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Alabama Great Southern Railroad

The Alabama Great Southern Railroad is a railroad in the U. S. states of Alabama, Louisiana and Tennessee. It is an operating subsidiary of the Norfolk Southern Corporation, running southwest from Chattanooga to New Orleans through Birmingham and Meridian; the AGS owns about a 30% interest in the Kansas City Southern-controlled Meridian-Shreveport Meridian Speedway. In 1970 AGS reported 3854 million net ton-miles of 105 million passenger miles; the AGS's oldest predecessor was the Wills Valley Railroad, chartered by the Alabama Legislature in February 1852 to extend from a point on the Alabama and Tennessee River Railroad northeast to the Georgia state line. In January and February 1854 the Georgia and Tennessee legislatures authorized the company to continue its road to a point on the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad; the North East and South West Alabama Railroad was chartered in Alabama in December 1853 and Mississippi in February 1854, to extend from Meridian through Livingston, Eutaw and Elyton in the direction of Knoxville, Tennessee.

Both companies received land grants through a June 1856 federal law, assigned by Alabama in January 1858 to the North East and South West from Mississippi to near Gadsden and to the Wills Valley from near Gadsden to Georgia. The two companies began construction from their termini outside Alabama; the Wills Valley opened the line from the Nashville and Chattanooga at Wauhatchie, Tennessee to Trenton, Georgia by December 1860, operating to Chattanooga via trackage rights over the Nashville and Chattanooga. The North East and South West began its line at Meridian, reaching a connection with the Alabama and Mississippi Rivers Railroad at York, Alabama by 1860, was leased to the latter company. A group of Boston capitalists headed by John C. Stanton gained control of the companies after the Civil War, the legislature passed a law in November 1868 to merge the two as the Alabama and Chattanooga Railroad; the entire line was completed in May 1871. However, due to nonpayment of interest on state bonds, the state of Alabama seized the property in mid-1871, it was operated by other parties until November 1877, when it was reorganized as the Alabama Great Southern Railroad by Emile Erlanger and Company.

Erlanger set up an English corporation, Alabama Great Southern Railway Company, Limited, to own the stock of the AGS. In 1881, this company gained control of the Cincinnati, New Orleans and Texas Pacific Railway, which continued north from Chattanooga to Cincinnati. A second English corporation, New Orleans and Pacific Junction Railways Company, was created in 1881 to increase the funds available to purchase associated lines, it bought the Alabama Great Southern Railway Company, New Orleans and Northeastern Railroad and Meridian Railway, Vicksburg and Pacific Railroad, but in 1890 control of the AGS was sold to the East Tennessee and Georgia Railway and Richmond and Danville Railroad, which both became part of the Southern Railway that decade. In April 1892, the AGS acquired the Gadsden and Attalla Railroad, a branch from Attalla to Gadsden, but in 1905 the AGS sold it to the Southern, retaining trackage rights; the AGS bought a half interest in the Woodstock and Blocton Railway from the Louisville and Nashville Railroad in July 1909, giving it access to West Blocton.

The AGS incorporated the Wauhatchie Extension Railway in April 1914 to continue the line from Wauhatchie to a junction with the Southern subsidiary Memphis-Chattanooga Railway west of Lookout Mountain. The property became part of the AGS in February 1917 and was completed that year, giving the AGS a new route into Chattanooga, via the extension, trackage rights over the Memphis-Chattanooga, a lease of the Belt Railway of Chattanooga. By the summer of 1954, the AGS retired all of their steam locomotives. In January 1969, at the same time as the Southern gained total control over the AGS, it merged the New Orleans and Northeastern Railroad into the AGS; the AGS absorbed the Chattanooga Terminal Railway, Louisiana Southern Railway, New Orleans Terminal Company in August 1993. Southern Railway trains ran over the territory of the AGS; the Queen and Crescent ran on its territory until its termination in 1949. The Birmingham Special ran on the AGS' Chattanooga to Birmingham segment until its discontinuance in 1970.

The Pelican ran on its entire length, lasting to 1970. The Southerner ran on its territory southwest of Birmingham until its termination in 1970. Today, Amtrak's Crescent operates on its territory southwest of Birmingham

Thomas Ernst Josef Wiedemann

Thomas Ernst Josef Wiedemann was a German-British historian. Thomas Wiedemann was born in Karlsruhe on 14 May 1950, his grandmother was Jewish and his father Heinrich had the luck that he wasn't sent to a concentration camp in the East. He was able to thereby survive the second World War. After the war the family lived in Baden, but moved to London in 1953. Wiedemann was educated at the Finchley Catholic Grammar School, whereupon he started a study at the Hertford College of the University of Oxford. After completing his studies, he would continue researching for two more years as a postgraduate. After working for a year as a researcher at the Warburg Institute in London, Wiedemann was recruited in 1976 by the Department of Classical Studies of the University of Bristol, he married Margaret Hunt in 1985, with whom he had a daughter. For his research, which would lead to a book entitled'Adults and Children in the Roman Empire', he would receive in the Croom Helm Ancient History Prize in 1987 as well as a doctorate from the University of Bristol.

