Refrigeration is a process of removing heat from a low-temperature reservoir and transferring it to a high-temperature reservoir. The work of heat transfer is traditionally driven by mechanical means, but can be driven by heat, electricity, laser, or other means. Refrigeration has many applications, but not limited to: household refrigerators, industrial freezers and air conditioning. Heat pumps may use the heat output of the refrigeration process, may be designed to be reversible, but are otherwise similar to air conditioning units. Refrigeration has had a large impact on industry, lifestyle and settlement patterns; the idea of preserving food dates back to at least Chinese empires. However, mechanical refrigeration technology has evolved in the last century, from ice harvesting to temperature-controlled rail cars; the introduction of refrigerated rail cars contributed to the westward expansion of the United States, allowing settlement in areas that were not on main transport channels such as rivers, harbors, or valley trails.
Settlements were developing in infertile parts of the country, filled with newly discovered natural resources. These new settlement patterns sparked the building of large cities which are able to thrive in areas that were otherwise thought to be inhospitable, such as Houston and Las Vegas, Nevada. In most developed countries, cities are dependent upon refrigeration in supermarkets, in order to obtain their food for daily consumption; the increase in food sources has led to a larger concentration of agricultural sales coming from a smaller percentage of existing farms. Farms today have a much larger output per person in comparison to the late 1800s; this has resulted in new food sources available to entire populations, which has had a large impact on the nutrition of society. As quite similar criteria shall be fulfilled by working fluids applied to heat pumps, refrigeration and ORC cycles, several working fluids are applied by all these technologies. Ammonia was one of the first refrigerants. Refrigeration can be defined as "The science of providing and maintaining temperature below that of surrounding atmosphere".
It means continuous extraction of heat from a body whose temperature is below the temperature of its surroundings. The seasonal harvesting of snow and ice is an ancient practice estimated to have begun earlier than 1000 BC. A Chinese collection of lyrics from this time period known as the Shijing, describes religious ceremonies for filling and emptying ice cellars. However, little is known about the construction of these ice cellars; the next ancient society to harvest ice may have been the Jews according to the book of Proverbs, which reads, “As the cold of snow in the time of harvest, so is a faithful messenger to them who sent him.” Historians have interpreted this to mean that the Jews used ice to cool beverages rather than to preserve food. Other ancient cultures such as the Greeks and the Romans dug large snow pits insulated with grass, chaff, or branches of trees as cold storage. Like the Jews, the Greeks and Romans did not use ice and snow to preserve food, but as a means to cool beverages.
The Egyptians developed methods to cool beverages, but in lieu of using ice to cool water, the Egyptians cooled water by putting boiling water in shallow earthen jars and placing them on the roofs of their houses at night. Slaves would moisten the outside of the jars and the resulting evaporation would cool the water; the ancient people of India used this same concept to produce ice. The Persians stored ice in a pit called a Yakhchal and may have been the first group of people to use cold storage to preserve food. In the Australian outback before a reliable electricity supply was available where the weather could be hot and dry, many farmers used a "Coolgardie safe"; this consisted of a room with hessian "curtains" hanging from the ceiling soaked in water. The water would evaporate and thereby cool the hessian curtains and thereby the air circulating in the room; this would allow many perishables such as fruit and cured meats to be kept that would spoil in the heat. Before 1830, few Americans used ice to refrigerate foods due to a lack of ice-storehouses and iceboxes.
As these two things became more available, individuals used axes and saws to harvest ice for their storehouses. This method proved to be difficult and did not resemble anything that could be duplicated on a commercial scale. Despite the difficulties of harvesting ice, Frederic Tudor thought that he could capitalize on this new commodity by harvesting ice in New England and shipping it to the Caribbean islands as well as the southern states. In the beginning, Tudor lost thousands of dollars, but turned a profit as he constructed icehouses in Charleston, Virginia and in the Cuban port town of Havana; these icehouses as well as better insulated ships helped reduce ice wastage from 66% to 8%. This efficiency gain influenced Tudor to expand his ice market to other towns with icehouses such as New Orleans and Savannah; this ice market further expanded as harvesting ice became faster and cheaper after one of Tudor’s suppliers, Nathaniel Wyeth, invented a horse-drawn ice cutter in 1825. This invention as well as Tudor’s success inspired others to get involved in the ice trade and the ice industry grew.
