Svendborg is a town on the island of Funen in south-central Denmark, the seat of Svendborg Municipality. With a population of 26,672, Svendborg is Funen's second largest city. In 2000 Svendborg was declared "Town of the year" in Denmark, in 2003 it celebrated its 750th anniversary as a market town. By road, Svendborg is located 195 kilometres southwest of Copenhagen, 183 kilometres south of Aarhus, 44.2 kilometres south of Odense, 28.5 kilometres east of Faaborg. Svendborg is home to the “Naturama” museum, which holds a wide variety of stuffed animals from birds to bears; the largest container ship company in the world, A. P. Møller-Mærsk has its origins in Svendborg, in the "Villa Anna". In the light of archaeological discoveries, Svendborg appears to have been established in the first half of the 12th century or earlier. Located at the head of a bay, the natural harbour encouraged trade; the first recorded mention of Svendborg occurred in 1229 in a deed of gift by Valdemar the Victorious, where he refers to the fortification as Swinæburgh.
The name is thought to consist of the elements "svin" meaning "pig" and "borg" meaning "fortification". In 1236, the Greyfriars monastery in Svendborg was established; the Greyfriars would be part of the city for the next 300 years, until the Protestant reformation in 1536. The ruins of the monastery were excavated beside the railway in 2007. In 1253, the city was granted market town privileges by King Christopher I. In the Middle Ages, the city was fortified with moats; the defense system included a few of forts. Most historical facts about the medieval defense system, including the locations of fortifications, are disputed, as little archaeological evidence has been generated. In spite of this, it is a popular theory that the three towers in the coat of arms are the three fortifications. Thanks to its seafarers, in the late Middle Ages Svendborg became one of the most important trading centres in Scandinavia. During the time of the Protestant reformation and the Count's Feud in the 1530s, the citizens of Svendborg joined forces with the King.
Ørkild Castle, located just east of Svendborg, was property of the bishop of Odense, less than popular among the citizens of the city. The tension resulted in the castle being seized and burned down by an angry mob in collaboration with the King's forces; the King's forces would after ending their north-going campaign on Funen, return to pillage and plunder Svendborg. After 1536, Svendborg went through a brief period of progress becoming the islands main port, but it would not last for long. In the following 250 years, the city faced various setbacks in its development, such as plague, a major fire, the effects of the Swedish wars when Svendborg's ships were destroyed, it was not until the end of the war with England and the Industrial Revolution in the early 19th century that the city returned to a period of increasing prosperity. The population grew from a mere 1,942 people in 1801 to more than 11,500 in 1901; this development was followed by improvement of the infrastructure, such as rail links with Odense and Nyborg, improvement of the local roads and the establishment of a real harbour suited for extensive trading, since goods could now be transported there.
In the middle of the 19th century an explosion of industrialization happened, all kinds of factories, from engineering to breweries were established together with modern gas and water systems. In the late 19th century, with industry well established, it was necessary to accommodate the growing population; this led to numerous new schools being founded. Furthermore, a hospital was established in 1871 and expanded in 1891; the rapid increase in population continued at the beginning of the 20th century as Svendborg developed into an more important industrial and educational centre. The food and metallurgy sectors became well established; the port prospered with new facilities, including shipyards such as Svendborg Skipsværft, established in 1907 on an artificial island. On the educational front, a number of maritime and navigational schools were established; the shipyard, which had employed up to 800 in the 1980s closed in 2001, some of the facilities being taken over by Vestas. In recent years, there has been a marked transition from industry into the service sector, the hospital now being one of the principal employers.
Tourism has prospered for those arriving in pleasure boats. The German writer Bertolt Brecht spent the first years of his exile from Nazi Germany in Svendborg; the town provided the title of a collection of Brecht's poems "Svendborger Gedichte". Svendborg lies on the south coast of Funen. By road, Svendborg is located 195 kilometres southwest of Copenhagen, 44.2 kilometres south of Odense, 85.8 kilometres southeast of Middelfart, 28.5 kilometres south-southeast of Faaborg. The Port of Svendborg is accessed by several channels, feeding through the islands of Tåsinge and Thurø. Svendborg Sund approaches the town from the southwest, along which ferries coming from Ærøskøbing pass the smaller islands of Drejø, Hjortø, Skarø. Between Tåsinge and Thurø is Thurø Sund, which passes Bregninge forest on the northeast coast of Tåsinge, approaching the port of Svendborg from the south. From the east, between mainland Funen and the island of Thurø, is the narrow Skårupøre Sund. To the west of Svendborg are several lakes, including Sørup Lake, 3.8 kilometres northwest of the centre, Hvidkilde Lake, 5.8 kilometres northwest of the centre of Svendborg.
