North Melbourne Football Club

The North Melbourne Football Club, nicknamed the Kangaroos or less formally the Roos, the Kangas or North, is an Australian rules football club that competes in the Australian Football League, the sport's premier competition. Founded in North Melbourne, Victoria in 1869, it is based at its traditional home ground, Arden Street Oval, plays its home matches at both the nearby Blundstone Arena in Hobart, Tasmania; the club's mascot is a grey kangaroo donning the club uniform, its use dates from the mid-20th century. The club is unofficially known as "The Shinboners", a term which dates back to its 19th-century abattoir-worker origins; the club's motto is Victoria amat curam, Latin for "Victory Demands Dedication". Aside from their representation in the AFL, the Kangaroos field teams in the following competitions. In two aspects North Melbourne stands second to none. One is the loyalty of its supporters; the other is the determination to carry on, despite its disadvantages. In the face of adversity, which might well have broken the spirit of most men, we find that from the earliest days there were always enthusiasts to fight for North Melbourne.

North Melbourne Football Club was founded in North Melbourne in 1869 by local cricketers desiring to keep fit over the winter months. One thought is that the club was connected to the St Mary's Church of England Cricket Club, now the St Mary's Anglican Church North Melbourne, whose colours – blue and white – are reflected in the club's colours today; the association between the St Mary's Church of England Cricket Club and the establishment of the North Melbourne Football Club is believed to have been an informal gathering to play some competitive sport. Information on the club's first match is limited, but it is known that it took place in Royal Park, which served as the club's home ground until 1882; the ball used in the match was purchased by a local resident called Tom Jacks, who sold some roofing iron to pay for it. James Henry Gardiner is considered the founder of the club, he continued an active role with North Melbourne until his death in 1921. Regular premiership matches of Australian Football commenced in Victoria in 1870.

Although North Melbourne was a part of this, it was classed as a "junior club". The Australasian noted them as being "one of the best of many junior clubs"; the club continued graduating to senior ranks in 1874, finishing 4th. Along with the promotion, the club adopted its first uniform of white horizontal stripes. In 1876, North Melbourne disbanded, many of its player and members joined Albert-park, giving the club such a strong North Melbourne character that many described it as "Albert-park cum North Melbourne". In 1877, the club was re-established as a stand-alone club under the new name of "Hotham". Football took a giant step forward in 1877, with the formation of Victoria's first colonial football league, the VFA. Hotham were prime movers in establishing this league and were afforded a place in light of their previous contributions to Australian Football; the 1880s marked the emergence of the modern identity today. In 1882, the club amalgamated with the Hotham Cricket Club and moved into the North Melbourne Recreation Reserve, which remains the home of the club today.

The joint venture was aimed at affecting improvements at the Hotham Cricket Ground, the name of the Reserve at the time. Four years the club adopted the traditional uniform of blue and white vertical stripes at the insistence of the VFA, who wanted a visible contrast between Geelong's and Hotham's uniforms; the third significant development occurred in 1888 with the club returning to its original name of the North Melbourne Football Club. This followed the name of the local area reverting from Hotham to North Melbourne; the 1880s saw the club develop a penchant for inter-colonial travel with trips to Tasmania and South Australia. Hotham found itself well represented at the first inter-colonial representative game in 1879 with four players from the club gaining selection for Victoria; the VFA grew to 13 senior clubs in the 1890s. Led by Geelong and Essendon, the largest clubs of the VFA formed their own break away league, the Victorian Football League, in 1896. Despite finishing 6th in 1896, North Melbourne was not invited to the breakaway competition.

The main reasons for being excluded were: North had not won a premiership yet, thus was not considered a powerful club The industrialisation of the locality had drained the club's income streams The club had a strong reputation for hooliganism from their fans There was a lot of bad blood between Collingwood and North following a torrid engagement in the previous season Essendon felt threatened by the proximity of North Melbourne A court case against the North Melbourne Cricket Club had damaged the Football Club's statusNorth continued on in the depleted VFA, emerging as a powerhouse, finishing 2nd in 1897, 1898 and 1899. In 1903, after 34 years of competing, the club won its first premiership, defeating Richmond in the final; the club became back to back premiers in 1904 after Richmond forfeited the grand final due to the appointment of an umpire whose performance when the two teams met earlier in the year was criticised by Richmond players and officials. North merged with fellow VFA football club West Melbourne in 1907, which at the time had lost its home ground.

