Holtville is a city in Imperial County, California. Holtville is located 10.5 miles east of El Centro. The population was 5,939 at the 2010 census, up from 5,612 in 2000; the city was founded by Swiss-German settlers in the 1880s, who entered through the border from Mexico. The construction of railroads in the 1890s, the All-American Canal in the late 1940s, U. S. Route 80 in the 1920s converted to Interstate 8 in the 1970s and the North American Free Trade Agreement economic boom in the 1990s brought more people to Holtville and the Imperial Valley; the city of Holtville, called Holton, was founded in 1903 by W. F. Holt, incorporated on June 20, 1908; the name was changed to Holtville due to a request by the U. S. Postal Service because the name Holton sounded too much like Colton, the regional headquarters of the Southern Pacific Railroad at the time; the name honors W. F. Holt, founder of the community; the city lies on the northeast bank of the Alamo River formed by the floods of 1905-07 when the Colorado River break made the river's course turn west and filled the low-lying depression of water now known as the Salton Sea.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.1 sq mi, with 1.1 square miles land and 0.40% water. This area has a large amount of sunshine year round due to its stable descending air and high pressure. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Holtville has a desert climate, abbreviated "Bwh" on climate maps; the 2010 United States Census reported that Holtville had a population of 5,939. The population density was 5,152.0 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Holtville was 3,655 White, 37 African American, 41 Native American, 50 Asian, 4 Pacific Islander, 1,977 from other races, 175 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4,858 persons; the Census reported that 5,939 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 1,799 households, out of which 894 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 1,033 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 290 had a female householder with no husband present, 106 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 81 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 6 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 319 households were made up of individuals and 164 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.30. There were 1,429 families; the population was spread out with 1,850 people under the age of 18, 618 people aged 18 to 24, 1,327 people aged 25 to 44, 1,416 people aged 45 to 64, 728 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.2 males. There were 1,937 housing units at an average density of 1,680.3 per square mile, of which 1,799 were occupied, of which 904 were owner-occupied, 895 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.6%. 3,017 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 2,922 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,612 people, 1,564 households, 1,340 families residing in the city.
The population density was 4,920.8 people per square mile. There were 1,617 housing units at an average density of 1,417.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 54.4% White, 0.6% Black or African American, 0.8% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 39.2% from other races, 4.1% from two or more races. 73.8% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,564 households out of which 52.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.9% were married couples living together, 16.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 14.3% were non-families. 12.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.5 and the average family size was 3.8. In the city, the population was spread out with 35.2% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 18.3% from 45 to 64, 11.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.1 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $36,318, the median income for a family was $39,347. Males had a median income of $31,328 versus $26,477 for females; the per capita income for the city was $12,505. About 15.7% of families and 18.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.2% of those under age 18 and 11.8% of those age 65 or over. The city's major civic event is the annual Carrot Festival, held in late January or early February, it features a parade, a carnival and other activities over a 10-day period. Holtville was famous in the mid 20th century with having the Holtville "Carrot Festival" but was confused with the "Coachella Valley" name from the Bugs Bunny cartoon Bully for Bugs when he reads a map seeking a "Carrot Festival". In the state legislature, Holtville is in the 40th Senate District, represented by Democrat Ben Hueso, the 56th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Eduardo Garcia.
Federally, Holtville is in California's 51st congressional district, represented by Democrat
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
The Mojave Desert is an arid rain-shadow desert and the driest desert in North America. It is in the southwestern United States within southeastern California and southern Nevada, it occupies 47,877 sq mi. Small areas extend into Utah and Arizona, its boundaries are noted by the presence of Joshua trees, which are native only to the Mojave Desert and are considered an indicator species, it is believed to support an additional 1,750 to 2,000 species of plants. The central part of the desert is sparsely populated, while its peripheries support large communities such as Las Vegas, Lancaster, Victorville, St. George; the Mojave Desert is bordered by the Great Basin Desert to its north and the Sonoran Desert to its south and east. Topographical boundaries include the Tehachapi Mountains to the west, the San Gabriel Mountains and San Bernardino Mountains to the south; the mountain boundaries are distinct because they are outlined by the two largest faults in California – the San Andreas and Garlock faults.