Several forested ar
Ceres Brewery was a brewery company located in Aarhus, Denmark. It was part of Royal Unibrew since 1989; the factories in central Aarhus, was closed in 2008 and the grounds are now being redeveloped into a new neighbourhood of the city, known as CeresByen. Ceres made several popular beers and sodas, that still exists today, now being produced by Royal Unibrew A/S. Ceres Brewery was founded by a grocer named Malthe Conrad Lottrup, with help from the chemists A. S. Aagard and Knud Redelien, as the city's seventh brewery, it was named after the Roman goddess Ceres, its opening was announced in the local newspaper, Stiftstidende, in 1856. The brewery was successful, Lottrup became one of the most prominent people of Aarhus. After ten years, he expanded the brewery, adding a grand new building as his own private residence, where he entertained other local figures. Lottrup's son-in-law, Laurits Christian Meulengracht, took over the running of the brewery after that, was in charge for nearly thirty years, expanding it further.
He sold it to another brewery, Østjyske Bryggerier A/S. The brewery gained more esteem in 1914, when it was made "Purveyor to the Royal Danish Court". In 2008 the factory closed because the brewery could not live up to the expectations from its owner Royal Unibrew. Ceres Brewery
Advertising is a marketing communication that employs an sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea. Sponsors of advertising are businesses wishing to promote their products or services. Advertising is differentiated from public relations in that an advertiser pays for and has control over the message, it differs from personal selling in that the message is non-personal, i.e. not directed to a particular individual. Advertising is communicated through various mass media, including traditional media such as newspapers, television, outdoor advertising or direct mail; the actual presentation of the message in a medium is referred to as an advertisement, or "ad" or advert for short. Commercial ads seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through "branding", which associates a product name or image with certain qualities in the minds of consumers. On the other hand, ads that intend to elicit an immediate sale are known as direct-response advertising.
Non-commercial entities that advertise more than consumer products or services include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Non-profit organizations may use free modes such as a public service announcement. Advertising may help to reassure employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful. Modern advertising originated with the techniques introduced with tobacco advertising in the 1920s, most with the campaigns of Edward Bernays, considered the founder of modern, "Madison Avenue" advertising. Worldwide spending on advertising in 2015 amounted to an estimated US$529.43 billion. Advertising's projected distribution for 2017 was 40.4% on TV, 33.3% on digital, 9% on newspapers, 6.9% on magazines, 5.8% on outdoor and 4.3% on radio. Internationally, the largest advertising-agency groups are Dentsu, Omnicom, WPP. In Latin, advertere means "to turn towards". Egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters. Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of Pompeii and ancient Arabia.
Lost and found advertising on papyrus was common in ancient ancient Rome. Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form, present to this day in many parts of Asia and South America; the tradition of wall painting can be traced back to Indian rock art paintings that date back to 4000 BC. In ancient China, the earliest advertising known was oral, as recorded in the Classic of Poetry of bamboo flutes played to sell confectionery. Advertisement takes in the form of calligraphic signboards and inked papers. A copper printing plate dated back to the Song dynasty used to print posters in the form of a square sheet of paper with a rabbit logo with "Jinan Liu's Fine Needle Shop" and "We buy high-quality steel rods and make fine-quality needles, to be ready for use at home in no time" written above and below is considered the world's earliest identified printed advertising medium. In Europe, as the towns and cities of the Middle Ages began to grow, the general population was unable to read, instead of signs that read "cobbler", "miller", "tailor", or "blacksmith", images associated with their trade would be used such as a boot, a suit, a hat, a clock, a diamond, a horseshoe, a candle or a bag of flour.
