far-away river, he used siphon system to fill up the reservoir. However, his capital-shift strategy failed miserably due to lack of other factors. Hence he shifted back to Delhi & earned him the moniker "Mad King"; the next important event in the Daulatabad fort time-line was the construction of the Chand Minar by the Bahmani ruler Hasan Gangu Bahmani known as Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah. Hasan Gangu built the Chand Minar as a replica of the Qutb Minar of Delhi, of which he was a great fan of, he employed Iranian architects to built the Minar who used Lapis Red Ochre for coloring. The Minar is out of bounds for the tourists, because of a suicide case; as we move further into the fort, we can see a VIP prison built by Aurangzeb.
In this prison, he kept Abul Hasan Tana Shah of the Qutb Shahi Dynasty of Hyderabad. The antecedents of Abul Hasan Tana Shah, the last Qutub Shahi king are shrouded in mystery. Although a kinsman of the Golconda royals, he spent his formative years as a disciple of renowned Sufi saint Shah Raju Qattal, leading a spartan existence away from the pomp and grandeur of royalty. Shah Raziuddin Hussaini, popularly known as Sh
Wainganga is a river in India, originating in the Mahadeo Hills in Mundara near village Gopalganj in Seoni Madhya Pradesh. It is a tributary of the Godavari River; the river flows south in a winding course through the states of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra 579 km. After joining the Wardha River, the united stream, known as the Pranahita River, empties into the Godavari River at Kaleshwaram, Telangana; the main stream of the Wainhanga originates at Mundara, Seoni District, on the southern slopes of the Satpura Range of Madhya Pradesh. The river has developed extensive floodplains characterized by sweeping graceful meanders, low alluvial flats, slip-off slopes; the river has high banks. The northern part is surrounded by the Mahadeo hills and Satpura Range, with an average elevation of 625 m above sea level; the valley of the Wainganga River is sparsely populated. Balaghat and Bhandara are the major cities located on the bank of the Wainganga River, while Pauni and Desaiganj are smaller urban centers on the smallest of the river banks.
The Wainganga River is their primary source of water. The Government of Maharashtra is developing a protection wall for Bhandara to protect it from heavy flooding; this flood protection wall encircles Bhandara from east to south. The Wainganga river receives numerous tributaries on both sides and drains the western and eastern regions of the Balaghat district of Madhya Pradesh, Gadchiroli, Bhandara and Nagpur Districts of Maharashtra; the main tributaries of the Wainganga River are the Thel, Bagh, Garhavi and Kathani, which meet on the left bank. The Thanwar River joins the Wainganga at the Nainpur Forest Range, at the border of the Seoni District and Mandla District, before the Dhuty Dam on the Wainganga, it originates from the forest of Chiraidongri in the Mandla District. There is a medium-sized dam at the village of Bejegaon on the bank of this river, which opened in 1980. River water stored in the dam is used to irrigate the farmland of 50 villages; the Halon River and the Chakor River are some of the well-known tributaries to this small utilized river.
Geographically, this river misses a few miles due to a Satpura foothill to become the Narmada's first major tributary. The main towns on this tributary are Pindrai; the river has been in recreational use since ancient times, as it was on the route of pilgrimage from South to North India. The village Jhulpur, on the bank of this river, was a temple town; the major bridge over the river is at the town Pindrai by Indian Railway. The Kathani River originates in the Pendhri Hills at Dhanora and joins Wainganga near Gadchiroli city; the Hirri River originates in Seoni District and flows through Jeonara. It joins Wainganga near the Dhuty Dam. Main article: Chandan RiverThe Chandan River is an important river of the Balaghat District, it flows through Waraseoni. The Nahalesara dam is built upon the Chandan River. One of the major features along the river is the Rampayali's temple; the Bawanthadi River is an important river which originates in the Kurai plateau of Seoni District in Madhya Pradesh. It divides Madhya Maharashtra near Mowad and Bonkatta.
The Bawanthadi River joins Wainganga after flowing 48 km south, near Maharashtra. There is a middle size dam over this river which irrigate farm lands of M. P. and Maharastra. Main article: Kanhan RiverThe Kanhan River is Wainganga's longest tributary, at 275 km, it rises in the hills at the southern edge of the Satpura Range in the north-western region of Chhindwara District. By 2012, there were about 149 dams built in the Wainganga basin. Gose Khurd Dam on Wainganga River is being built by the Water Resources Department of the Government of Maharashtra. One of the major features along the river is the Bheemgarh Dam, located in the Seoni District; the river is used for shipping both passengers under the National Waterways Project. The first river port is to have been established in Bhandara City. Wainganga River was used in The Jungle Book and The Second Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling, featuring in the "Mowgli stories." In the books, it is the primary source of water for all the people of the jungle, the location of the "Peace Rock," and the place where Shere Khan vows to place Mowgli's bones once he has killed him.