Ice became a mass-market commodity by the early 1830s with the price of ice dropping from six cents per pound to a half of a cent per pound. In New York City, ice consumption increased from 12,000 tons in 1843 to 100,000 tons in 1856. Boston’s consumption leapt from 6,000 tons to 85,000 tons during that same period. Ice harvesting created a “cooling cultur
Carl von Linde
Carl Paul Gottfried Linde was a German scientist and businessman. He discovered a refrigeration cycle and invented the first industrial-scale air separation and gas liquefaction processes; these breakthroughs laid the backbone for the 1913 Nobel Prize in Physics, awarded to Heike Kamerlingh Onnes. Linde was a member of scientific and engineering associations, including being on the board of trustees of the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt and the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities. Linde was the founder of what is now known as Linde plc, the world's largest industrial gases company, ushered the creation of the supply chain of industrial gases as a profitable line of businesses, he was knighted in 1897 as Ritter von Linde. Carl von Linde invented the first reliable and efficient compressed-ammonia refrigerator in 1876. Born in Berndorf, Bavaria as the son of a German-born minister and a Swedish mother, was expected to follow in his father's footsteps, but took another direction entirely.
Von Linde's family moved to Münich, in 1854 and eight years he started a course in engineering at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich, where his teachers included Rudolf Clausius, Gustav Zeuner and Franz Reuleaux. In 1864, he was expelled before graduating for participating in a student protest, but Reuleaux found him a position as an apprentice at the Kottern cotton-spinning plant in Kempten. Linde stayed only a short time before moving first to Borsig in Berlin and to the new Krauss locomotive factory in Munich, where he worked as head of the technical department. Von Linde married Helene Grimm in September 1866. In 1868 Linde learned of a new university opening in Munich and applied for a job as a lecturer, he became a full professor of mechanical engineering in 1872, set up an engineering lab where students such as Rudolf Diesel studied. In 1870 and 1871, Linde published articles in the Bavarian Industry and Trade Journal describing his research findings in the area of refrigeration.
Linde's first refrigeration plants were commercially successful, development began to take up increasing amounts of his time. In 1879, he gave up his professorship and founded the Gesellschaft für Lindes Eismaschinen Aktiengesellschaft, now Linde plc, in Wiesbaden, Germany. After a slow start in a difficult German economy, business picked up in the 1880s; the efficient new refrigeration technology offered big benefits to the breweries, by 1890 Linde had sold 747 machines. In addition to the breweries, other uses for the new technology were found in slaughterhouses and cold storage facilities all over Europe. In 1890, Linde moved back to Munich where he took up his professorship once more, but was soon back at work developing new refrigeration cycles. In 1892, an order from the Guinness brewery in Dublin for a carbon dioxide liquefaction plant drove Linde's research into the area of low-temperature refrigeration, in 1894 he started work on a process for the liquefaction of air. In 1895, Linde first achieved success, filed for patent protection of his process.
In 1901, Linde began work on a technique to obtain pure oxygen and nitrogen based on the fractional distillation of liquefied air. By 1910, coworkers including Carl's son Friedrich had developed the Linde double-column process, variants of which are still in common use today. After a decade, Linde withdrew from managerial activities to refocus on research, in 1895 he succeeded in liquefying air by first compressing it and letting it expand thereby cooling it, he obtained oxygen and nitrogen from the liquid air by slow warming. In the early days of oxygen production, the biggest use by far for the gas was the oxyacetylene torch, invented in France in 1903, which revolutionized metal cutting and welding in the construction of ships and other iron and steel structures. In 1897, Linde was appointed to the Order of Merit of the Bavarian Crown and ennobled in accordance with its statutes. In addition to Linde's technical and engineering abilities, he was a successful entrepreneur, he formed many successful partnerships in Germany and internationally, working to exploit the value of his patents and knowledge through licensing arrangements.