Fruits and vegetables were sold in the city square from the backs of carts and wagons and their proprietors used street callers to announce their whereabouts. The first compilation of such advertisements was gathered in "Les Crieries de Paris", a thirteenth-century poem by Guillaume de la Villeneuve. In the 18th century advertisements started to appear in weekly newspapers in England; these early print advertisements were used to promote books and newspapers, which became affordable with advances in the printing press. However, false advertising and so-called "quack" advertisements became a problem, which ushered in the regulation of advertising content. Thomas J. Barratt of London has been called "the father of modern advertising". Working for the Pears Soap company, Barratt created an effective advertising campaign for the company products, which involved the use of targeted slogans and phrases. One of his slogans, "Good morning. Have you used Pears' soap?" was famous in its day and into the 20th century.
Barratt introduced many of the crucial ideas that lie behind successful advertising and these were circulated in his day. He stressed the importance of a strong and exclusive brand image for Pears and of emphasizing the product's availability through saturation campaigns, he understood the importance of reevaluating the market for changing tastes and mores, stating in 1907 that "tastes change, fashions change, the advertiser has to change with them. An idea, effective a generation ago would fall flat and unprofitable if presented to the public today. Not that the idea of today is always better than the older idea, but it is different – it hits the present taste."As the economy expanded across the world during the 19th century, advertising grew alongside. In the United States, the success of this advertising format led to the growth of mail-order advertising. In June 1836, French newspaper La Presse was the first to include paid advertising in its pages, allowing it to lower its price, extend its readership and increase its profitability and the formula was soon copied by all titles.
Around 1840, Volney B. Palmer established the roo
Tuborg is a Danish brewing company founded in 1873 on a harbour in Hellerup, an area North of Copenhagen, Denmark. Since 1970 it has been part of the Carlsberg Group; the famous Tuborg pilsner was brewed for the first time in 1880. The name Tuborg comes from Thuesborg, a Copenhagen inn from the 1690s situated in the area of the brewery; this was adopted into local placenames, such as Lille Tuborg and Store Tuborg. "Tuborgvej" street in Copenhagen is named after the site of the original Tuborg brewery. Tuborg produced pale lager for the Danish market, it merged with United Breweries in 1894, which entered into a profit-sharing agreement with Carlsberg in 1903. In 1970, United Breweries was acquired by Carlsberg. Today, it makes lager for global export, as well as a variety of continental styles for both domestic and foreign markets. In 1996 the last Tuborg beer was brewed in Hellerup and the area is now providing fashionable apartments and business offices. Tuborg sell a variety of beers in over 31 countries.
These varieties include Tuborg Green, Tuborg Lemon, Tuborg Christmas beer, Tuborg Gold, Tuborg Red, Tuborg Twist, Tuborg Black, Tuborg Fine Festival. Tuborg Gold is quite popular throughout Denmark and southern Sweden, being as found on store shelves in Sweden as Swedish brews such as Pripps Blå or Falcon. Tuborg Green has been successful in Eastern Europe in Russia, where the brand has seen double digit growth for a number of years and is now the largest premium international beer in the country. Tuborg Red was the first beer brewed by the company, in 1875. Tuborg Red is not brewed but is produced once each May to salute the company's birthday. In its native country of Denmark, Tuborg is known for additional brands, including Tuborg Red, various soft drinks, including orange-flavoured Tuborg Squash. In 1990 Tuborg launched their annual Christmas brew on the second Wednesday in November, with the marketing term "J-day". There is a P-day for påskebryg. In 1999, J-day moved to the first Friday in November.
Traffic police laid out an alcohol control plan for that evening. In 2009 J-day was moved again to the last Friday in October, but in 2010 it returned to the first Friday in November. In 2008, Tuborg announced a sponsorship deal with Reading and Leeds music festivals to become their exclusive Official Beer Partner, a position held in previous years by Carling. In 2009, it arranged an exclusive deal with The Download festival to be the official beer and have a dedicated stage named after the beer. Tuborg sponsors the Tuborg Image Awards, an annual music award presentation that takes place in Nepal. Part of the brand's success in Russia has come from its strong links to music in Eastern Europe and by being one of the first beers in the market to launch the innovative ring pull cap. Official website
Pilsner is a type of pale lager. It takes its name from the Czech city of Pilsen, where it was first produced in 1842 by Bavarian brewer Josef Groll from local ingredients; the world’s first blond lager, the original Pilsner Urquell, is still produced there today. The city of Pilsen began brewing in 1295, but until the mid-1840s, most Bohemian beers were top-fermented; the taste and standards of quality varied and in 1838, consumers dumped whole barrels to show their dissatisfaction. The officials of Pilsen founded a city-owned brewery in 1839, called Měšťanský pivovar Plzeň, to brew beer in the pioneering Bavarian style. Brewers had begun aging beer made with cool fermenting yeasts in caves, which improved the beer's clarity and shelf-life. Part of this research benefited from the knowledge expounded on in a book, written by Czech brewer František Ondřej Poupě from Brno; the Pilsen brewery recruited the Bavarian brewer Josef Groll who, using new techniques and paler malts, presented his first batch of pale lager on 5 October 1842.
