Michael Faraday FRS was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. His main discoveries include the principles underlying electromagnetic induction, although Faraday received little formal education, he was one of the most influential scientists in history. It was by his research on the field around a conductor carrying a direct current that Faraday established the basis for the concept of the electromagnetic field in physics. Faraday established that magnetism could affect rays of light and that there was a relationship between the two phenomena. He similarly discovered the principles of induction and diamagnetism. His inventions of electromagnetic rotary devices formed the foundation of electric motor technology, Faraday ultimately became the first and foremost Fullerian Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institution of Great Britain, a lifetime position. James Clerk Maxwell took the work of Faraday and others and summarized it in a set of equations which is accepted as the basis of all theories of electromagnetic phenomena.
The SI unit of capacitance is named in his honour, the farad, albert Einstein kept a picture of Faraday on his study wall, alongside pictures of Isaac Newton and James Clerk Maxwell. Faraday was born in Newington Butts, which is now part of the London Borough of Southwark but was a part of Surrey. His family was not well off and his father, was a member of the Glassite sect of Christianity. James Faraday moved his wife and two children to London during the winter of 1790 from Outhgill in Westmorland, where he had been an apprentice to the village blacksmith, Michael was born in the autumn of that year. The young Michael Faraday, who was the third of four children, at the age of 14 he became an apprentice to George Riebau, a local bookbinder and bookseller in Blandford Street. During his seven-year apprenticeship Faraday read many books, including Isaac Wattss The Improvement of the Mind, at this time he developed an interest in science, especially in electricity. Faraday was particularly inspired by the book Conversations on Chemistry by Jane Marcet, many of the tickets for these lectures were given to Faraday by William Dance, who was one of the founders of the Royal Philharmonic Society.
Faraday subsequently sent Davy a 300-page book based on notes that he had taken during these lectures, davys reply was immediate and favourable. In 1813, when Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, very soon Davy entrusted Faraday with the preparation of nitrogen trichloride samples, and they both were injured in an explosion of this very sensitive substance. In the class-based English society of the time, Faraday was not considered a gentleman, Faraday was forced to fill the role of valet as well as assistant throughout the trip. Davys wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat Faraday as an equal, the trip did, give him access to the scientific elite of Europe and exposed him to a host of stimulating ideas
Elon Reeve Musk is a South African-born Canadian-American business magnate, investor and inventor. As of March 2017, he has a net worth of $13.9 billion. In December 2016, Musk was ranked 21st on Forbes list of The Worlds Most Powerful People, Musk has stated that the goals of SolarCity and SpaceX revolve around his vision to change the world and humanity. He has a brother, and a younger sister. His paternal grandmother was British, and he has Pennsylvania Dutch ancestry, after his parents divorced in 1980, Musk lived mostly with his father in the suburbs of Pretoria. During his childhood he had an interest in reading and often did so for hours at a time, at age 10, he developed an interest in computing with the Commodore VIC-20. He taught himself computer programming at the age of 12, sold the code for a BASIC-based video game he created called Blastar, to a magazine called PC and Office Technology, a web version of the game is available online. Musk was severely bullied throughout his childhood, and was hospitalized when a group of boys threw him down a flight of stairs.
Musk was initially educated at schools, attending the English-speaking Waterkloof House Preparatory School. Musk graduated from Pretoria Boys High School and moved to Canada in June 1989, just before his 18th birthday, with the law change, he is considered to have always been a Canadian citizen by birth. At the age of 19, Musk was accepted into Queens University in Kingston, Musk extended his studies for one year to finish the second bachelors degree. While at the University of Pennsylvania and fellow Penn student Adeo Ressi rented a 10-bedroom fraternity house, in 2002, he became a U. S. citizen. In 1995, Musk and his brother, started Zip2, the company developed and marketed an Internet city guide for the newspaper publishing industry. Musk obtained contracts with The New York Times and the Chicago Tribune, while at Zip2, Musk wanted to become CEO, none of the board members would allow it. Compaq acquired Zip2 for US$307 million in cash and US$34 million in stock options in February 1999, Musk received 7% or US$22 million from the sale.