In 1906, Linde negotiated a stake in Brin's Oxygen Company in exchange for rights to Linde's patents in the UK and other countries, held a board position until 1914. Linde formed the Linde Air Products Company in the USA in 1907, a company that passed through US Government control to Union Carbide in the 1940s and on to form today's Praxair. From around 1910 Linde started transferring responsibility for the company's operation to his sons Friedrich and Richard and to his son-in-law Rudolf Wucherer, he continued with advisory duties until his death. Carl von Linde died in Munich in November 1934 at the age of 92. Linde's first refrigeration system used dimethyl ether as the refrigerant and was built by Maschinenfabrik Augsburg for the Spaten Brewery in 1873, he moved on to develop more reliable ammonia-based cycles. These were early examples of vapor-compression refrigeration machines, ammonia is still in wide use as a refrigerant in industrial applications, his apparatus for the liquefaction of air combined the cooling effect achieved by allowing a compressed gas to expand with a counter-current heat exchange technique that used the cold air produced by expansion to ch
Bitburger brewery is a large German brewery founded in 1817 by Johann Wallenborn. Bitburger is headquartered in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Bitburger ranks No. 3 among Germany's best selling beers with annual sales of 3.8 million hectolitres in 2015 and once again remains "Germany's Draft Beer no.1", advertised on most products. Johann Peter Wallenborn founded the brewery in Bitburg in 1817 at the age of 33, his father owned a brewery in Kyllburg. Three years after Wallenborn's death in 1839, Ludwig Bertrand Simon married Wallenborn's daughter Elisabeth and became owner of the brewery, naming it Simonbräu, their son, Theobald Simon, took over the brewery in 1876 at the age of 29. The company slogan is, "Bitte ein Bit." This is "Please, a Bit," or "A Bit, please." In the 1970s, a second slogan was introduced, "Abends Bit, morgens fit" implying that the consumption wouldn't lead to a hangover. During that time either of the slogans could be found on Bitburger glasses; the brand sponsors the German Football Association from 1992 until 2018.
It sponsored Benetton Formula One in 1994 and 1995, where German driver Michael Schumacher won the Formula One championship both seasons. Bitburger is a 4.8% abv Pilsner with annual sales of 1.2 million hectolitres. The popularity of Bitburger extends beyond the local area of Bitburg. Although Germans prefer local breweries, it is a popular beer throughout western Germany, is favored in many areas of North Rhine Westphalia over Alt beer or Kölsch, which are popular in Düsseldorf and Köln. In Germany, there are variations of the original beer beermixes, available. "Bit Sun", "Cola Libre", "Bit Copa" and "Bit Passion". There is a malzbier called "Kandimalz" and "Bitburger Alkoholfrei", a non-alcoholic version of the normal "Bitburger", it is exported throughout the world. It is available in Mini Kegs in some countries such as Australia. In the US, it's available in 500 ml cans, 330 ml bottles, the 5 L Mini Keg, on tap in select locations, it was featured in X-Men: First Class. List of brewing companies in Germany Beer portal Companies portal Germany portal Official site
Pale lager is a pale-to-golden-colored lager beer with a well-attenuated body and a varying degree of noble hop bitterness. The brewing process for this beer developed in the mid-19th century, when Gabriel Sedlmayr took pale ale brewing techniques back to the Spaten Brewery in Germany and applied them to existing lagering methods; this approach was picked up by other brewers, most notably Josef Groll of Bavaria, who produced Pilsner Urquell in the city of Pilsen, Austria-Hungary. The resulting Pilsner beers—pale-colored and stable— spread around the globe to become the most common form of beer consumed in the world today. Bavarian brewers in the sixteenth century were required by law to brew beer only during the cooler months of the year. In order to have beer available during the hot summer months, beers would be stored in caves and stone cellars under blocks of ice. In the period 1820–1830, a brewer named Gabriel Sedlmayr II the Younger, whose family was running the Spaten Brewery in Bavaria, went around Europe to improve his brewing skills.
