Australia international rules football team
This article concerns the men's team. The Australia international rules football team is Australia's senior representative team in International rules football, a hybrid sport derived from Australian rules football and Gaelic football; the current team is made up of players from the Australian Football League. Although Australian rules football is played around the world at an amateur level, Australia is considered far too strong to compete against at senior level. Hence, selection in the Australian international rules team is the only opportunity that Australian rules footballers have to represent their country; until 2004 the majority of the men's Australian squad was composed of members of the All-Australian team, as well as other outstanding performers from the season. In 2005 the decision was made to select players best suited to the conditions of the hybrid game, which resulted in a younger and quicker team being selected; however this was reverted to the All-Australian model ahead of the 2014 series.
For the 2013 Series only, the decision was made to select an all-Indigenous team, known as the Indigenous All Stars. Competing in the International Rules Series, the only team Australia plays against is the Ireland international rules football team; the series has been played intermittently since 1984. Australian under-age teams have been represented in the past, as well as a women's team in 2006. Australia last hosted the International Rules Series in 2014. 1 Travis Boak 2 Paddy Ryder 3 Michael Hibberd 4 Jack Gunston 5 Kade Simpson 6 Zach Merrett 7 Nat Fyfe 8 Brendon Goddard – Goalkeeper 9 Shaun Burgoyne - Captain 10 Scott Pendlebury 11 Rory Sloane 12 Robbie Tarrant 14 Joel Selwood 15 Dayne Zorko 16 Ben Brown 17 Neville Jetta 18 Eddie Betts 20 Chad Wingard 21 Luke Shuey 22 Shaun Higgins 29 Rory Laird 35 Patrick Dangerfield Toby Greene withdrew from the squad after breaking his toe and Gary Ablett withdrew for personal reasons. Selwood missed the first game due to an ankle injury and Ryder only played the first game, Higgins was added to the team for the second game.
Hayden Ballantyne Eddie Betts Grant Birchall Luke Breust Patrick Dangerfield Dustin Fletcher – Goalkeeper Andrew Gaff Brendon Goddard Robbie Gray Dyson Heppell Luke Hodge – Captain Sam Mitchell Leigh Montagna David Mundy Robert Murphy Nick Riewoldt Tom Rockliff Jarryd Roughead Nick Smith Jake Stringer Harry Taylor Easton Wood Coach – Alastair ClarksonJim Stynes Medal: Harry Taylor Grant Birchall Travis Boak Luke Breust Patrick Dangerfield Dustin Fletcher – Goalkeeper Nathan Fyfe Brendon Goddard Robbie Gray Brent Harvey Luke Hodge Kieren Jack Steve Johnson Jarrad McVeigh Sam Mitchell Leigh Montagna Nic Naitanui Nick Riewoldt Tom Rockliff Joel Selwood – Captain Brodie Smith Harry Taylor Jobe Watson Chad Wingard Coach – Alastair ClarksonJim Stynes Medal: Luke Hodge Tony Armstrong Dom Barry Eddie Betts Aaron Davey Alwyn Davey Shaun Edwards Cam Ellis-Yolmen Lance Franklin Jarrod Harbrow Josh Hill Leroy Jetta Lewis Jetta Nathan Lovett-Murray Ashley McGrath – Goalkeeper Steven Motlop Jake Neade Mathew Stokes Lindsay Thomas Sharrod Wellingham Daniel Wells – Captain Chris Yarran Coach – Michael O'LoughlinJim Stynes Medal: Ashley McGrath Richard Douglas James Frawley Robbie Gray Brad Green – Captain Shaun Grigg James Kelly Jake King Ben McGlynn Trent McKenzie Stephen Milne Angus Monfries Robin Nahas Mark Nicoski Mitch Robinson Liam Shiels Zac Smith Matt Suckling – Goalkeeper Andrew Swallow Jack Trengove Bernie Vince Callan Ward David Wojcinski Easton Wood Joel Patfull Coach – Rodney EadeJim Stynes Medal: James Kelly Todd Banfield Eddie Betts Matthew Boyd Daniel Cross Patrick Dangerfield Paul Duffield Dustin Fletcher – Goalkeeper James Frawley Bryce Gibbs Sam Gilbert Tyson Goldsack Adam Goodes – Captain Brad Green Garrick Ibbotson Kieren Jack Jarrad McVeigh Leigh Montagna Liam Picken Jack Riewoldt Kade Simpson Dane Swan Travis Varcoe David Wojcinski Coach – Mick Malthouse Jim Stynes Medal: Dane Swan Nathan Bock – Goalkeeper #1 M
Australian rules football
Australian rules football known as Australian football, or called Aussie rules, football or footy, is a contact sport played between two teams of eighteen players on an oval-shaped field a modified cricket ground. Points are scored by kicking the oval-shaped ball between behind posts. During general play, players may position themselves anywhere on the field and use any part of their bodies to move the ball; the primary methods are kicking and running with the ball. There are rules on how the ball can be handled: for example, players running with the ball must intermittently bounce or touch it on the ground. Throwing the ball is not allowed and players must not get caught holding the ball. A distinctive feature of the game is the mark, where players anywhere on the field who catch the ball from a kick are awarded possession. Possession of the ball is in dispute at all times except when mark is paid. Players can use their whole body to obstruct opponents. Dangerous physical contact, interference when marking and deliberately slowing the play are discouraged with free kicks, distance penalties or suspension for a certain number of matches, depending on the seriousness of the infringement.