In March 1999, Musk co-founded X. com, an financial services and e-mail payment company. One year later, the merged with Confinity, which had a money transfer service called PayPal. The merged company focused on the PayPal service and was renamed PayPal in 2001, PayPals early growth was driven mainly by a viral marketing campaign where new customers were recruited when they received money through the service
Srinivasa Iyengar Ramanujan FRS was an Indian mathematician and autodidact who lived during the British Raj. Though he had almost no training in pure mathematics, he made substantial contributions to mathematical analysis, number theory, infinite series. Ramanujan initially developed his own research in isolation, it was quickly recognized by Indian mathematicians. When his skills became obvious and known to the mathematical community, centred in Europe at the time. The Cambridge professor realized that Srinivasa Ramanujan had produced new theorems in addition to rediscovering previously known ones, during his short life, Ramanujan independently compiled nearly 3,900 results. Nearly all his claims have now been proven correct and his original and highly unconventional results, such as the Ramanujan prime and the Ramanujan theta function, have inspired a vast amount of further research. The Ramanujan Journal, a scientific journal, was established to publish work in all areas of mathematics influenced by Ramanujan.
Deeply religious, Ramanujan credited his substantial mathematical capacities to divinity, An equation for me has no meaning, he once said, the name Ramanujan means younger brother of the god Rama. Iyengar is a caste of Hindu Brahmins of Tamil origin whose members follow the Visishtadvaita philosophy propounded by Ramanuja, Ramanujan was born on 22 December 1887 into a Tamil Brahmin Iyengar family in Erode, Madras Presidency, at the residence of his maternal grandparents. His father, K. Srinivasa Iyengar, worked as a clerk in a sari shop and his mother, was a housewife and sang at a local temple. They lived in a traditional home on Sarangapani Sannidhi Street in the town of Kumbakonam. The family home is now a museum, when Ramanujan was a year and a half old, his mother gave birth to a son, who died less than three months later. In December 1889, Ramanujan contracted smallpox, but unlike the thousands in the Thanjavur district who died of the disease that year and he moved with his mother to her parents house in Kanchipuram, near Madras.
His mother gave birth to two children, in 1891 and 1894, but both died in infancy. On 1 October 1892, Ramanujan was enrolled at the local school, after his maternal grandfather lost his job as a court official in Kanchipuram and his mother moved back to Kumbakonam and he was enrolled in the Kangayan Primary School. When his paternal grandfather died, he was sent back to his maternal grandparents and he did not like school in Madras, and tried to avoid attending. His family enlisted a local constable to make sure the boy attended school, within six months, Ramanujan was back in Kumbakonam. Since Ramanujans father was at work most of the day, his mother took care of the boy as a child and he had a close relationship with her
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill KG OM CH TD PC DL FRS RA was a British statesman who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill was an officer in the British Army, a historian. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1953 for his overall, in 1963, he was the first of only eight people to be made an honorary citizen of the United States. Churchill was born into the family of the Dukes of Marlborough and his father, Lord Randolph Churchill, was a charismatic politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer, his mother, Jennie Jerome, was an American socialite. As a young officer, he saw action in British India, the Anglo–Sudan War. He gained fame as a war correspondent and wrote books about his campaigns, at the forefront of politics for fifty years, he held many political and cabinet positions. Before the First World War, he served as President of the Board of Trade, Home Secretary, during the war, he continued as First Lord of the Admiralty until the disastrous Gallipoli Campaign caused his departure from government.
He briefly resumed active service on the Western Front as commander of the 6th Battalion of the Royal Scots Fusiliers. He returned to government under Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions, Secretary of State for War, Secretary of State for Air, at the outbreak of the Second World War, he was again appointed First Lord of the Admiralty. Following the resignation of Neville Chamberlain on 10 May 1940, Churchill became Prime Minister and he led Britain as Prime Minister until victory over Nazi Germany had been secured. After the Conservative Party suffered a defeat in the 1945 general election. He publicly warned of an Iron Curtain of Soviet influence in Europe, after winning the 1951 election, Churchill again became Prime Minister. His second term was preoccupied by foreign affairs, including the Malayan Emergency, Mau Mau Uprising, Korean War, domestically his government laid great emphasis on house-building. Churchill suffered a stroke in 1953 and retired as Prime Minister in 1955. Upon his death aged ninety in 1965, Elizabeth II granted him the honour of a state funeral and his highly complex legacy continues to stimulate intense debate amongst writers and historians.
