Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university or college. In modern usage, it is a school or university which an individual has attended, the phrase is variously translated as nourishing mother, nursing mother, or fostering mother, suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Before its modern usage, Alma mater was a title in Latin for various mother goddesses, especially Ceres or Cybele. The source of its current use is the motto, Alma Mater Studiorum, of the oldest university in continuous operation in the Western world and it is related to the term alumnus, denoting a university graduate, which literally means a nursling or one who is nourished. The phrase can denote a song or hymn associated with a school, although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not frequently used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. Alma Redemptoris Mater is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary, the earliest documented English use of the term to refer to a university is in 1600, when University of Cambridge printer John Legate began using an emblem for the universitys press.
In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is often cited in 1710, many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name. The University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the Alma Mater of the Nation because of its ties to the founding of the United States. At Queens University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses, outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
French Third Republic
It came to an end on 10 July 1940. Harsh reparations exacted by the Prussians after the war resulted in the loss of the French regions of Alsace and Lorraine, social upheaval, and the establishment of the Paris Commune. The early governments of the Third Republic considered re-establishing the monarchy, but confusion as to the nature of that monarchy, the Third Republic, which was originally intended as a provisional government, instead became the permanent government of France. The French Constitutional Laws of 1875 defined the composition of the Third Republic and it consisted of a Chamber of Deputies and a Senate to form the legislative branch of government and a president to serve as head of state. The period from the start of World War I to the late 1930s featured sharply polarized politics, Adolphe Thiers called republicanism in the 1870s the form of government that divides France least, politics under the Third Republic were sharply polarized. On the left stood Reformist France, heir to the French Revolution, on the right stood conservative France, rooted in the peasantry, the Roman Catholic Church and the army.
The Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871 resulted in the defeat of France, after Napoleons capture by the Prussians at the Battle of Sedan, Parisian deputies led by Léon Gambetta established the Government of National Defence as a provisional government on 4 September 1870. The deputies selected General Louis-Jules Trochu to serve as its president and this first government of the Third Republic ruled during the Siege of Paris. After the French surrender in January 1871, the provisional Government of National Defence disbanded, French territories occupied by Prussia at this time did not participate. The resulting conservative National Assembly elected Adolphe Thiers as head of a provisional government, due to the revolutionary and left-wing political climate that prevailed in the Parisian population, the right-wing government chose the royal palace of Versailles as its headquarters. The new government negotiated a settlement with the newly proclaimed German Empire. To prompt the Prussians to leave France, the government passed a variety of laws, such as the controversial Law of Maturities.
The following repression of the communards would have consequences for the labor movement. The Orléanists supported a descendant of King Louis Philippe I, the cousin of Charles X who replaced him as the French monarch in 1830, his grandson Louis-Philippe, Comte de Paris. The Bonapartists were marginalized due to the defeat of Napoléon III and were unable to advance the candidacy of any member of his family, the Bonaparte family. Legitimists and Orléanists came to a compromise, whereby the childless Comte de Chambord would be recognised as king, consequently, in 1871 the throne was offered to the Comte de Chambord. Chambord believed the monarchy had to eliminate all traces of the Revolution in order to restore the unity between the monarchy and the nation, which the revolution had sundered apart. Compromise on this was if the nation were to be made whole again
Ablon-sur-Seine is a French commune in the Val-de-Marne department in the southeastern suburbs of Paris. It is located 15.3 km from the centre of Paris, the inhabitants of the commune are known as Ablonais or Ablonaises Ablon has been awarded one flower in the Concours des villes et villages fleuris. Ablon-sur-Seine is a commune located some 15 kilometres to the south-east of the centre of Paris immediately to the east of Orly Airport. The main railway from the Gare dAusterlitz to Bordeaux runs south-west through the commune, the Seine river forms the whole southern border of the commune. The whole of the border and the Seine are the border between the Val-de-Marne and Essonne departments. There is no bridge from the commune across the Seine, Ablon-sur-Seine is situated 4 leagues from Paris, that is 10 km. Henri IV, by the Edict of Nantes in March 1598 and he authorized the construction of a Protestant church at Ablons. There was a built in Ablon by Agnes Sorel and a Protestant church which was frequented until the revocation of the Edict of Nantes by the reformed Parisians.