The game features frequent physical contests, spectacular marking, fast movement of both players and the ball and high scoring. The sport's origins can be traced to football matches played in Melbourne, Victoria in 1858, inspired by English public school football games. Seeking to develop a game more suited to adults and Australian conditions, the Melbourne Football Club published the first laws of Australian football in May 1859, making it the oldest of the world's major football codes. Australian football has the highest spectator attendance and television viewership of all sports in Australia, while the Australian Football League, the sport's only professional competition, is the nation's wealthiest sporting body; the AFL Grand Final, held annually at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, is the highest attended club championship event in the world. The sport is played at amateur level in many countries and in several variations, its rules are governed by the AFL Commission with the advice of the AFL's Laws of the Game Committee.
Australian rules football is known by several nicknames, including Aussie rules and footy. In some regions, it is marketed as AFL after the Australian Football League. There is evidence of football being played sporadically in the Australian colonies in the first half of the 19th century. Compared to cricket and horse racing, football was viewed as a minor "amusement" at the time, while little is known about these early one-off games, it is clear they share no causal link with Australian football. In 1858, in a move that would help to shape Australian football in its formative years, "public" schools in Melbourne, Victoria began organising football games inspired by precedents at English public schools; the earliest such match, held in St Kilda on 15 June, was between Melbourne Grammar and St Kilda Grammar. On 10 July 1858, the Melbourne-based Bell's Life in Victoria and Sporting Chronicle published a letter by Tom Wills, captain of the Victoria cricket team, calling for the formation of a "foot-ball club" with a "code of laws" to keep cricketers fit during winter.
Born in Australia, Wills played a nascent form of rugby football whilst a pupil at Rugby School in England, returned to his homeland a star athlete and cricketer. His letter is regarded by many historians as giving impetus for the development of a new code of football today known as Australian football. Two weeks Wills' friend, cricketer Jerry Bryant, posted an advertisement for a scratch match at the Richmond Paddock adjoining the Melbourne Cricket Ground; this was the first of several "kickabouts" held that year involving members of the Melbourne Cricket Club, including Wills, Bryant, W. J. Hammersley and J. B. Thompson. Trees were used as goalposts and play lasted an entire afternoon. Without an agreed upon code of laws, some players were guided by rules they had learned in the British Isles, "others by no rules at all". Another significant milestone in 1858 was a match played under experimental rules between Melbourne Grammar and Scotch College, held at the Richmond Paddock; this 40-a-side contest, umpired by Wills and Scotch College teacher John Macadam, began on 7 August and continued over two subsequent Saturdays, ending in a draw with each side kicking one goal.
It is commemorated with a statue outside the MCG, the two schools have competed annually since in the Cordner-Eggleston Cup, the world's oldest continuous football competition. Since the early 20th century, it has been suggested that Australian football was derived from the Irish sport of Gaelic football, not codified until 1885. There is no archival evidence in favour of a Gaelic influence, the style of play shared between the two modern codes was evident in Australia long before the Irish game evolved in a similar direction. Another theory, first proposed in 1983, posits that Wills, having grown up amongst Aborigines in Victoria, may have seen or played the Aboriginal game of Marn Grook, incorporated some of its features into early Australian football; the evidence for this is only circumstantial, according to biographer Greg de Moore's research, Wills was "almost influenced by his experience at Rugby School". A loosely organised Melbourne side, captained by Wills, played against other football enthusiasts in the winter and spring of 1858.