The Mojave Desert displays typical range topography. Higher elevations above 2,000 ft in the Mojave are referred to as the High Desert; the Mojave Desert occupies less than 50,000 sq mi, making it the smallest of the North American deserts. The Mojave Desert is referred to as the "high desert", in contrast to the "low desert", the Sonoran Desert to the south; the Mojave Desert, however, is lower than the Great Basin Desert to the north. The spelling Mojave originates from the Spanish language while the spelling Mohave comes from modern English. Both are used today, although the Mojave Tribal Nation uses the spelling Mojave; the Mojave Desert receives less than 2 inches of rain a year and is between 2,000 and 5,000 feet in elevation. The Mojave Desert contains the Mojave National Preserve, as well as the lowest and hottest place in North America: Death Valley at 282 ft below sea level, where the temperature surpasses 120 °F from late June to early August. Zion National Park in Utah lies at the junction of the Mojave, the Great Basin Desert, the Colorado Plateau.
Despite its aridity, the Mojave has long been a center of alfalfa production, fed by irrigation coming from groundwater and from the California Aqueduct. The Mojave is a desert of two distinct seasons. Winter months bring comfortable daytime temperatures, which drop to around 25 °F on valley floors, below 0 °F at the highest elevations. Storms moving from the Pacific Northwest can bring rain and in some places snow. More the rain shadow created by the Sierra Nevada as well as mountain ranges within the desert such as the Spring Mountains, bring only clouds and wind. In longer periods between storm systems, winter temperatures in valleys can approach 80 °F. Spring weather continues to be influenced by Pacific storms, but rainfall is more widespread and occurs less after April. By early June, it is rare for another Pacific storm to have a significant impact on the region's weather. Summer weather is dominated by heat. Temperatures on valley floors can soar above 130 °F at the lowest elevations. Low humidity, high temperatures, low pressure, draw in moisture from the Gulf of Mexico creating thunderstorms across the desert southwest known as the North American monsoon.
While the Mojave does not get nearly the amount of rainfall the Sonoran desert to the south receives, monsoonal moisture will create thunderstorms as far west as California's Central Valley from mid-June through early September. Autumn is pleasant, with one to two Pacific storm systems creating regional rain events. October is one of the sunniest months in the Mojave. After temperature, wind is the most significant weather phenomenon in the Mojave. Across the region windy days are common. During the June Gloom, cooler air can be pushed into the desert from Southern California. In Santa Ana wind events, hot air from the desert blows into the Los Angeles basin and other coastal areas. Wind farms in these areas generate power from these winds; the other major weather factor in the region is elevation. The highest peak within the Mojave is Charleston Peak at 11,918 feet, while the Badwater Basin in Death Valley is 279 feet below sea level. Accordingly and precipitation ranges wildly in all seasons across the region.
The Mojave Desert has not supported a fire regime because of low fuel loads and connectivity. However, in the last few decades, invasive annual plants such as some within the genera Bromus and Brassica have facilitated fire; this has altered many areas of the desert. At higher elevations, fire regimes are infrequent; the Mojave Desert is defined by numerous mountain ranges creating its xeric conditions. These ranges create valleys, endorheic basins, salt pans, seasonal saline lakes when precipitation is high enough. These
Course of the Colorado River
The Colorado River is a major river of the western United States and northwest Mexico in North America. Its headwaters are in the Rocky Mountains. Located in north central Colorado it flows southwest through the Colorado Plateau country of western Colorado, southeastern Utah and northwestern Arizona where it flows through the Grand Canyon, it turns south near Las Vegas, forming the Arizona–Nevada border in Lake Mead and the Arizona–California border a few miles below Davis Dam between Laughlin and Needles, California California before entering Mexico in the Colorado Desert. Most of its waters are diverted into the Imperial Valley of Southern California. In Mexico its course forms the boundary between Sonora and Baja California before entering the Gulf of California; this article describes most of the major features along the river. The Colorado River rises on the Continental Divide at La Poudre Pass, in Rocky Mountain National Park, about 40 km north of Lake Granby, as a tiny stream draining a wet meadow.