The economic activity Ablon has always been linked to the river and it has been traditionally a residential commune, with the urban area mainly residential. List of Successive Mayors of Ablon-sur-Seine Mayors from 1941 Ablon-sur-Seine has twinning associations with, in 2010 the commune had 5,171 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of municipalities with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held five years. There is one school called Sacré-Cœur, which serves preschool through junior high school. From 2001 to 2008, Ablon has organised various cultural events, an independent association, It was once Ablon, organised these events to enable people to experience the history of the town and its inhabitants arouse a community spirit in Ablon people. Some events have left their mark on the town including the historical rally with themes such as Discovering neighbourhoods, the old trades of Ablon.
Other cultural activities include the festival Your Neighbours Have Talent, which hosted painters, sculptors and this festival hosted young artists from the National Conservatory of Paris and recent graduates from fine art schools. Another event highly appreciated by all generations of the city was cyber-Ablon and this event allowed the even the oldest people to learn office skills such as Internet browsing, Word, Excel etc. and for younger ones to come together for network games. For 8 March, the proposed a event to mark the International Day of Womens Rights
Mario Scelba was an Italian Christian Democratic politician who served as the 33rd Prime Minister of Italy from February 1954 to July 1955. He was President of the European Parliament from 1969 to 1971, Scelba was born in Caltagirone, the son of a poor sharecropper on land owned by the priest Don Luigi Sturzo, one of the founders of the Italian Peoples Party. He studied law and graduated at the University of Rome, Scelba was Sturzos godchild and protégé. Sturzo paid for his law studies in Rome and employed him as his private secretary, when the Fascists suppressed the PPI and forced Sturzo into exile, Scelba remained in Rome as his agent. He wrote for the underground paper Il Popolo during World War II, arrested by the Germans, he was released within three days as a worthless catch. On the day of Romes liberation by the Allied forces, he joined the new five-man national directorate of the Christian Democracy, the Christian Democrats started organising post-Fascist Italy in competition with, but for a time in coalition with, the parties of the centre and left.
On February 2,1947, Scelba became Minister of the Interior in the government of Premier Alcide de Gasperi, with some brief interludes. The short, plump, oddly-impressive Scelba was probably the most powerful man in the governments of De Gasperi. As Minister, his hard-fisted record earned him the nickname Iron Sicilian for his ruthless suppression of left-wing workers protests and strikes, when he first took over, the police were so shoddy that Scelba exclaimed, If I were Communist, Id start a revolution tomorrow. He wrote the so-called Scelba law, formally banning Fascism, Scelba built the countrys dishevelled police into a force of some 200,000, heavily armed and equipped with armoured cars and special jeep-riding riot squads called the Reparto Celere. He made himself known as a man of action against what he considered Communist disorder, in doing so, Scelba made himself many enemies, including many democrats who disapproved his harsh methods. His short, stubby figure and broad eye-twinkling smile was popular with political cartoonists, Scelba had a conservative attitude toward certain issues such as scant bathing suits, public kissing and nude statues.
Despite this and his concern for law and order, on socio-economic issues Scelba leaned left of centre in the Democrazia Cristiana. He favoured more social reforms and public works, attacking speculators for pushing up prices and it is virtually impossible, he once said, to be Minister of Interior for a government that doesnt care if the people work or not. Scelba emphasized the possibility of undermining Communist strength by determined measures of social and economic improvement – land reform of the great latifundias in south Italy, after just three months in office as Minister of the Interior, Scelba was confronted with the Portella della Ginestra massacre. The attack was attributed to the bandit and separatist leader Salvatore Giuliano, Scelba reported to Parliament the next day that so far as the police could determine, the Portella della Ginestra shooting was non-political. He claimed that bandits notoriously infested the valley in which it occurred, that version was challenged by the left.