He was to remain at this university for nineteen years, where he taught about the history of the Roman Empire from 1992 onwards. He would expand the component of ancient history to the classical studies department, he was supposed to teach twice at the universities of Freiburg and Eichstatt for six months. In 1995, he made an unexpected move to University of Nottingham as Professor of Latin, where he would be head of classical studies from 1997 onwards. Wiedemann's research focused on Roman history and on the social aspect and "marginal" groups, as shown by titles such as Greek and Roman Slavery: A Sourcebook, The Roman Household and Emperors and Gladiators, as well as his doctorate'Adults and Children in the Roman Empire'. With his interest in slavery throughout history, he founded the International Centre for the History of Slavery in 1998 in Bristol. Greek and Roman Slavery: A Sourcebook, Londen, 1981. ISBN 0415029724 Thucydides, Thucydides. Book I, ed. E. C. Marchant – introd. Bib. T. E. J. Wiedemann, Bristol, 1982.

ISBN 0862920272 Thucydides, Thucydides. Book II, ed. E. C. Marchant – introd. Bib. T. E. J. Wiedemann, Bristol, 1982. ISBN 0865160414 Adults and Children in the Roman Empire, Londen, 1989. ISBN 0415003369 The Julio-Claudian emperors: AD 14–70, Bristol, 1989. ISBN 1853991171 – J. Gardner, The Roman Household: A Sourcebook, Londen, 1991. ISBN 0415044227 Emperors and Gladiators, London – New York, 1992. ISBN 041500005X Cicero and the end of the Roman Republic, Londen, 1994. ISBN 1853991937

Williston School

Williston School is a school in Wilmington, North Carolina. It was first founded in 1866 by the abolitionist American Missionary Association after the Union army occupied the city during the civil war, it was intended for freed slaves and had 450 pupils divided into five departments: primary, advanced and industrial. As it developed, it became known by a variety of names including Williston Graded School, Williston Primary and Industrial School and Williston High School; the original site was on Seventh Street but in 1915, the institution moved to a new campus on Tenth Street and new buildings were constructed in 1933, 1937 and 1954. The institution was closed as a high school in 1968 as part of desegregation and this caused disturbances resulting in the Wilmington Ten; the remaining school on the site is now Williston Middle School of Science & Technology. It was based upon a school for freed slaves, founded in 1866 and named after Samuel Williston, a Massachusetts button maker and philanthropist.

That was on Seventh Street but, in 1915, a new building was constructed on Tenth and Church which opened in 1916 as Williston Industrial School and, in 1923, this became the first accredited high school for blacks in North Carolina. A new building was opened in 1933 and rebuilt when it was destroyed by fire in 1936; that building was closed in 1954 after a lawsuit and replaced by another new building on South Tenth Street. The lawsuit had been brought by Dr Hubert A. Eaton, a local civil-rights activist who pressed for greater equality of education. At the time, the school was comparatively deprived of resources such as new textbooks but its performance was the best of the black schools in the state. Martin Luther King was scheduled to speak at the school gymnasium on April 4, 1968, he changed his plans, staying in Tennessee, was assassinated there. Black high school students protested in Wilmington on the following day, making a march to City Hall; that year, desegregation plans for Wilmington were disputed in federal court.

The school was closed as a high school as the Board of Education did not want to spend the sums required to improve the school to the standard of white schools nor to send white students there. The black students were moved to the all-white high schools of New Hanover and Hoggard, where they complained of inadequate provision. Further protests and disturbances resulted in the notorious case of the Wilmington Ten. Robert Robinson Taylor, architect who helped Booker T. Washington construct the Tuskegee Institute. Jimmy Heath, jazz saxophonist known as "Little Bird". Althea Gibson, tennis champion – the first black player to win grand slam events. Meadowlark Lemon, star basketball player with the Harlem Globetrotters. Joseph McNeil, one of the Greensboro Four and air-force general. Phillip Clay, chancellor of MIT. Sam Bowens, major league baseball player. Fonvielle, Chris Eugene, Historic Wilmington & the Lower Cape Fear, HPN Books, ISBN 9781893619685 Godwin, John L. Black Wilmington and the North Carolina Way, University Press of America, ISBN 9780761816829 Class of 1931 – photographed by Louis T. Moore Williston Middle School of Math, Science & Technology – website of the current institution

Meekend Music (EP series)