At the river's headwater, the Continental Divide forms the boundary between the Gulf of Mexico and Pacific Ocean watersheds of North America, between Colorado's Grand and Larimer counties, the northern boundary of Rocky Mountain National Park. The river's first diversion is here at its headwater; the Grand Ditch redirects water from the Never Summer Mountains, which would have flowed into the Colorado River, to instead flow across the divide through La Poudre Pass to irrigate farmland to the east. About a mile downstream from its source, the Colorado River has carved its first canyon, the narrow, deep Little Yellowstone Canyon, it flows through the broad Kawuneeche Valley, where it is joined by U. S. Highway 34, which will parallel it to the town of Granby, it exits Rocky Mountain National Park, flowing into Shadow Mountain Lake and into Lake Granby, which are portions of the Colorado-Big Thompson Project, a large trans-basin water storage and delivery project that diverts water from the Colorado River under the Front Range mountains to provide an agricultural and municipal water supply for the northern Front Range and plains of Colorado.
Starting in Granby, the river is paralleled by U. S. Highway 40 to the town of Kremmling, by the tracks of the Union Pacific Railroad until about the Utah border, carrying the Amtrak California Zephyr passenger train; the canyons and valleys of the Upper Colorado River are among the scenic attractions for passengers on this rail route. Just downstream from Granby, the Colorado is joined by the Fraser River and flows through Windy Gap Reservoir, where more water is diverted to the Front Range via the Windy Gap Project. At Hot Sulphur Springs the river flows through Byers Canyon and is joined by the Williams Fork from the left and Muddy Creek from the right shortly thereafter. Just below Kremmling it is joined by the Blue River from the left before flowing through Gore Canyon, famous for its challenging rapids for the sport of whitewater rafting, where it drops until State Highway 131 crosses at the village of State Bridge, where the Piney River joins from the left; the Eagle River joins from the left in the town of Dotsero, from where Interstate 70 will parallel the Colorado until it enters Utah.
Below Dotsero the Colorado flows through Glenwood Canyon, emerging at the city of Glenwood Springs where the swift flowing Roaring Fork River, its second largest tributary in Colorado joins from the left. West of Glenwood Springs, the Colorado runs through a wider valley along the northern foothills of the Grand Mesa, passing the towns of New Castle, Rifle and De Beque, it flows through De Beque Canyon, where it is joined by Plateau Creek. The Colorado enters the Grand Valley, where its waters are used to irrigate over 40,000 acres of agricultural land. Here it passes Grand Junction, the largest town on the upper Colorado, where it is joined by the Gunnison River, its largest tributary within Colorado and second largest overall; the Gunnison drains from the northern San Juan Mountains, Elk Mountains and Sawatch Range – which includes Colorado's highest peak, 14,440-foot Mount Elbert – and carves the Black Canyon of the Gunnison before joining the Colorado. In the Grand Valley the Colorado becomes a meandering river in contrast to the steep mountain canyons above Grand Junction.
It ranges from 6 to 30 ft in depth with occasional deeper areas. From there the Colorado turns northwest, past Fruita and entering Ruby Canyon as it approaches the Colorado Plateau, it turns southwest once again just before entering Utah. In Utah the Colorado enters the high desert canyon country of the Colorado Plateau, flowing swiftly southwest through Westwater Canyon. Near Dewey it picks up the Dolores River, which together with its tributary the San Miguel drains the western slope of the San Juan Mountains, it passes the Fisher Towers and forms part of the southern border of Arches National Park before entering the Moab Valley at Moab. Just below Moab it carves through a 1,000-foot deep mountain pass known as "The Portal"; the Colorado passes by Dead Horse Point State Park before entering the backcountry of Canyonlands National Park where it is joined from the north by the Green River, its biggest tributary. The Green, flowing from the Wind River Range of western Wyoming, drains 48,000 square miles in southwest Wyoming, northeast Utah and northwest Colorado.