The joint venture saw a chance of promotion, the club applied for admission to the more prestigious VFL in 1908, but Richmond and University were admitted instead. North was kicked out of the VFA during the 1907/08 offseason as a result of applying to join the VFL, before the local community reestablished the North Mel

Tribus circiter

Tribus circiter is Pope Pius X's 1906 encyclical, to the archbishops of Warsaw and bishops of Płock and Lublin, about the Mariavites or Mystic Priests of Poland, an association of secular priests that the document describes as "a kind of pseudo-monastic society". The association of secular priests and the Mariavite movement was founded by Feliksa Kozłowska and broke away from the Catholic Church to become the Mariavite Church. According to Tribus circiter, the Holy See was informed, c. 1901, that priests, "especially among the junior clergy of" the Warsaw, Płock, Lublin dioceses "founded, without permission from their lawful superiors, a kind of pseudo-monastic society, known as the Mariavites or Mystic Priests. Pius believed "that there was reason to fear that many of the faithful in their delusion were about to abandon their" pastors, or, in other words, commit schism. In Faith and Fatherland, Brian Porter described "without discrimination and of their own initiative" as a key phrase in the document because Mariavites "did not bypass the hierarchical institutions of the Church.

They saw priests as moral guides, justified by their personal holiness rather than their office." On September 4, 1904, Pius issued a decree "suppressing the above-named society of priests, commanding them to break off... all relations with" Kozłowska: "But the priests in question, notwithstanding that they signed a document expressing their subjection to the authority of their bishops and that they did... break off their relations with" Kozłowska, but they did not disband or "renounce sincerely the condemned association. Not only did they condemn" the bishops'"exhortations and inhibitions, not only did "many of them sign as audacious declaration in which they rejected communion with their bishops, not only... did they incite the deluded people to drive away their lawful pastors, like the enemies of the Church, asserted that she has fallen from truth and justice, hence has been abandoned by the Holy Spirit, that to themselves alone, the Mariavite priests, was it divinely given to instruct the faithful in true piety".

Porter wrote that Pius recognized that what they did "was unimpeachable on the surface" but "undermined by their attacks on the hierarchy". Some weeks before the encyclical was given at Rome, two Mariavite priests Roman Maria Jakub Próchniewski and Jan Maria Michał Kowalski who "is recognized, in virtue of some kind of delegation from" Kozłowska, "as their Superior by all the members of the Society. Both of them, in a petition alleged by them to have been written by the express order of... Jesus Christ, ask or the Congregation of the Holy Office in his name, to issue a document" that Kozłowska had "'been made most holy by God, that she is the mother of mercy for all men called and elected to salvation by God in these days, they were, in effect, repudiating the ecclesiological validity of the clergy by implicitly denying that the Church's sacramental power alone was adequate to legitimate a priest". According to Porter, Honorat Koźmiński, at one time Kozłowska's confessor, described, in Prawda o "Maryawitach", "how some minor doctrinal errors in Kozłowska's thinking grew over time into'Satanic delusions'".

Porter wrote that Koźmiński argued that a principal element of their movement "was an ecclesiological error:'The rebellious priests taught in a heretical manner that those bishops and priests who did not live in accordance with what considered to be appropriate rules for a chaplain lost the power to govern.'" The Church has opposed revivals of Donatism, a principal element of the Mariavites, for centuries. Porter explains that while it was acceptable to confine criticism to individual priests, it was u

M422 Mighty Mite

The M422'Mighty Mite' is a lightweight ¼-ton 4x4 tactical truck, suitable for airlifting and manhandling. From 1959-1962, the Mighty Mite was built by American Motors for the United States Marine Corps; the vehicle was prototyped starting in 1946, making it the first all-new Jeep to be designed for the U. S. military after World War II, further developed during the 1950s by a team including four of the original Bantam engineers. A design called MARCO MM-100 by the Mid-American Research Corporation used a Porsche air-cooled engine and independent suspension. A unique feature was the absence of a conventional exhaust system; the prototype did not have a pipe rather the exhaust was routed through the frame. This proved to be an inferior design because the condensation and acidic fumes caused premature frame failure. A competing prototype by Willys, the 1953 Bobcat or "Aero Jeep", which would share as many parts as possible with the M38 and M38A1 to save costs, was rejected in favor of the more advanced M422.