The following year, on 14 May, the Melbourne Football Club came into being, making it one of the
2008 AFL Grand Final
The 2008 AFL Grand Final was an Australian rules football match contested between the Geelong Football Club and the Hawthorn Football Club, held at the Melbourne Cricket Ground in Melbourne on 27 September 2008. It was the 112th annual grand final of the Australian Football League, staged to determine the Premiers for the 2008 AFL season; the match, attended by 100,012 spectators, was won by Hawthorn won by a margin of 26 points, marking that club's tenth premiership overall and first since 1991. Hawthorn's Luke Hodge was awarded the Norm Smith Medal as the best player on the ground. Geelong, the 2007 Premiers, won 21 of 22 games during the home and away season to win its second consecutive McClelland Trophy, tied the 2000 Essendon Bombers for most wins in a home and away season, they were 58-point winners in their qualifying final against St Kilda, earning them a week's rest and a home preliminary final. They defeated the Western Bulldogs by 29 points to qualify for the grand final. Leading up to the grand final, Geelong had won its past fifteen games.
Hawthorn won its first nine games of the season, sat atop the AFL ladder at Round 11. They began to lose a few games towards the end of the season, finished in second place with a record of 17 wins and 5 losses, they convincingly beat the Western Bulldogs by 51 points in their qualifying final, which earned them a week's rest and home preliminary final, in which they beat St Kilda by 54 points. Hawthorn had won four games in a row leading into all by more than 50 points, it was the team's first appearance in a grand final since winning the 1991 AFL Grand Final. The two teams had met only once during the season, in a Friday night game in Round 17. Geelong was missing defending and eventual Leigh Matthews Trophy winner Gary Ablett, Jr. but defeated Hawthorn 12.16 to 11.11. Geelong was the warm favourite to win the grand final, with Hawthorn attracting odds of $3.05 for the win at the opening bounce. The game was the third grand final meeting between the two teams in their long history, having contested in the 1963 and 1989 VFL Grand Finals.
It was the first grand final contested by two Victorian-based teams since Essendon and Melbourne met in 2000. It was a anticipated grand final, eliciting memories of the classic 1989 VFL Grand Final played between the same teams, with Geelong entering the match as the favourites to win, it was attended by 100,012 spectators, the first crowd to exceed 100,000 for a VFL/AFL game since the 1986 VFL Grand Final. The 2008 decider was telecast by the Seven Network, its first grand final telecast since 2001; the network had only broadcast the match following an agreement that would see them, along with rival Network Ten, share the rights to the match every year, with the losing network broadcasting the pre-season grand final and the Brownlow Medal presentation that year as well. Included a live performance by Powderfinger of their hit " On My Mind", interspersed with a rendition of the AC/DC classic, "It's a Long Way to the Top", including bagpipers. Ian Moss performed lead guitar notes to the tune of "Up There Cazaly".
The traditional grand final motorcade, controversially omitted from the 2007 pre-match entertainment, honouring the 2008 Australian Football Hall of Fame inductees, individual award winners and retiring players with over 200 games' experience, as well as Olympic and Paralympic gold medallists. The Australian National Anthem Advance Australia Fair was performed by Amanda Harrison and Lucy Durack, stars of the hit musical Wicked; the grand final was played in warm conditions under sunny skies at the Melbourne Cricket Ground with conditions reaching 27 °C. The first goal of the game was scored by Geelong's Tom Lonergan from a mark; the Hawks opened up a thirteen-point lead with goals from Chance Bateman on the run, Xavier Ellis from a set shot and Jarryd Roughead along the ground from an acute angle. Hawthorn started conceding goals through free kicks, first to Gary Ablett, Jr. to Max Rooke, to reduce the margin. Geelong looked stronger than Hawthorn at stoppages, but Hawthorn was damaging from rebounds, so neither team could gain the overall dominance in general play, leading to an intense see-sawing quarter of football which saw each team score five goals and Geelong lead by one point at quarter time.