It is much longer than the Colorado above their confluence and carries a larger load of silt, though the Colorado has a greater flow. Before an act of Congress changed the name in 1921 this confluence marked the official beginning of the Colorado River prop
Lake Cahuilla was a prehistoric lake in California and northern Mexico. Located in the Coachella and Imperial Valleys, it covered surface areas of 5,700 square kilometres to a height of 12 metres above sea level during the Holocene. During earlier stages of the Pleistocene, the lake reached higher levels, up to 31–52 metres above sea level. During the Holocene most of the water came from the Colorado River with little contribution from local runoff; the lake overflowed close to Cerro Prieto into the Rio Hardy draining into the Gulf of California. The lake formed several times during the Holocene, when water from the Colorado River was diverted into the Salton Trough; this tectonic depression forms the northern basin of the Gulf of California, but it was separated from the sea proper by the growth of the Colorado River Delta. Such changes in river courses may have been caused by earthquakes among the numerous faults that cross the region, such as the San Andreas Fault. Conversely, it is possible.
During its existence, Lake Cahuilla formed strandlines and various beach deposits such as gravel bars and travertine deposits. The lake existed in several stages over the last 2,000 years, periodically drying and refilling and disappearing sometime after 1580. Between 1905–1907, due to an engineering accident, the Salton Sea formed in parts of the lower basin of Lake Cahuilla. Were it not for human intervention, the sea might have grown to the size of prehistoric Lake Cahuilla. Today the former lake bed forms the fertile regions of the Coachella Valleys; the Algodones Dunes were formed from sand deposited by Lake Cahuilla, transported by wind toward the area. During its existence, the lake supported a rich biota with fish and vegetation on its shorelines; these resources supported human populations on its shores, as evidenced by a number of archeological sites and mythological references to the lake in the traditions of the Cahuilla. The lake may have had profound effects on population genetics and language history of the surrounding regions.
The name "Lake Cahuilla" was used in 1907 by William Phipps Blake, as of 1961 it is recognized by the US Geological Survey. The lake is named after the Cahuilla. A second name is "Blake Sea", after William Phipps Blake; the Cahuilla themselves named the lake paul, their mythology states that when their creator paulnevolent was cremated, tears turned the lake salty. The name "Lake LeConte" was coined in 1902 by Gilbert E. Bailey, it is used to refer to the lake that existed during the Wisconsin glaciation or Pleistocene. In 1980, M. R. Waters applied the term to cover all lakes of Holocene age in the Salton Basin; this name is derived from a geography professor. Presently, the name "Lake Cahuilla" applies to the reservoir at the northern end of the Coachella Canal, in the Coachella Valley. "Lake Cahuilla" is the name of a seismic station in California. Lake Cahuilla formed in the region of the present-day Salton Sea, it extended over the southern end of Coachella Valley in the north, through the Imperial Valley in the south, down to the Cerro Prieto area in Baja California.
The general area is known as the Colorado Desert. 5,400 square kilometres of the land is below sea level. The Salton Trough has a width of 110 kilometres at the border. Towns in areas covered by Lake Cahuilla include, from north to south, Thermal, Mortmar, Calipatria, Imperial and El Centro. Calexico and Mexicali may have been covered as well. To the southeast, the New River and the Alamo River now flow through the dry lakebed, while the Whitewater River and the San Felipe Creek enter from the northwest and southwest, respectively. Major shorelines existed at 12 metres above North American Datum and at 20–50 metres above NAD. With a southern shore south of the US-Mexico border, Lake Cahuilla had a length of 160 kilometres, a maximum width of 56 kilometres and reached a depth of 91 metres at a water elevation of 12 metres; the maximum surface area was about 5,700 square kilometres. The lake at maximum level held about 480 cubic kilometres of water. At maximum size, Lake Cahuilla was larger than the Salton Sea and as large as the entire Salton Trough.