Born into the family of the Dukes of Marlborough, a branch of the noble Spencer family, Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, like his father. His ancestor George Spencer had changed his surname to Spencer-Churchill in 1817 when he became Duke of Marlborough, to highlight his descent from John Churchill, Churchill was born on 30 November 1874, two months prematurely, in a bedroom in Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire. From age two to six, he lived in Dublin, where his grandfather had been appointed Viceroy, Churchills brother, John Strange Spencer-Churchill, was born during this time in Ireland
Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, OM, FRS was a New Zealand-born British physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics. Encyclopædia Britannica considers him to be the greatest experimentalist since Michael Faraday and this work was done at McGill University in Canada. Rutherford moved in 1907 to the Victoria University of Manchester in the UK, Rutherford performed his most famous work after he became a Nobel laureate. He conducted research that led to the first splitting of the atom in 1917 in a reaction between nitrogen and alpha particles, in which he discovered the proton. Rutherford became Director of the Cavendish Laboratory at the University of Cambridge in 1919, after his death in 1937, he was honoured by being interred with the greatest scientists of the United Kingdom, near Sir Isaac Newtons tomb in Westminster Abbey. The chemical element rutherfordium was named after him in 1997, Ernest Rutherford was the son of James Rutherford, a farmer, and his wife Martha Thompson, originally from Hornchurch, England.
James had emigrated to New Zealand from Perth, Scotland, to raise a little flax, Ernest was born at Brightwater, near Nelson, New Zealand. His first name was mistakenly spelled Earnest when his birth was registered, Rutherfords mother Martha Thompson was a schoolteacher. He studied at Havelock School and Nelson College and won a scholarship to study at Canterbury College, University of New Zealand, in 1898 Thomson recommended Rutherford for a position at McGill University in Montreal, Canada. He was to replace Hugh Longbourne Callendar who held the chair of Macdonald Professor of physics and was coming to Cambridge, in 1901 he gained a DSc from the University of New Zealand. In 1907 Rutherford returned to Britain to take the chair of physics at the Victoria University of Manchester, during World War I, he worked on a top secret project to solve the practical problems of submarine detection by sonar. In 1916 he was awarded the Hector Memorial Medal, in 1919 he returned to the Cavendish succeeding J. J.
Thomson as the Cavendish professor and Director. Between 1925 and 1930 he served as President of the Royal Society, in 1933, Rutherford was one of the two inaugural recipients of the T. K. Sidey Medal, set up by the Royal Society of New Zealand as an award for outstanding scientific research. For some time before his death, Rutherford had a hernia, which he had neglected to have fixed. Despite an emergency operation in London, he died four days afterwards of what physicians termed intestinal paralysis, after cremation at Golders Green Crematorium, he was given the high honour of burial in Westminster Abbey, near Isaac Newton and other illustrious British scientists. At Cambridge, Rutherford started to work with J. J. Thomson on the effects of X-rays on gases. Hearing of Becquerels experience with uranium, Rutherford started to explore its radioactivity, continuing his research in Canada, he coined the terms alpha ray and beta ray in 1899 to describe the two distinct types of radiation. He discovered that thorium gave off a gas which produced an emanation which was itself radioactive and he found that a sample of this radioactive material of any size invariably took the same amount of time for half the sample to decay – its half-life
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
Founded in November 1660, it was granted a royal charter by King Charles II as The Royal Society. The society is governed by its Council, which is chaired by the Societys President, according to a set of statutes and standing orders. The members of Council and the President are elected from and by its Fellows, the members of the society. As of 2016, there are about 1,600 fellows, allowed to use the postnominal title FRS, there are royal fellows, honorary fellows and foreign members, the last of which are allowed to use the postnominal title ForMemRS. The Royal Society President is Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, who took up the post on 30 November 2015, since 1967, the society has been based at 6–9 Carlton House Terrace, a Grade I listed building in central London which was previously used by the Embassy of Germany, London. The Royal Society started from groups of physicians and natural philosophers, meeting at variety of locations and they were influenced by the new science, as promoted by Francis Bacon in his New Atlantis, from approximately 1645 onwards.
