Alan Mathison Turing was an English mathematician, computer scientist, cryptanalyst and theoretical biologist. Turing was influential in the development of theoretical computer science, providing a formalisation of the concepts of algorithm and computation with the Turing machine, which can be considered a model of a general-purpose computer. Turing is considered to be the father of theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence. Despite these accomplishments, he was not recognised in his home country during his lifetime, due to his homosexuality, because much of his work was covered by the Official Secrets Act. During the Second World War, Turing worked for the Government Code and Cypher School at Bletchley Park, Britain's codebreaking centre that produced Ultra intelligence. For a time he led Hut 8, the section, responsible for German naval cryptanalysis. Here, he devised a number of techniques for speeding the breaking of German ciphers, including improvements to the pre-war Polish bombe method, an electromechanical machine that could find settings for the Enigma machine.
Turing played a crucial role in cracking intercepted coded messages that enabled the Allies to defeat the Nazis in many crucial engagements, including the Battle of the Atlantic, in so doing helped win the war. Due to the problems of counterfactual history, it is hard to estimate the precise effect Ultra intelligence had on the war, but at the upper end it has been estimated that this work shortened the war in Europe by more than two years and saved over 14 million lives. After the war, Turing worked at the National Physical Laboratory, where he designed the Automatic Computing Engine, one of the first designs for a stored-program computer. In 1948, Turing joined Max Newman's Computing Machine Laboratory at the Victoria University of Manchester, where he helped develop the Manchester computers and became interested in mathematical biology, he wrote a paper on the chemical basis of morphogenesis and predicted oscillating chemical reactions such as the Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction, first observed in the 1960s.
Turing was prosecuted in 1952 for homosexual acts. He accepted chemical castration treatment, as an alternative to prison. Turing died 16 days before his 42nd birthday, from cyanide poisoning. An inquest determined his death as a suicide, but it has been noted that the known evidence is consistent with accidental poisoning. In 2009, following an Internet campaign, British Prime Minister Gordon Brown made an official public apology on behalf of the British government for "the appalling way he was treated". Queen Elizabeth II granted Turing a posthumous pardon in 2013; the Alan Turing law is now an informal term for a 2017 law in the United Kingdom that retroactively pardoned men cautioned or convicted under historical legislation that outlawed homosexual acts. Turing was born in Maida Vale, while his father, Julius Mathison Turing, was on leave from his position with the Indian Civil Service at Chatrapur in the Madras Presidency and presently in Odisha state, in India. Turing's father was the son of a clergyman, the Rev. John Robert Turing, from a Scottish family of merchants, based in the Netherlands and included a baronet.
Turing's mother, Julius' wife, was Ethel Sara Turing, daughter of Edward Waller Stoney, chief engineer of the Madras Railways. The Stoneys were a Protestant Anglo-Irish gentry family from both County Tipperary and County Longford, while Ethel herself had spent much of her childhood in County Clare. Julius' work with the ICS brought the family to British India, where his grandfather had been a general in the Bengal Army. However, both Julius and Ethel wanted their children to be brought up in Britain, so they moved to Maida Vale, where Alan Turing was born on 23 June 1912, as recorded by a blue plaque on the outside of the house of his birth the Colonnade Hotel. Turing had John. Turing's father's civil service commission was still active and during Turing's childhood years Turing's parents travelled between Hastings in the United Kingdom and India, leaving their two sons to stay with a retired Army couple. At Hastings, Turing stayed at Baston Lodge, Upper Maze Hill, St Leonards-on-Sea, now marked with a blue plaque.
The plaque was unveiled on 23 June 2012, the centenary of Turing's birth. Early in life, Turing showed signs of the genius that he was to display prominently, his parents purchased a house in Guildford in 1927, Turing lived there during school holidays. The location is marked with a blue plaque. Turing's parents enrolled him at St Michael's, a day school at 20 Charles Road, St Leonards-on-Sea, at the age of six; the headmistress recognised his talent early on. Between January 1922 and 1926, Turing was educated at Hazelhurst Preparatory School, an independent school in the village of Frant in Sussex. In 1926, at the age of 13, he went on to Sherborne School, a boarding independent school in the market town of Sherborne in Dorset; the first day of term coincided with the 1926 General Strike in Britain, but he was so determined to attend, that he rode his bicycle unaccompanied 60 miles from Southampton to Sherborne, stopping overnight at an inn. Turing's natural inclination towards mathematics and science did not earn him respect from some of the teachers at Sherborne, whose definition of education placed more emphasis on the classics.