Geelong began to control play in the midfield, winning the stoppages and providing their forwards with plenty of opportunities which they wasted. However, a combination between inaccurate goalkicking from the Geelong forwards – the worst of which were a Brad Ottens behind from 15 metres on the run and a Cameron Mooney behind from a 5-metre, 45° set shot after the siren – and strong defensive pressure from the Hawthorn defense restricted Geelong to just 1.9. Meanwhile, Hawthorn scored 3.1 for the quarter, with goals to Cyril Rioli, Mark Williams and Clinton Young, generating all of their scoring from rebounds. Hawthorn defender Trent Croad left the field midway through the second quarter with a broken foot. Midfielder Sam Mitchell was reported for making forceful front-on contact on Ablett. Geelong captain Tom Harley was concussed because of a clash of heads with Hawthorn's Williams and he left the ground; the same trends continued into the early third quarter, with Geelong winning in the midfield but faltering in the forward-line.
Set shots from Mooney and Lonergan hit the posts. A running goal from 45 metres from Ablett broke a string of eleven consecutive behinds for Geelong, put th
Port Adelaide Football Club
Port Adelaide Football Club is a professional Australian rules football club based in Alberton, Port Adelaide, South Australia. The club's senior team plays in the Australian Football League, whilst its reserves team competes in the South Australian National Football League. Port Adelaide is the oldest professional sporting club in South Australia and the fifth-oldest club in the AFL. Since the club's first game on 24 May 1870, the club has won 36 South Australian league premierships, including six in a row; the club won the Champions of Australia competition on a record four occasions. After winning an AFL licence in 1994 the club began competing in the Australian Football League in 1997 as the only pre-existing non-Victorian club—and has subsequently added the 2004 AFL premiership to its achievements. By the late 1860s Port Adelaide's river traffic was growing rapidly; the increasing economic activity around the waterways resulted in a meeting being organised by Port Adelaide locals John Rann, Mr. Leicester and Mr. Ireland with the intention to form a sporting club to benefit the growing number of workers associated with the wharfes and surrounding industries.
As a result of their meeting the Port Adelaide Football Club was established on 12 May 1870 as part of a joint Australian football and cricket club. The first training session of the newly formed club took place two days later; the Port Adelaide Football Club played its first match against a team from North Adelaide known as the'Young Australians' on 24 May 1870 at the family property of inaugural club president John Hart Jr in Glanville. John Hart Sr would become premier of South Australia the week following the first match. During these early years, football in South Australia was yet to be formally organised by a single body and as a result there were two main sets of rules in use across the state. Port Adelaide's main opponents during the years prior to the foundation of a governing body for the code in South Australia were the now defunct Kensington and Old Adelaide club; the rules of the Old Adelaide club, which more resembled the rules used in Melbourne at the time, were adopted across Adelaide in 1876.
In 1877, Port Adelaide joined seven other clubs to form the South Australian Football Association, the first governing body of Australian rules football. For the first few seasons in the SAFA the club competed in white shorts. In 1878, Port Adelaide hosted its first game against the established Norwood Football Club with the visitors winning 1-0. A rivalry between these clubs would soon develop into one of the fiercest in Australian sport. In 1879, the club played reigning Victorian Football Association premiers Geelong at Adelaide Oval in what was Port Adelaide's first game against an interstate club. In 1880, Port Adelaide moved to Alberton Oval which remains to this day the club's training and administrative headquarters. In 1881, Port Adelaide played its first game against Carlton at Adelaide Oval; that year the club travelled to Victoria and played its first game outside South Australia against the Sale Football Club. During the 1882 season Port Adelaide overcame Norwood for the first time after nine previous attempts winning by 1 goal at Adelaide Oval.
On 2 July 1883 Port Adelaide played its first game at the Melbourne Cricket Ground against Melbourne. In 1884 Port Adelaide won its first SAFA premiership. On 25 May 1885, Port Adelaide played at the Melbourne Cricket Ground against South Melbourne, drawing with the eventual VFA premiers in front of 10,000 spectators. In 1887 immense interest led into the round 8 meeting against Norwood as the previous two matches between the clubs resulted in draws. Norwood won in front of a then-record 11,000 spectators at Adelaide Oval. Attending the match were Chinese Commissioners to the Jubilee Exhibition General Wong Yang Ho and Console-General Yu Chiung who were provided the South Australian premiers private box at Adelaide Oval. During 1889 the club played against the Richmond Football Club at Punt Road, with Port prevailing by a goal; the 1889 SAFA season ended with Port Adelaide and Norwood equal top, leading to the staging of Australia's first grand final. Norwood went on to defeat Port Adelaide by two goals.