Meekend Music and Meekend Music 2 are the respective third and fourth extended plays by American hip hop rapper Meek Mill. They were released by Dream Chasers Records and Maybach Music Group digitally for free download and stream via all mixtape platforms on May 6, 2017 and July 4, 2017, respectively. Both Meekend Music and its second counterpart feature production by Honorable C. N. O. T. E. Maaly Raw, Murda Beatz, Stoopid On Da Beat, Papamitrou, Mike Will Made It, 30 Roc and Tarik Azzouz as well as guest appearances from ASAP Ferg, Young Thug, YFN Lucci and Eearz; the Meekend Music along with the 4/4 extended play projects were used as a prelude to help promote Meek Mill's third studio album, Wins & Losses, released on July 21, 2017. Sample credits "Left Hollywood" contains a sample from "I Found", performed by Amber Run. "Save Me" contains a sample from "Crave You", performed by Flight Facilities. "Young Nigga Dreams" contains a sample from "Leave It All Behind", performed by Masoud

Under Two Flags (novel)

Under Two Flags was a best-selling novel by Ouida. The most famous of her books, it tells the story of an English aristocrat in disgrace, who disappears and joins a French battalion in Algeria, loosely based on the Foreign Legion; the novel is about The Hon. Bertie Cecil. In financial distress because of his own profligacy and the loss of an important horse-race on which he has bet extensively, falsely accused of forgery, but unable to defend himself against the charge without injuring the "honour" of a lady and exposing his younger brother, Cecil fakes his own death and exiles himself to Algeria where he joins the Chasseurs d'Afrique, a regiment comprising soldiers from various countries, rather like the French Foreign Legion. After Cecil's great childhood friend and the friend's beautiful sister show up in Africa, after a series of melodramatic self-sacrifices by Cecil and by the young girl Cigarette, a "child of the Army" who sacrifices her life saving Cecil from a firing squad, the main conflicts are resolved and the surviving characters return to England to fortune and love.

The book has served as a basis for a number of stage and film adaptations. Under Two Flags, a 1901 Broadway play by Paul M. Potter that ran for 135 performances at the Garden Theatre, starring Blanche Bates and Maclyn Arbuckle, directed by David Belasco and produced by Charles Frohman. Under Two Flags, a 1912 film Under Two Flags, a 1915 short film starring Gertrude Astor Under Two Flags, a 1916 film starring Theda Bara Under Two Flags, a 1922 film directed by Tod Browning starring Priscilla Dean Under Two Flags, featuring Ronald Colman, Claudette Colbert, Victor McLaglen and Rosalind RussellClassics Illustrated # 86 Under Two Flags is an excellent adaptation with outstanding comic art by Maurice del Bourgo. Under Two Flags at Project Gutenberg

Lloyd's Coffee House

Lloyd's Coffee House was a significant meeting place in London in the 17th and 18th centuries. It was opened by Edward Lloyd on Tower Street in 1686; the establishment was a popular place for sailors and shipowners, Lloyd catered to them by providing reliable shipping news. The shipping industry community frequented the place to discuss maritime insurance and foreign trade; the dealings that took place led to the establishment of the insurance market Lloyd's of London, Lloyd's Register and several related shipping and insurance businesses. The coffee shop relocated to Lombard Street in December 1691. Lloyd had a pulpit installed in the new premises, from which maritime auction prices and shipping news were announced. Candle auctions were held in the establishment, with lots involving ships and shipping. From 1696–1697 Lloyd experimented with publishing a newspaper, Lloyd's News, reporting on shipping schedules and insurance agreements reached in the coffee house. In 1713, the year of Edward Lloyd's death, he modified his will to assign the lease of the coffee house to his head waiter, William Newton, who married one of Lloyd's daughters, Handy.

Newton died Handy subsequently married Samuel Sheppard. She died in 1720 and Sheppard died in 1727, leaving the coffee house to his sister Elizabeth and her husband, Thomas Jemson. Jemson founded founded the Lloyd's List newspaper in 1734, similar to the previous Lloyd's News. Merchants continued to discuss insurance matters here until 1774, when the participating members of the insurance arrangement formed a committee and moved to the Royal Exchange on Cornhill as the Society of Lloyd's; the 17th century original shop frontage of Lloyd's Coffee House is owned by Lloyd's of London and in 2011 was temporarily re-erected on display at the National Maritime Museum. A blue plaque in Lombard Street commemorates the coffee house's second location, it was fictionalized in the 1936 film Lloyd's of London. The following is a list of organisations named after Lloyd's Coffee House: Austrian Lloyd: Österreichischer Lloyd: an Austrian, major mediterranean shipping company founded in 1833, which after World War I became Lloyd Triestino Austrian Lloyd Ship Management: a Cypriot company founded in 1991 Germanischer Lloyd, Germany Hapag-Lloyd, Germany Hapag-Lloyd Express, Germany Hapag-Lloyd Flug, Germany Lloyd Aéreo Boliviano, Bolivia Lloyd's List and Lloyd's List Intelligence, shipping news, London Lloyd's of London, insurance and the Lloyd's Agency Network they created Lloyd's Register, risk assessment and mitigation services and management systems certification, London Norddeutscher Lloyd, shipping and the Lloyd created by a subsidiary, the Lloyd Werft dockyard they own P&O Nedlloyd Delta Lloyd Group Lloyds Bank and its related organisations are not named after the London coffee house.