His headmaster wrote to his parents: "I hope he will
Robert B. Millman, was an American physician and former Saul Steinberg Professor of Psychiatry and Public Health at Weill Cornell Medical College, where he was the Director of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Treatment and Research Service at New York-Presbyterian Hospital. Dr. Millman counseled and helped many people deal with and over come addiction from his office on east 35th Street in New York. Millman was the author of more than 100 scientific papers and book chapters and an editor of the Comprehensive Textbook of Substance Abuse, he was a member of the Board of Directors of Drug Strategies, a national non-profit research institute that promotes effective drug abuse prevention and treatment, an advisor to the State and Federal Governments. He was the former Medical Director for Major League Baseball, where he was an advisor on performance-enhancing supplements and steroids. Millman graduated from Cornell and received his medical degree from the State University of New York, SUNY Downstate Medical Center in Brooklyn.
He was trained in internal medicine at the New York Hospital and Cornell Medical College and in psychiatry at Cornell's Payne Whitney Psychiatric Clinic. He began his research career in the laboratory of Vincent Dole. Acquired situational narcissism
"The Impossible" is a song written by Kelley Lovelace and Lee Thomas Miller and recorded by American country music artist Joe Nichols. It was released in March 2002 as the first single from his 2002 album Man with a Memory; the song was Nichols’ first chart entry on the U. S. Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks charts, peaking at number 3 in late 2002 and earned Kelly Lovelace and Lee Thomas Miller a Grammy nomination for Best Country Song. Fellow country singer Mark Chesnutt cut the song around the same time Nichols did but shelved his version releasing it as a bonus track on his compilation album Greatest Hits II. "The Impossible" is a mid-tempo ballad accompanied by acoustic guitar. In it, the male narrator describes two situations. In the first, he describes his father. In the second verse, he describes a friend, badly injured in a car accident, told he'd never walk again, who stands up to speak at graduation. In both cases, he says that these situations made him "learn to never underestimate the impossible".
In the bridge, the narrator draws parallels from these two situations to his own ending relationship, saying that if such situations are possible it is possible for him and his lover to make up. The music video was directed by Eric Welch and was filmed in April 2002 on Los Angeles' Long Beach Pier, it depicts Nichols singing while touring an old navy ship, while scenes of a father and his young son and a graduating teen are shown. Maria Konicki Dinola of Allmusic gave the song a favorable review, she said that the song had an identifiable message and called it "a brilliant choice for a first single with its radio-friendly appeal that will make a star out of Nichols." William Ruhlmann of Allmusic in his review of the album, discussed the song unfavorably, calling it "an unfortunate piece of confused country philosophy about how impossible things happen." He goes on to say that "the unfortunate part is that the chorus inescapably evokes the September 11 attacks, in bad taste when the song comes to its real point, as the narrator concludes that maybe his girlfriend will come back.
"The Impossible" debuted at number 56 on the U. S. Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks for the week of March 23, 2002; the song is Nichols' first chart entry in the US, peaking at number 3 on Hot Country Singles & Tracks in 2002 and number 29 on the Billboard Hot 100
Margaret Preece is an English operatic soprano. She trained at the Royal Scottish Academy of the National Opera Studio. From Solihull, she has worked with English National Opera, Scottish Opera, Opera North and the Carl Rosa Company. In 2007 she starred in the high-profile West End revival of The Sound of Music as the Mother Abbess, replacing Lesley Garrett. In 2008 Margaret Preece released an album called Isn't It Romantic, which features 17 songs by Richard Rodgers with lyrics by both Lorenz Hart and Oscar Hammerstein, including Isn't It Romantic?. Following the closure of The Sound Of Music, she played Vava in Opera North's production of Paradise Moscow in spring 2009. There were performances in Leeds, Salford and Bregenz. In the summer, Preece reprised her role as the Mother Abbess in the UK Tour of The Sound of Music, including performances at the Wales Millennium Centre. Varochka and Vava in Paradise Moscow Sister Sophia and Mother Abbess in The Sound of Music Donna Elvira and Zerlina in Don Giovanni Fiordiligi and Despina in Così fan tutte The Queen of the Night and Papagena in The Magic Flute Adina in L'Elisir D'Amore Alice Ford in Falstaff Musetta in La bohème Ninetta in The Love for Three Oranges Rosalinda in Die Fledermaus Clarice and Flamina in Il mondo della luna Oriana in Amadigi Susan Cooper in Love Life Mary Turner in Of Thee I Sing Carlotta in The Phantom of the Opera Bacchae and Hanna Glawari in The Merry Widow The Phantom of the Opera as the Confidante and singing Carlotta, over-dubbing for Minnie Driver.