Although the vehicle was to be used only by the U. S. Marine Corps, it was therefore clear from the beginning that production numbers would remain limited, the vehicle was extensively engineered and incorporated many innovations. To keep the weight down, the M422 became the first U. S. jeep to be fitted with an aluminum body. At 1,700 pounds, it is the lightest of the American military trucks to date; this was the first U. S. small military vehicle designed with independent suspension all around, sprung by ¼-elliptical leaf springs. Among the M422's many other unique features were front and rear limited-slip differentials, inboard differential mounted drum brakes, center-point steering, the aluminum "AMC AV-108-4" V4 engine developed by American Motors; the air-cooled 107.8 cu in developed 52 bhp and 90 lb⋅ft of torque, which propelled it to a top speed of 65 miles per hour, with a 55-mile-per-hour military rating. As with the M151, the transfer case only engages/disengages the front wheel drive and is part of the transmission.

The full synchronization meant. Although a two-seater, the little vehicle could theoretically move six people, thanks to two additional fold-up seats that were integrated into the functional tailgate, as well as two folding backrests on the rear fenders; the M422 was rated to carry 850 lb off road, while all other standard GI 1/4 ton vehicles were rated at 800 lb. And if needed, there was a version of the M416 trailer specially adapted for towing by an M422: the M416B1. Like other Marine Corps contract vehicles, the M422s came from the factory with all deep-water fording equipment installed, except for the pipes. In its early development stage the Marines developed a lightweight flotation kit that could be stored on the M442 when not in need, in which four large tubes inflated by exhaust encompassed the bottom part of the frame that allowed the vehicle to swim deeper waters; the vehicle's spinning wheels provided steering in the water. In 1958, seven prototypes passed grueling tests, the first 250 vehicles were built by American Motors.

These units went into mass production in 1960 and AMC built 3,922 Mighty Mites through 1962 for the U. S. Marine Corps. Over the years, the vehicle was produced in two model versions: the M422 and M422A1; the M422 had a tiny 65-inch wheelbase. After production of 1,045 units, the Mighty Mite evolved into the M422A1, six inches longer in both wheelbase and length, 80 pounds heavier; the first Mighty Mites to have the 71" wheelbase were an experimental model fashioned from an M422. They had an extended and aluminum added behind the seat and crudely fashioned tool storage boxes; this model was the M422E1. Once put into production the 71" wheelbase model was designated the M422A1. Either model could be fitted with rear-mounted spare tire and a sturdier windshield similar to the Willys M38A1 that, along with top bows, would facilitate the use of a canvas winter top; the addition of the rear-mounted spare tire rendered the tailgate unusable. At over US$5,000 per unit, it was expensive, by the time the Mite went into full production, the military's helicopters had become so much more powerful that the vehicle became obsolete.

The Marine Corps' Sikorsky H-19 with its 2,650-pound cargo limit, for which the M422 had been developed, was being superseded by the Vietnam era UH-1 “Huey", that could carry more than 1½ times that load. These factors may account for the small production total, as well as the short production time period. Crosley Farm-O-Road, a 1950 jeep-like utility vehicle, under ten feet long Crismon, Fred W. US Military Wheeled Vehicles. Victory WWII Pub. pp. 221–222. ISBN 0-970056-71-0. Doyle, David. Standard catalog of U. S. Military Vehicles. Kraus Publications. Pp. 40–42. ISBN 0-87349-508-X. Ware, Pat; the World Encyclopedia of Military Vehicles. Lorenz Books. P. 221. ISBN 0-7548-2052-1. Allen, Jim. "Backward Glances: 1960 AMC M-422 Mighty Mite". FourWheeler Network. Retrieved 24 June 2019. Colwell, John. "M422 Mighty Mite Page". Vintage Military Trucks. Retrieved 17 August 2015. "TM 9-2805-217-35 Field and Depot Maintenance Manual: Engine and Clutch - AMC MODEL AV-108-4". Department of the Army. May 1960. Retrieved 17 August 2015.

Doyle, David. "Quarter-ton Trucks M422". Standard catalog of U. S. military vehicles. Krause Publications. Pp. 40–42. ISBN 9780873495080. Retrieved 17 August 2015. Wenderoth, Jason. "Jeeps Unlimited - The Mi