The combination of brighter malt prepared by English technology, Pilsen's remarkably soft water, local Saaz noble hops from nearby Žatec and Bavarian-style lagering produced a clear, golden beer, regarded as a sensation. Groll returned to Vilshofen three years in 1845, there inherited his father's brewery. Emergence of efficient glass manufacturing in Europe, around the same time, lowered glass prices; this allowed the general population to purchase glass drinking vessels for the first time. These former luxury items showcased the visually pleasing golden clarity of the beer, further influencing the Pilsner's rapid dissemination. In 1853, the beer was available in 35 pubs in Prague. In 1856, it came in 1862 to Paris. Improving transport and communications meant that this new beer was soon available throughout Europe, the Pilsner style of brewing was soon imitated. In 1859, “Pilsner Bier” was registered as a brand name at the Chamber of Commerce and Trade in Pilsen. In 1898, the Pilsner Urquell trade mark was created to put emphasis on being the original brewery.
Some beers are labeled Urtyp Pilsener meaning that they are brewed according to the original process, although many breweries use this accolade for their top beer. The introduction to Germany of modern refrigeration by Carl von Linde in the late 19th century eliminated the need for caves for beer storage, enabling the brewing of cool fermenting beer in many new locations; until the Pilsner Urquell brewery fermented its beer using open barrels in the cellars beneath their brewery. This changed in 1993 with the use of large cylindrical tanks. Small samples are still brewed in a traditional way for taste comparisons. A modern pale lager termed a Pilsner may have a light, clear colour from pale to golden yellow, with varying levels of hop aroma and flavour; the alcohol strength of beers termed Pilsner vary but are around 4.5%–5%. There are categories such as "European-Style Pilsner" at beer competitions such as the World Beer Cup. Pilsen style lagers are marketed internationally by larger conglomerates.
A study utilizing blind taste-testing has found that several common mass-produced lagers have indistinguishable tastes to the average consumer. German-style Pilsner Light straw to golden colour with more bitter or earthy taste – Beck's, Flensburger, Fürstenberg, Jever, König, Radeberger, St. Pauli Girl, Warsteiner, WernesgrünerCzech-style Pilsner Golden, full of colours, with high foaminess and lighter flavour – Budweiser, Kozel, Pilsner Urquell, Staropramen, SvijanyEuropean-style Pilsner Has a sweet taste, can be produced from other than barley malt – Dutch: Amstel, Heineken or Belgian: Jupiler, Stella ArtoisAmerican-style Pilsner American Pilsners Imperial Pilsners, tend to have more of a robust maltiness than their European counterparts and have an alcohol content between 6.5% and 9% alcohol by volume. On the whole, they tend to be a little darker and sweeter with a certain spiciness when compared to Czech and German variants. Canadian-style Pilsner Hoppy lager-like beer originating from the west-coast of Canada.
Beer by region Gesellschaft für Geschichte des Brauwesens e. V. Die Kunst des Bierbrauens
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Faaborg or Fåborg is an old port town located on Faaborg Fjord in Faaborg-Midtfyn municipality on the island of Funen in Denmark. By road, Faaborg is located 42 kilometres southwest of Odense, 27 kilometres north-northwest of Svendborg, 70 kilometres southeast of Middelfart, depending upon the route, it has a population of 7,178. With its busy port, narrow streets and attractive old houses, the town is popular with tourists in the summer months. Faaborg was the seat of Faaborg municipality; the seat of the new municipality is Ringe. Both municipalities use Faaborg's medieval coat of arms. Faaborg is first mentioned as Foburgh in a document located in the French National Archives in Paris dated 25 June 1229, it is a deed of gift that gives Faaborg and the south of Funen as a morning present to Eleanor of Portugal, from Valdemar II to his daughter-in-law. It is mentioned as a castle, so it must have existed before this date. However, this date has been used as the birth date of Faaborg and thus the town celebrated its 775th anniversary in 2004.