In 1890 Port Adelaide won its second SAFA premiership and would go on to be crowned "Champions of Australia" for the first time after defeating VFA premiers South Melbourne. In 1891 the club defeated Fitzroy at Adelaide Oval with Indigenous Australian Harry Hewitt playing for Port Adelaide; as the 1890s continued Australia would be affected by a severe depression with many players were being forced to move interstate to find work. This exodus translated into poor on field results for the club. By 1896, the club was in crisis and finished last causing the clubs committee to meet with the aim of revitalising the club. Historian John Devaney suggested that there was a "conscious and deliberate cultivation by both the committee and the team's on field leaders of a revitalised club spirit, whereby playing for Port Adelaide became a genuine source of pride", it had immediate results and in 1897 Port Adelaide won a third premiership finishing the season with a record of 14-2-1 with a scoring record two and a half times its conceded total.
This is one of only four occurrences since 1877 that the team that finished last won a premiership the following year. Stan Malin won Port Adelaide's first Magarey Medal in 1899. During the 19th century the club had nicknames including the Cockledivers, the Seaside Men, the Seasiders and the Magentas. In 1900, Port finished bottom in the six-team competition, which it has not done in any senior league since. In 1902, Port Adelaide took the field i
Brent Guerra is a former Australian rules footballer who played for Hawthorn in the Australian Football League, having previously played for Port Adelaide and St Kilda. Beginning his career at Port Adelaide in 2000, he was seen as a dangerous winger or forward. Brent Guerra won three SANFL Premierships with Central District. However, at the end of 2003 he was traded from the club due to Guerra wanting to return to Victoria and the Saints picked him up for pick 39, the unsuccessful Robert Forster-Knight. Guerra was a key figure for a period during the Saints' early season run in 2004 when St Kilda won the 2004 Wizard Home Loans Cup and the first 10 games of the home and away season, he kicked 20 goals in six games, including seven in one game. From however, his form tapered and he finished with only nine more goals from the remaining 12 games, he was noted for a number of incidents when he shirtfronted players, including once before the opening bounce of a game. In 2005, Guerra had another average year and, at the end of the season, the Saints delisted him.
The Hawthorn Football Club selected Guerra with pick three in the 2005 AFL Pre-season draft. Guerra had a connection with Hawks' coach Alastair Clarkson from Clarkson's time as a premiership coach at Central Districts and assistant coach at Port Adelaide. Guerra was reinvented at Hawthorn as a strong-bodied half back flanker and added experience to a young Hawks' lineup in 2006, his hard-nosed approach has at times attracted the attention of umpires. In 2007 and 2008 he averaged in excess of 20 possessions per game, displaying a consistency, lacking earlier in his career up forward; as a part of Hawthorn's 2008 premiership side, Guerra had 25 possessions in a reliable display. In Round 23, 2012, a week before the finals with Hawthorn sitting on top of the ladder, Guerra sustained a hamstring injury, it occurred in the final quarter of Hawthorn's 25-point victory over West Coast. On 24 September, Guerra ruled himself out of the 2012 Grand Final against the Sydney Swans. On 2 October 2013, the week following his second premiership with the Hawthorn Football Club, Guerra announced his retirement from AFL football to pursue a career in coaching.
Through Guerra's career he suffered from a recurring hamstring injury which kept him from playing in the 2012 Grand Final. Guerra played for Deer Park in the Western Region Football League, having joined them on 29 October 2013, he won a premiership with Deer Park in October 2014. Guerra made a guest stint in three games for Devonport in the Tasmanian Football League in 2014. In his final year as a player, Guerra completed a Level 2 coaching accreditation course and a diploma of management. Shortly after retiring from playing, Guerra was appointed a part-time development coach at the Hawks in November 2013. On 19 September 2014, Guerra joined Chelsea in the Mornington Peninsula Nepean Football League as player-coach. Prior to the 2016 season, he was appointed as a development coach with Fremantle. Guerra experienced male pattern balding at a young age and made headlines in late 2005 when he underwent a hair transplant cosmetic surgery procedure, he has said that the operation gave him confidence both off the field.