Her name is in the credits. Margaret Preece on IMDb Official website
The Portrait of a Clad Warrior known as Portrait of Gaston of Foix is a painting by the Italian High Renaissance painter Girolamo Savoldo, dating to c. 1529 and housed in the Louvre Museum of Paris, France. The subject is traditionally identified with the French military leader Gaston of Foix, Duke of Nemours, or as a self-portrait, although there is no documentary evidence for either hypothesis; the painting depicts a man wearing armor in a small room with two mirrors. He lies diagonally on one hand pointing at his reflected image; the presence of three sources of light was inspired by a lost work by Giorgione. Portrait of Andrea Odoni Page at the museum website
A Mars sample-return mission would be a spaceflight mission to collect rock and dust samples on Mars and return them to Earth. Sample-return would be a powerful type of exploration, because analysis is freed from the time and space constraints of spacecraft sensors. According to Louis Friedman, Executive Director of The Planetary Society, a Mars sample-return mission is described by the planetary science community as one of the most important robotic space missions, due to its high expected scientific return on investment and its ability to prove the technology needed for a human mission to Mars. Over time, several concept missions have been studied; the three latest concepts for a MSR mission are a NASA-ESA proposal, a Russian proposal, a Chinese proposal. The return of Mars samples would benefit science by allowing more extensive analysis to be undertaken of the samples than could be done by instruments painstakingly transferred to Mars; the presence of the samples on Earth would allow scientific equipment to be used on stored samples years and decades after the sample-return mission.
In 2006, MEPAG identified 55 important future science investigations related to the exploration of Mars. In 2008, they concluded that about half of the investigations "could be addressed to one degree or another by MSR", making MSR "the single mission that would make the most progress towards the entire list" of investigations. Moreover, it was found that a significant fraction of the investigations cannot be meaningfully advanced without returned samples. One source of Mars samples is what are thought to be Martian meteorites, which are rocks ejected from Mars that made their way to Earth. Of over 61,000 meteorites that have been found on Earth, 132 were identified as Martian as of 3 March 2014; these meteorites are thought to be from Mars because they have elemental and isotopic compositions that are similar to rocks and atmosphere gases analyzed by spacecraft on Mars. In 1996 the possibility of life on Mars was questioned again when apparent microfossils might have been found in a Mars meteorite.
This led to a renewed interest in a Mars sample-return, several different architectures were considered. NASA administrator Goldin laid out three options for MSR: "paced", "accelerated", "aggressive", it was thought that MSR could be done for less than US$100 million per year, with something similar to then-current Mars exploration budgets. For at least three decades, Western scientists have advocated the return of geological samples from Mars. One concept was studied with the Sample Collection for Investigation of Mars proposal, which involved sending a spacecraft in a grazing pass through Mars upper atmosphere to collect dust and air samples without landing or orbiting; the Soviet Union considered a Mars sample-return mission, Mars 5NM, in 1975 but it was cancelled due to the repeated failures of the N1 rocket that would have been used to launch it. A double sample-return mission, Mars 5M planned for 1979, was cancelled due to complexity and technical problems. One mission concept was considered by NASA's Mars Exploration Program to return samples by 2008, but was cancelled following a review of the program.
In the summer of 2001, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory requested mission concepts and proposals from industry-led teams. That following winter, JPL made similar requests of certain university aerospace engineering departments. A decade a NASA-ESA concept mission was aborted in 2012; the United States' Mars Exploration Program, formed after Mars Observer's failure in September 1992, supported a Mars sample-return. One example of a mission architecture was the Groundbreaking Mars Sample-Return by MacPhereson in the early 2000s. In early 2011, the National Research Council's Planetary Science Decadal Survey, which laid out mission planning priorities for the period 2013–2022 at the request of NASA and the NSF, declared a MSR campaign its highest priority Flagship Mission for that period. In particular, it endorsed the proposed Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher mission in a "descoped" form, although this mission plan was cancelled in April 2011. In September 2012, the United States' Mars Program Planning Group endorsed a sample-return after evaluating long-term Mars' plans.
The key mission requirement for the planned Mars 2020 rover is that it must help prepare NASA for its MSR campaign, needed before any crewed mission takes place. Such effort would require three additional vehicles: an orbiter, a fetch rover, a Mars ascent vehicle. In mid-2006, the international Mars Architecture for the Return of Samples Working Group was chartered by the International Mars Exploration Working Group to outline the scientific and engineering requirements of an internationally sponsored and executed Mars sample-return mission in the 2018–2023 time frame. In October 2009, NASA and ESA established the Mars Exploration Joint Initiative to proceed with the ExoMars program, whose ultimate aim is "the return of samples from Mars in the 2020s". ExoMars' first mission would launch in 2018 with unspecified missions to return samples in the 2020–2022 time frame; the cancellation of the caching rover MAX-C, NASA withdrawal from ExoMars, pushed back a sample-return mission to an undetermined date.
Due to budget limitations the MAX-C mission was canceled in 2011, the overall cooperation in 2012. The pull-out was described as "traumatic" for the science community. In April 2018, a letter of intent was signed by NASA and ESA that may provide a basis for a Mars