Although it is not known when the settlement was established, it appears Faaborg had received privileges as a market town in the 13th century. Located on a promontory surrounded by water on three sides, the site was further protected by a moat and a town wall. Around 1477, a monastery was established which over the years acquired most of the property in the town and its surroundings. After the Reformation it was used for a time as a hospital until it was demolished; the monastery chapel became the parish church. In the 16th and 17th centuries, Faaborg had to compete with a considerable amount of illegal trading from other settlements along the coast. In the mid-17th century, it suffered more from the effects of the Swedish Wars but it began to prosper as an important port in the 18th century. Corn was exported to trade increased with the Grand Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. By the 1890s, ships from Faaborg sailed as far as the Mediterranean. In the 19th century, England replaced Norway as the main trading partner and, in the second half of the century, trade extended to China and Australia.
By the end of the century, there had been a huge increase in population and a number of light industries had been established. Many of the new inhabitants came from Holstein after these had been lost to Germany, they included many Jews. With 50 employees, Dansk Vin- og Konservesfabrik was the main business but traditional crafts and trading continued while the harbour was enlarged. Steamship links with Copenhagen and Southern Jutland were established and in the 1880s railway connections were ensured with the other towns on the island. Growth was more modest in the 20th century in the face of competition from Svendborg. A few new industries emerged in food processing and metal working but tourism and services became the leading areas of growth. By 2007, Faaborg had 7,318 inhabitants; the harbour, old streets, historic mansions and town houses all make Faaborg a pleasant city for visitors. Its many restaurants serve a wide variety of foreign dishes. Plougs Gård on Vestergade, built around 1790, is one of the finest buildings in the town with its Neoclassical facade.
Jesper Ploug made his fortune in shipping during the American Wars of Independence Faaborg Church is an old monastery church dating from 1477. It formed the south wing of the now demolished Helligåndskloster belonging to the Order of the Holy Ghost from which it gets its name, its considerable size makes it a local landmark: 46 m long by 19 m wide. The chancel and three-sided east gable were completed in 1490, the nave and southern aisle followed around 1510 and a northern aisle was added shortly thereafter. After its vaulting in 1681, it resembled a basilica. Restoration work was carried out in 1858 and 1902; the church has no tower but the tower of the now demolished Saint Nicholas Church serves as its belfry. Faaborg Museum holds one of Denmark's most important art collections with works by the Funen Painters including Jens Birkholm, Peter Hansen, Johannes Larsen, Anna and Fritz Syberg, it displays some of the finest works of sculptor Kai Nielsen. Den gamle Gård on Holkegade provides insights into the town's cultural history, with exhibits depicting life in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Faaborg Harbour, with its centrally placed marina, attracts about 13,000 pleasure boats each year thanks to its attractive location for the South Funen Archipelago. It is visited by vintage schooners and yachts of all sizes; the port is used by fishing boats and commercial vessels. A new waterpark, Faaborg Harbor Bath, was completed in 2014. Nearby attractions include Hvedholm Castle and Horne Church. Faaborg Rutebilstation, a former railway station built in 1882, now serves as a bus station for FynBus. There are regular ferry links from Faaborg to the islands of Bjørnø, Lyø, Avernakø and Ærø. Faaborg is associated with the Funen Painters including: Fritz Syberg, Peter Hansen, Jens Birkholm Anna Syberg, Alhed Larsen, Strange Jørgenssøn a Danish/Norwegian businessman and bailiff Jens Peter Møller a Danish painter Carl Dahl a Danish marine painter during the Golden Age of Danish Painting Eiler Rasmussen Eilersen a Danish landscape painter Niels Moeller Lund a Danish impressionist artist, grew up in Newcastle-upon-Tyne Ulrik Hendriksen a Danish-Norwegian painter