Later documents would substantiate the accusation, the trial of those responsible was held in the city of Viterbo, starting in the summer of 1950
MINES ParisTech, created in 1783 by King Louis XVI, is a most prominent and prestigious French engineering schools in France and a member of ParisTech and PSL*. Created by decree of the French Kings Counsel on March 19,1783, the school disappeared at the beginning of the French Revolution but was re-established by decree of the Committee of Public Safety in 1794, the 13th Messidor Year II. It moved to Savoie, after a decree of the consuls the 23rd Pluviôse Year X, after the Bourbon Restoration in 1814, the school moved to the Hôtel de Vendôme. From the 1960s onwards, it created research laboratories in Fontainebleau, Évry, the initial aim of the Ecole des mines de Paris, namely to train high-level mining engineers, evolved with time to adapt to the technological and structural transformations undergone by society. Mines ParisTech has now become one of the most prestigious French engineering schools with a variety of subjects. Its students are trained to have management positions, work in research and development departments, or as operations officers, the Corps of Mines, one of the greatest technical corps of the French state.
It is a third degree, lasting for three years, consisting in two long-term internships both in public and private economical institutions and courses in economics and public institutions. Every year, ten applications are accepted from students around the world according to their academic achievements. Admission in third year is open to one Ph. D graduate. mines-paristech. ensmp. fr ISIGE-MINES ParisTech
Maurice Couve de Murville
Maurice Couve de Murville was a French diplomat and politician who was Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1958 to 1968 and Prime Minister from 1968 to 1969 under the presidency of General de Gaulle. He was born Maurice Couve in Reims and died in Paris at the age of 92 from natural causes. Couve de Murville joined the corps of finance inspectors in 1930, in March 1943, after the American landing in North Africa, he was one of the few senior officials of Vichy to join the Free French. He left for Algiers, via Spain, where he joined General Henri Giraud, on 7 June 1943, he was named commissioner of finance of the French Committee of National Liberation. A few months later, he joined General Charles de Gaulle, in February 1945, he became a member of the Provisional Government of the French Republic with the rank of ambassador attached to the Italian government. After the war, he occupied posts as French Ambassador, in Cairo, at NATO, in Washington. The following year he was succeeded by Jacques Chaban-Delmas, Couve de Murville continued his political career first as a UDR deputy, RPR deputy for Paris until 1986, as a senator until 1995.
Maurice Couve de Murville, the Roman Catholic Archbishop Emeritus of Birmingham, was his cousin, ISBN unknown Le Monde en face. A film clip Longines Chronoscope with Maurice Couve de Murville is available at the Internet Archive
Constitution of France
The current Constitution of France was adopted on 4 October 1958. It is typically called the Constitution of the Fifth Republic, Charles de Gaulle was the main driving force in introducing the new constitution and inaugurating the Fifth Republic, while the text was drafted by Michel Debré. Since the constitution has been amended twenty-four times, most recently in 2008 and it provides for the election of the President and the Parliament, the selection of the Government, and the powers of each and the relations between them. It ensures judicial authority and creates a High Court, a Constitutional Council, and it was designed to create a politically strong President. It enables the ratification of treaties and those associated with the European Union. It is unclear whether the wording is compatible with European Union law, the Constitution sets out methods for its own amendment either by referendum or through a Parliamentary process with Presidential consent. However, president Charles de Gaulle bypassed the legislative procedure in 1962 and directly sent an amendment to a referendum.