Bat Caves Butte and Obsidian Butte formed islands in the lake. Straight northwest-southeast trending eastern shores faced from northwest to southeast the Indio Hills, the Mecca Hills, the Orocopia Mountains, the Chocolate Mountains and the East Mesa; the less regular western shore faced the Santa Rosa Mountains towards north and the Fish Creek Mountains and Vallecito Mountains farther south. Earlier lake stages may have extended into the Jacumba Mountains as well. Lake Cahuilla was formed by water from the Colorado River; the precipitation did not contribute much to the lake budget. The amount of water needed to sustain Lake Cahuilla at a level of 12 metres above sea level is about half of the discharge of the Colorado River, during times where the lake was filling nearly no water from the river would have reached the Gulf of California. Sedimentation of the Colorado River Delta directed water into the Lake C
Populus fremontii known as Fremont's cottonwood or the Alamo cottonwood, is a cottonwood native to riparian zones of the Southwestern United States and northern through central Mexico. It is one of three species in Populus sect. Aigeiros; the tree was named after 19th century American explorer and pathfinder John C. Frémont; the tree is native to the Southwestern United States and Mexico. In the United States, the species can be found in California, Utah, New Mexico and Colorado. In Mexico, it can be found in Baja California, Baja California Sur, Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Mexico State, Puebla; the riparian tree grows near streams, springs, seeps and well-watered alluvial bottomlands at elevations below 2,000 m elevation. P. fremontii is a large tree growing from 12–35 m in height with a wide crown, with a trunk up to 1.5 m in diameter. The bark is smooth when young, becoming fissured with whitish cracked bark on old trees; the 3–7 cm long leaves, are cordate with an elongate tip, with white veins and coarse crenate teeth along the sides, glabrous to hairy, stained with milky resin.
Autumn colors occur from October–November a bright yellow orange red. The inflorescence consists of a long drooping catkin; the fruit is a wind dispersed achene, that appears to look like patches of cotton hanging from limbs, thus the name cottonwood. The largest known P. fremontii tree in the United States grows in Arizona. In 2012, it had a measured circumference of 557 in, height of 102 ft, a spread of 149.5 ft. Two subspecies are recognized; some confusion due to hybridization with a Rio Grande subspecies of Populus deltoides subsp. Wislizeni had placed this eastern cottonwood subspecies as a P. fremontii subspecies, but it was removed in 1977. P. f. subsp. Fremontii, with synonyms P. f. var. arizonica - Sarg. and P. f. var. macdougalii - Jeps. from California and west of the Continental Divide P. f. subsp. Metesae - Eckenwal. of arid areas of Mexico, planted elsewhere east of the Continental Divide P. fremontii is cultivated as an ornamental tree and riparian zone restoration tree. It is used in planting for: ecological restoration.
Fremont cottonwood was used in the past by ranchers for fuel and fence posts. Traditional medicineNative Americans in the Western United States and Mexico used parts of the Fremont cottonwood variously for a medicine, in basket weaving, tool making, for musical instruments; the inner bark of Fremont cottonwood contains vitamin C and was chewed as an antiscorbutic, or treatment for vitamin C deficiency. The bark and leaves could be used to make poultices to treat wounds. ArtThe Pima people of southern Arizona and northern Mexico lived along Sonoran Desert watercourses and used twigs from the tree in the fine and intricate baskets they wove; the Cahuilla people of southern California used the tree's wood for tool making, the Pueblo peoples for drums, the Lower Colorado River Quechan people in ritual cremations. The Hopi of Northeastern Arizona carve the root of the cottonwood to create kachina dolls. California native plants Riparian buffer Riparian forest Calflora Database: Populus fremontii Calflora Database: Populus fremontii ssp. fremontii Populus fremontii — U.
C. Photo gallery Populus fremontii ssp. fremontii — U. C. Photo gallery