A group known as The Philosophical Society of Oxford was run under a set of rules still retained by the Bodleian Library, after the English Restoration, there were regular meetings at Gresham College. It is widely held that these groups were the inspiration for the foundation of the Royal Society, I will not say, that Mr Oldenburg did rather inspire the French to follow the English, or, at least, did help them, and hinder us. But tis well known who were the men that began and promoted that design. This initial royal favour has continued and, since then, every monarch has been the patron of the society, the societys early meetings included experiments performed first by Hooke and by Denis Papin, who was appointed in 1684. These experiments varied in their area, and were both important in some cases and trivial in others. The Society returned to Gresham in 1673, there had been an attempt in 1667 to establish a permanent college for the society. Michael Hunter argues that this was influenced by Solomons House in Bacons New Atlantis and, to a lesser extent, by J. V.
The first proposal was given by John Evelyn to Robert Boyle in a letter dated 3 September 1659, he suggested a scheme, with apartments for members. The societys ideas were simpler and only included residences for a handful of staff and these plans were progressing by November 1667, but never came to anything, given the lack of contributions from members and the unrealised—perhaps unrealistic—aspirations of the society. During the 18th century, the gusto that had characterised the early years of the society faded, with a number of scientific greats compared to other periods. The pointed lightning conductor had been invented by Benjamin Franklin in 1749, during the same time period, it became customary to appoint society fellows to serve on government committees where science was concerned, something that still continues. The 18th century featured remedies to many of the early problems
Sir Richard Timothy Hunt, FRS, FMedSci, FRSE is a British biochemist and molecular physiologist. He was awarded the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Paul Nurse, in particular, Hunt discovered what he called cyclin, a protein in fertilised sea urchin eggs which cyclically aggregates and is depleted during cell division cycles. Hunt was born on 19 February 1943 in Neston, Cheshire, to Richard William Hunt, a lecturer in palaeography in Liverpool, in 1945, Richard became Keeper of the Western Manuscripts at the Bodleian Library, and the family relocated to Oxford. At the age of eight, Hunt was accepted into the Dragon School, in 1961, he was accepted into Clare College, Cambridge to study Natural Sciences, graduating in 1964 and immediately beginning work in the university Department of Biochemistry under Asher Korner. There, he worked with such as Louis Reichardt and Tony Hunter. His PhD was supervised by Asher Korner and focused on haemoglobin synthesis in intact rabbit reticulocytes, following his PhD, Hunt returned to New York to work with London, in collaboration with Nechama Kosower, her husband Edward Kosower, and Ellie Ehrenfeld.
While there, they discovered that tiny amounts of glutathione inhibited protein synthesis in reticulocytes, after returning to Cambridge, he again began work with Tony Hunter and Richard Jackson, who had discovered the RNA strand used to start haemoglobin synthesis. After 3–4 years, the team discovered at least two chemicals acting as inhibitors. It was there at Woods Hole in the Summer of 1982 using the sea urchin egg as his model organism, Hunt was a keen cyclist and named the protein based on his observation of the cyclical changes in its levels. Cyclins are proteins that play a key role in regulating the cell-division cycle, Hunt found that cyclins begin to be synthesised after the eggs are fertilised and increase in levels during interphase, until they drop very quickly in the middle of mitosis in each cell division. He found that cyclins are present in cells, where they regulate the cell cycle. The cyclin mechanism of cell division is fundamental to all living organisms, Hunt had his own laboratory at the Clare Hall Laboratories until the end of 2010, and remains an Emeritus Group Leader at the Francis Crick Institute.