Guerra has a brother, who plays with Deer Park in the Western Region Football League. Since retirement Guerra has revealed his struggle with gambling addiction whilst he was a professional footballer. Brent Guerra's profile on the official website of the Hawthorn Football Club Brent Guerra's playing statistics from AFL Tables
Victorian Football League
The Victorian Football League is the major state-level Australian rules football league in Victoria. The league evolved from the former Victorian Football Association, has been known by its current name since 1996. For historical purposes, the present VFL is sometimes referred to as the VFA/VFL, to distinguish it from the present day Australian Football League, known until 1990 as the Victorian Football League and is sometimes referred to as the VFL/AFL; the VFA was formed in 1877 and is the second-oldest Australian rules football league, replacing the loose affiliation of clubs, the hallmark of the early years of the game. Serving a administrative function, the VFA premiership served as the top level of club competition in Victoria until 1896; the VFA became the secondary level of club competition from 1897 after its eight strongest clubs seceded to form the VFL. From 1897 until 1995, the VFA remained independent from the VFL as Victoria's secondary senior club competition. Although always much less popular than the VFL/AFL, the VFA enjoyed peaks of popularity in the 1940s with a faster-paced rival code of rules, in the 1970s bolstered by playing on Sundays at a time when the VFL was played on Saturdays.
Since 1995, the league has been administered by AFL Victoria, serves as one of the second-tier regional Australian semi-professional competitions which sits underneath the professional Australian Football League. From the 2018 season it will comprise 15 teams from throughout Victoria, nine of which have a continuous VFA heritage. Since 2000, the VFL has served as a reserves competition for the AFL, with some Victorian-based clubs fielding their reserves teams in the VFL and others affiliated such that their reserves player can play in VFL teams. AFL Victoria operates a women's football competition under the Victorian Football League brand, known as the VFL Women's, established in 2016; the Victorian Football Association was founded on 17 May 1877 at the meeting of club secretaries preceding the 1877 season. It was formed out of a desire to provide a formal administrative structure to the governance of the sport, it had the power to impose binding decisions on its members on matters including the Laws of the Game, player eligibility and other disputes, as well as to facilitate intercolonial football.
Decisions were made based on a vote of the Board of Management, composed of two delegates from each senior club, a structure, retained until the late 1980s. It replaced a system under which the secretaries of the senior clubs met at the beginning of each year to decide on matters of mutual interest, but the system was informal and disputes went unresolved; the five foundation senior clubs in the Melbourne metropolitan area were Albert-park, Hotham, Melbourne and St Kilda. Provincial clubs were eligible for senior representation on the Association though most played matches against the metropolitan teams. There was no formal system of promotion and relegation between the senior and junior levels, with it at a club's discretion whether or not it joined the Association as a paying senior member; the affiliation fee for senior clubs was set at one guinea. Through the first decade of the VFA's existence, the structure of the football season did not change from the informal system which had evolved over previous years.
Setting of fixtures was the responsibility of club secretaries rather than the Association itself, in a typical season, a club could play against other VFA teams, non-VFA clubs, at odds against junior teams, in some seasons against intercolonial teams. Prior to the 1888 season, there was no formally endorsed system for awarding a VFA premiership: as had been the case since the early 1870s, the premier club was determined by public and press consensus, which by the mid-1880s was conventionally but informally understood to be the senior club which suffered the fewest losses during the season. Premierships won under this then-informal method are now considered official, consensus was uncontroversial. In 1888, the VFA first took responsibility for the onfield competition, introduced its first formal premiership system by adopting a system of premiership points; the Association's influence over the on-field competition grew, from 1894, the Association assumed responsibility for centrally setting the fixtures and standardising the number of games played by each team.
After the formal introduction of the premiership, the often-changeable collection of senior clubs in the VFA soon became settled at twelve premiership-eligible clubs: Carlton, Fitzroy, Geelong, North Melbourne, Port Melbourne, Richmond, St Kilda, South Melbourne and Williamstown. Three Ballarat-based clubs – Ballarat, Ballarat Imperial and South Ballarat – were voting members of the VFA through this time, but were not involved in the onfield premiership. During the 1890s, there was an off-field power struggle within the VFA between the stronger and weaker clubs, as the stronger clubs sought greater administrative control commensurate with their relative financial contribution to the game; this came to a hea
The Oval referred to for sponsorship purposes as the Kia Oval, is an international cricket ground in Kennington, in the London Borough of Lambeth, in south London. The Oval has been the home ground of Surrey County Cricket Club since it was opened in 1845, it was the first ground in England to host international Test cricket in September 1880. The final Test match of the English season is traditionally played there. In addition to cricket, The Oval has hosted a number of other significant sporting events. In 1870, it staged England's first international football match, versus Scotland, it hosted the first FA Cup final in 1872, as well as those between 1874 and 1892. In 1876, it held both the England v Wales and England v Scotland rugby international matches and, in 1877, rugby's first Varsity match, it hosted the final of the 2017 ICC Champions Trophy. The Oval is built on part of the former Kennington Common. Cricket matches were played on the common throughout the early 18th century; the earliest recorded first-class match was the London v Dartford match on 18 June 1724.