This was highly controversial at the time, the Constitutional Council ruled that since a referendum expressed the will of the sovereign people, on 21 July 2008, Parliament passed constitutional reforms championed by President Nicolas Sarkozy by a margin of two votes. Prior to 1971, though executive and judicial decisions had to comply with the principles of law. It was assumed that unelected judges and other appointees should not be able to overrule laws voted for by the directly elected French parliament, in practice, the political opposition sends all controversial laws before it. The Constitution defines in Article 89 the rules for amending itself, first, a constitutional bill must be approved by both houses of Parliament. Then, the bill must be approved by the Congress, a joint session of both houses, the bill can be submitted to a referendum. This permitted the establishment of an elected presidency, that would otherwise have been vetoed by the Parliament. Article 11 was used for changes for the second and last time in 1969.
France has had numerous past constitutions, the ancien régime was an absolute monarchy and lacked a formal constitution, the régime essentially relied on custom. Journal Officiel de la République Française, 9151–9173, lélaboration de la Constitution de la Ve République. Frédéric Monera, Lidée de République et la jurisprudence du Conseil constitutionnel – Paris, martin A. Rogoff, French Constitutional Law and Materials – Durham, North Carolina, Carolina Academic Press,2010. Texte intégral de la Constitution du 4 octobre 1958 en vigueur, Constitutional council of the French Republic
The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century. Their territory largely corresponded to ancient Gaul as well as the Roman provinces of Raetia, Germania Superior and the southern part of Germania. The Merovingian dynasty was founded by Childeric I, the son of Merovech, leader of the Salian Franks, after the death of Clovis there were frequent clashes between different branches of the family, but when threatened by its neighbours the Merovingians presented a strong united front. During the final century of Merovingian rule, the kings were increasingly pushed into a ceremonial role, the Merovingian rule ended in March 752 when Pope Zachary formally deposed Childeric III. Zacharys successor, Pope Stephen II, confirmed and anointed Pepin the Short in 754, the Merovingian ruling family were sometimes referred to as the long-haired kings by contemporaries, as their long hair distinguished them among the Franks, who commonly cut their hair short.
The Merovingian dynasty owes its name to the semi-legendary Merovech, leader of the Salian Franks, the victories of his son Childeric I against the Visigoths and Alemanni established the basis of Merovingian land. Childerics son Clovis I went on to unite most of Gaul north of the Loire under his control around 486, when he defeated Syagrius, the Roman ruler in those parts. He won the Battle of Tolbiac against the Alemanni in 496, at time, according to Gregory of Tours. He subsequently went on to defeat the Visigothic kingdom of Toulouse in the Battle of Vouillé in 507. After Cloviss death, his kingdom was partitioned among his four sons, leadership among the early Merovingians was probably based on mythical descent and alleged divine patronage, expressed in terms of continued military success. In 1906 the British Egyptologist Flinders Petrie suggested that the Marvingi recorded by Ptolemy as living near the Rhine were the ancestors of the Merovingian dynasty, upon Cloviss death in 511, the Merovingian kingdom included all of Gaul except Burgundy and all of Germania magna except Saxony.
To the outside, the kingdom, even when divided under different kings, maintained unity, after the fall of the Ostrogoths, the Franks conquered Provence. After this their borders with Italy and Visigothic Septimania remained fairly stable, the kingdom was divided among Cloviss sons and among his grandsons and frequently saw war between the different kings, who quickly allied among themselves and against one another. The death of one king created conflict between the brothers and the deceaseds sons, with differing outcomes. Later, conflicts were intensified by the personal feud around Brunhilda, yearly warfare often did not constitute general devastation but took on an almost ritual character, with established rules and norms. Eventually, Clotaire II in 613 reunited the entire Frankish realm under one ruler, divisions produced the stable units of Austrasia, Neustria and Aquitania. The frequent wars had weakened royal power, while the aristocracy had made great gains and these concessions saw the very considerable power of the king parcelled out and retained by leading comites and duces.
Very little is in fact known about the course of the 7th century due to a scarcity of sources, clotaires son Dagobert I, who sent troops to Spain and pagan Slavic territories in the east, is commonly seen as the last powerful Merovingian King