He is a member of the Advisory Council for the Campaign for Science and he sits on the Selection Committee for Life Science and Medicine, which chooses winners of the Shaw Prize. With Ruderman and Rosenthal, he demonstrated selective translational control of mRNA in early clam embryos and this led to Hunts discovery of cyclin as a protein which is selectively destroyed in mitosis. He subsequently cloned and sequenced cyclin cDNA from sea urchins and frogs and he has shown that cyclin is a subunit of the mitosis-promoting factor which regulates entry into mitosis. His discovery and characterization of cyclin are major contributions to our knowledge of cell cycle regulation in eukaryotic cells, Hunt was elected a fellow of the UKs Academy of Medical Sciences in 1998, and a foreign associate of the US National Academy of Sciences in 1999. In 2001, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Leland Hartwell and Paul Nurse for their discoveries regarding cell cycle regulation by cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinases.
The three laureates are cited for their discoveries of key regulators of the cycle, while Hunt in particular is awarded for his discovery of cyclins, proteins that regulate the CDK function
He currently serves as the Chair of the UN Committee on Science and Technology. After studying chemistry at the University of Karachi, Atta-ur-Rahman travelled to Cambridge where he received Ph. D and he started teaching as an associate professor in 1974 at the University of Karachi and worked as postdoctoral researcher at the University of Tübingen as part of the German Academic Exchange. He serves as the patron of Ebrahim Jamal Research Institute of Chemistry and he serves as the Editor In Chief of several peer reviewed journals including the Current Medicinal Chemistry and the Current Organic Chemistry. He has been a Fellow of the Royal Society since July 2006 and has served as the President of Pakistan Academy of Sciences, Atta-ur-Rahman was born on 22 September 1942 in Delhi, British India into an Urdu-speaking academic family. His grandfather, Sir Abdur Rahman, was a vice-chancellor of the University of Delhi who briefly served as a judge at the Madras High Court. In 1946, Sir Abdur Rahman was appointed as vice-chancellor of the Punjab University in Lahore, eventually relocating his family there, Sir Abdur Rahman eventually ascended as a Senior Justice at the Supreme Court of Pakistan in 1949.
His father, Jamil-ur-Rahman, was a lawyer who established an industry in Karachi. Atta-ur-Rahman was a student at school. After settling in Karachi in 1952, he excelled in passing the competitive O-Level and A-Level from the Karachi Grammar School, attending Karachi University in 1960, Rahman graduated with a bachelors degree in Chemistry in 1964, with degree concentration in natural products. He obtained a Master of Science in organic chemistry in 1965 and he joined Kings College of the Cambridge University and resumed research in natural products under J. Harlon-Mason. In 1968, Rahman received his Doctor of Philosophy in Organic chemistry, his doctoral thesis contained fundamental work on natural products, in 1987, Cambridge University conferred him with the Doctor of Science for his contribution for the advancement of the chemical sciences. In 2007, the Coventry University bestowed him with the Doctor of Education in recognition of his services to improve science education in Pakistan. In addition, Rahman has been conferred with the honoris causa by various institutions including the Bradford University, the Asian Institute of Technology, in 1964, Rahman joined the Karachi University as a lecturer in undergraduate chemistry.
He remained associated with the Cambridge University between 1969–73, and is presently honorary Life Fellow at the Kings College of the Cambridge University. In 1977, he became the deputy director of the Hussain Ebrahim Jamal Research Institute of Chemistry at University of Karachi, in 1979, Rahman did the post-doctoral research at the University of Tübingen. Upon returning to Pakistan, he joined Karachi University where he lectures and he was appointed Professor Emeritus at University of Karachi for life. In 2008, Rahman was appointed as Patron-in-Chief of the International Centre for Chemical and Biological Sciences, in 2011, Rahman was made emeritus professor of chemistry at the University of Karachi. He is the only scientist from the Muslim world to have awarded the UNESCO Science Prize
Charles Robert Darwin, FRS FRGS FLS FZS was an English naturalist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution. Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species, by the 1870s, the scientific community and much of the general public had accepted evolution as a fact. In modified form, Darwins scientific discovery is the theory of the life sciences. Darwins early interest in nature led him to neglect his education at the University of Edinburgh, instead. Studies at the University of Cambridge encouraged his passion for natural science, puzzled by the geographical distribution of wildlife and fossils he collected on the voyage, Darwin began detailed investigations and in 1838 conceived his theory of natural selection. Although he discussed his ideas with several naturalists, he needed time for extensive research and he was writing up his theory in 1858 when Alfred Russel Wallace sent him an essay that described the same idea, prompting immediate joint publication of both of their theories.