It is the final battleground in the "Red Dog," written by Kipling. The forests of the Kanha National Park, which grew around the Wainganga, have tiger and bear populations, as featured in Kipling's stories; some believe. The Disney interpretation of Kipling's novel as an animated film showed Mowgli and the other jungle characters moving around in lush tropical rain forests. In reality, the area around the Wainganga is not a rainforest. Media related to Wainganga River at Wikimedia Commons
Miraj is a city in southern Maharashtra, founded in the early 10th century. It was an important Jagir of the Adil Shahi Court of Bijapur. Chhatrapati Shivaji stayed in Miraj for two months during his South India Campaign; because of its location, Miraj has been held as a strategic bastion, There were many remains of the fort but they have been demolished to construct the road.it was the capital of Miraj Senior and an important junction on the central railway network. The Pathwardhan family were the hereditary rulers of Miraj until independence. Miraj City is part of the Sangli-Miraj-Kupwad Municipal Corporation formed in 1999; the city is recognised for performance of Hindustani classical music, for its medical services and as a place of religious harmony. Ganesh festival is celebrated with great enthusiasm and The annual Ganesh Visarjan procession is an attraction which lasts for an average of twenty hours. Miraj is recognised for medical where people from karnataka and Arab countries do visit for medical treatment.
Its is famous for string instruments where many of great artist choose miraj to buy musical instruments and satar. In 1024 AD, Miraj was ruled by Narsimha of the Silahar dynasty. From 1216 to 1316, the Yadavas of Devgiri ruled the town. In 1395, the Bahamanis conquered Miraj. Between 1391 and 1403, Miraj was affected by the Durgadevi famine. From 1423, Malik Imad Ul Mulk ruled Miraj. 1494 was the year of Bahadur Khan Gilani's rebellion. For two months of 1660, Shivaji Maharaj and Adilshah battled for control of Miraj. In 1680, Santaji Ghorpade became Deshmukhi of Miraj and six years the town was captured by Aurangzeb. In 1730, Chatrapati Shahu of Satara instructed Pant Pratinidhi to attack the town. Shahu brings Maratha rule. In 1761, Harbhat Patwardhan's son, took the Miraj Jagir from Peshwa Madhavrao. In 1801, the Miraj was divided into two parts and Chintamanrao with Sangli. In 1819, British rule is established and in 1948, the Princedom of Miraj becomes part of the Republic of India. At the end of the 9th century, the Silaharas of Kolhapur gained rule of Miraj.
Jattiga II, the fourth ruler of Silahar dynasty, appears in the records of Narasimha. Jattiga II was succeeded by his son, Gonka, described in inscriptions as the conqueror of Karahata, Mirinj Miraj and Konkan; the Shilaharas were able to retain the rule of Miraj despite nearby military action by Chavan-raja, the general of Chalukya Jayasirhha II. In 1216, along with other territories of Silaharas, was conquered by the Yadavas. In 1318, the Bahamanis gained control. Historian, Tazkirat-ul-Mulk, reported that Hasan, the founder of the Bahamani dynasty, was in the employ of the Saikh Muhammad Junaidi at Gangi near Miraj. Hasan found, he captured the town's fort. At the behest of Saikh Muhammad, the name of the town was changed to Mubarakabad in 1347; the builder of the Miraj fort is unknown. It predates the Bahamani sultans though they might have repaired it and increased its fortifications, they used the fort as a base for military expeditions against South Goa. Firishta mentions the fort in an account of the rebellion of Bahadur Gilani in 1494, quelled by Sultan Muhammad II.
Muhammad II took the fort from Buna Naik, who acquiesced to the new ruler. Gilani's troops were offered the options of joining Muhammad's army and being treated with leniency or leaving. About 2000 soldiers left the fort to join Gilani's rebel forces; the main entrance of the fortress was a huge gate about 30 ft high but it has been demolished in recent times. The power of the Bahamani rulers waned under the influence of powerful provincial governors. In 1490, the rule of Miraj passed to the Sultanate of Bijapur. During the years of his reign, Ibrahim Ali Shah I kept his son, Ali Adil Shah I, under house arrest in Miraj. On Ibrahim's death in 1580, Miraj became a point d' appui for Ali's troops in his assuming the throne. Subsequently, the troops of Miraj fought with Ismail against Ibrahim Adil Sah III. By the mid-1640s the Muslim Bijapur sultanate was weakening. Shivaji, the founder of the Maratha Empire, was growing in power, he went to battle against the Bijapuris and the Mughals. On 28 November 1659, the western Adil Sahi district was surrendered to Annaji Datto.
Unlike other towns, the Miraj fort resisted. Shivaji, encamped at Kolhapur, sent Netaji Palkar to besiege Miraj. In January, 1660, Shivaji arrived to command the three-month-long ongoing siege. However, news of attacks by Siddi Johar and Fazal Khan caused his return to Panhala; the siege of Miraj was abandoned and negotiations began. Under the rule of Sambhaji, Maratha generals chose Miraj as a safe place for their families while they were conducting guerilla actions against the invading Aurangzeb forces of the Mughal emperor. In 1687, Bijapur fell to the Mughals. Miraj remained under Mughal rule until 3 October 1739. On that day, it was captured by Chhatrapati Shahu after a military campaign of two years, reflecting the fall of the last defences of the Mughals; the Patwardhan dynasty ruled Miraj as the capital of a principality, overseen by British rule. Miraj was part of the southern division of the Bombay Presidency which in turn was part of the southern Mahratta Jagirs, the Deccan States Agency.
In 1820, the state of Miraj was divided into M