However, as the common was used for public executions of those convicted at the Surrey Assizes, cricket matches had moved away to the Artillery Ground by the 1740s. Kennington Common was enclosed in the mid 19th century under a scheme sponsored by the Royal Family. In 1844, the site of the Kennington Oval was a market garden owned by the Duchy of Cornwall; the Duchy was willing to lease the land for the purpose of a cricket ground, on 10 March 1845 the first lease, which the club assumed, was issued to Mr. William Houghton by the Otter Trustees who held the land from the Duchy "to convert it into a subscription cricket ground", for 31 years at a rent of £120 per annum plus taxes amounting to £20; the original contract for turfing The Oval cost £300. Hence, Surrey County Cricket Club was established in 1845; the popularity of the ground was immediate and the strength of the SCCC grew. On 3 May 1875 the club acquired the remainder of the leasehold for a further term of 31 years from the Otter Trustees for the sum of £2,800.
In 1868, 20,000 spectators gathered at The Oval for the first game of the 1868 Aboriginal cricket tour of England, the first tour of England by any foreign side. Thanks to C. W. Alcock, the Secretary of Surrey from 1872 to 1907, the first Test match in England was played at The Oval in 1880 between England and Australia; the Oval, became the second ground to stage a Test, after Melbourne Cricket Ground. In 1882, Australia won the Test by seven runs within two days; the Sporting Times printed a mocking obituary notice for English cricket, which led to the creation of the Ashes trophy, still contested whenever England plays Australia. The first Test double century was scored at The Oval in 1884 by Australia's Billy Murdoch. Surrey's ground is noted as having the first artificial lighting at a sports arena, in the form of gas-lamps, dating to 1889; the current pavilion was completed in time for the 1898 season. In 1907, South Africa became the second visiting Test team to play a Test match at the ground.
In 1928, the West Indies played its first Test match at The Oval, followed by New Zealand in 1931. In 1936, India became the fifth foreign visiting Test side to play at The Oval, followed by Pakistan in 1954 and Sri Lanka in 1998. Zimbabwe and Bangladesh have yet to play a Test match at The Oval; the Oval is referenced by the poet Philip Larkin in his poem about the First World War, "MCMXIV". During World War II, The Oval was requisitioned housing anti-aircraft searchlights, it was turned into a prisoner-of-war camp, intended to hold enemy parachutists. However, as they never came, The Oval was never used for this purpose; the first One Day International match at this venue was played on 7 September 1973 between England and West Indies. It hosted matches of the 1975, 1979, 1983, 1999 World Cups, it hosted five of the fifteen matches in the 2004 ICC Champions Trophy, including the final. The Oval once held the record for the largest playing area of any Test venue in the world; that record has since been surpassed by Gaddafi Stadium in Pakistan, although The Oval remains the largest in Great Britain.
Billionaire Paul Getty, who had a great affinity for cricket and was at one time SCCC President, built a replica of The Oval on his Wormsley Park estate. The famous gasholders just outside the ground were built around 1853. With the gasholders long disused, there was much speculation as to whether they should be demolished. In 2016 the main gasholder was given official protected status as a important industrial structure. On 20 August 2006, The Oval saw the first time a team forfeited a Test match. Pakistan were upset after umpires Darrell Hair and Billy Doctrove docked them five runs and changed the ball after ruling that the team had tampered with it on the fourth day of the final Test against England. Pakistan debated the matter during the tea break and refused to come out for the final session in protest. By the time they relented and decided to resume, the umpires had called time on the match and awarded the game to England by default; the Oval hosted its hundredth Test, against South Africa, on 27 July, 2017, becoming the fourth Test venue in the world after Lord's, MCG and SCG to do so.
Moeen Ali became the first player to take a Test hat-trick at The Oval, bowling out South Afri