Darwins work established evolutionary descent with modification as the dominant scientific explanation of diversification in nature, in 1871 he examined human evolution and sexual selection in The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, followed by The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. His research on plants was published in a series of books, Darwin has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history, and he was honoured by burial in Westminster Abbey. Charles Robert Darwin was born in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, on 12 February 1809, at his familys home and he was the fifth of six children of wealthy society doctor and financier Robert Darwin and Susannah Darwin. He was the grandson of two prominent abolitionists, Erasmus Darwin on his fathers side, and Josiah Wedgwood on his mothers side, both families were largely Unitarian, though the Wedgwoods were adopting Anglicanism. The eight-year-old Charles already had a taste for history and collecting when he joined the day school run by its preacher in 1817.
From September 1818, he joined his older brother Erasmus attending the nearby Anglican Shrewsbury School as a boarder and he found lectures dull and surgery distressing, so neglected his studies. He learned taxidermy in around 40 daily hour-long sessions from John Edmonstone, one day, Grant praised Lamarcks evolutionary ideas. Darwin was astonished by Grants audacity, but had recently read similar ideas in his grandfather Erasmus journals, Darwin was rather bored by Robert Jamesons natural-history course, which covered geology - including the debate between Neptunism and Plutonism. He learned the classification of plants, and assisted with work on the collections of the University Museum, as Darwin was unqualified for the Tripos, he joined the ordinary degree course in January 1828. He preferred riding and shooting to studying, when his own exams drew near, Darwin focused on his studies and was delighted by the language and logic of William Paleys Evidences of Christianity. In his final examination in January 1831 Darwin did well, coming out of 178 candidates for the ordinary degree.
Darwin had to stay at Cambridge until June 1831, inspired with a burning zeal to contribute, Darwin planned to visit Tenerife with some classmates after graduation to study natural history in the tropics
His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, first published in 1687, laid the foundations of classical mechanics. Newton made contributions to optics, and he shares credit with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz for developing the infinitesimal calculus. Newtons Principia formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation that dominated scientists view of the universe for the next three centuries. Newtons work on light was collected in his influential book Opticks. He formulated a law of cooling, made the first theoretical calculation of the speed of sound. Newton was a fellow of Trinity College and the second Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge and personally tied to the Whig party, Newton served two brief terms as Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge, in 1689–90 and 1701–02. He was knighted by Queen Anne in 1705 and he spent the last three decades of his life in London, serving as Warden and Master of the Royal Mint and his father, named Isaac Newton, had died three months before.
Born prematurely, he was a child, his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug. When Newton was three, his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband, the Reverend Barnabas Smith, leaving her son in the care of his maternal grandmother, Newtons mother had three children from her second marriage. From the age of twelve until he was seventeen, Newton was educated at The Kings School, Grantham which taught Latin and Greek. He was removed from school, and by October 1659, he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, Henry Stokes, master at the Kings School, persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. Motivated partly by a desire for revenge against a bully, he became the top-ranked student. In June 1661, he was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge and he started as a subsizar—paying his way by performing valets duties—until he was awarded a scholarship in 1664, which guaranteed him four more years until he would get his M. A.
He set down in his notebook a series of Quaestiones about mechanical philosophy as he found it, in 1665, he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that became calculus. Soon after Newton had obtained his B. A. degree in August 1665, in April 1667, he returned to Cambridge and in October was elected as a fellow of Trinity. Fellows were required to become ordained priests, although this was not enforced in the restoration years, however, by 1675 the issue could not be avoided and by his unconventional views stood in the way. Nevertheless, Newton managed to avoid it by means of a special permission from Charles II. A and he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1672. Newtons work has been said to distinctly advance every branch of mathematics studied and his work on the subject usually referred to as fluxions or calculus, seen in a manuscript of October 1666, is now published among Newtons mathematical papers