When he returned, he used what he had learned to get a more consistent lager beer. The Bavarian lager was still different from the known modern lager; the new recipe of the improved lager beer spread over Europe. In particular Sedlmayr's friend Anton Dreher adopted new kilning techniques that enabled the use of lighter malts to improve the Viennese beer in 1840–1841, creating a rich amber-red colored Vienna-style lager. Pale lagers tend to be dry, clean-tasting and crisp. Flavors may be subtle, with no traditional beer ingredient dominating the others. Hop character ranges from negligible to a dry bitterness from noble hops; the main ingredients are water, Pilsner malt and noble hops, though some brewers use adjuncts such as rice or corn to lighten the body of the beer. There tends to be no butterscotch flavor from diacetyl, due to the cold fermentation process. Pale lager was developed in the mid 19th century, when Gabriel Sedlmayr took some British pale ale brewing techniques back to the Spaten Brewery in Germany, started to modernize continental brewing methods.
In 1842 Josef Groll of Pilsen, a city in western Bohemia in what is now the Czech Republic, used some of these methods to produce Pilsner Urquell, the first known example of a golden lager. This beer proved so successful. Breweries now use the terms "lager" and "Pilsner" interchangeably, though pale lagers from Germany and the Czech Republic with the name Pilsner tend to have more evident noble hop aroma and dry finish than other pale lagers. With the success of Pilsen's golden beer, the town of Dortmund in Germany started brewing pale lager in 1873; as Dortmund was a major brewing center, the town breweries grouped together to export the beer beyond the town, the brand name Dortmunder Export became known. Today, breweries in Denmark, the Netherlands, North America brew pale lagers labelled as Dortmunder Export. In 1894, the Spaten Brewery in Munich noticed the commercial success of the pale lagers Pilsner and Dortmunder Export. Other Munich breweries were reluctant to brew pale-colored beer, though as the popularity of pale beers grew, so other breweries in Munich and Bavaria began brewing pale lager either using the name hell or pils.
Today, in Munich and Bavaria pale lagers termed helles, pils or gold remain popular, with a local inclination to use low levels of hops, an abv in the range 4.7% to 5.4% abv. The earliest known brewing of pale lager in America was in the Old City section of Philadelphia by John Wagner in 1840 using yeast from his native Bavaria. Modern American lagers are made by large breweries such as Anheuser-Busch. Lightness of body is a cardinal virtue, both by design and since it allows the use of a high percentage of rice or corn. Though all lagers are well attenuated, a more fermented pale lager in Germany goes by the name Diät-Pils or Diätbier. "Diet" in the instance not referring to being "light" in calories or body, rather its sugars are fermented into alcohol, allowing the beer to be targeted to diabetics due to its lower carbohydrate content. Because the available sugars are fermented, dry beers have a higher alcohol content, which may be reduced in the same manner as low-alcohol beers; the first dry beer, Gablinger's Diet Beer, was released in 1967, developed by Joseph Owades at Rheingold Breweries in Brooklyn.
Owades developed an enzyme that could further break down starches, so that the finished product contained fewer residual carbohydrates and was lower in food energy. Since the 2012 revisions to the Diätverordnung, it is no longer permitted to label beer as "Diät" in Germany, but it may be advertised as "suitable for diabetics". Prior to this change, a Diätbier could contain no more than 7.5 g of unfermented carbohydrates per liter, the alcohol content could not exceed normal levels. A marketing term for a attenuated pale lager used in Japan by
The Reinheitsgebot, sometimes called the "German Beer Purity Law" in English, is a series of regulations limiting the ingredients in beer in Germany and the states of the former Holy Roman Empire. The best-known version of the law was adopted in Bavaria in 1516, but similar regulations predate the Bavarian order, modern regulations significantly differ from the 1516 Bavarian version; the most influential predecessor of the modern Reinheitsgebot was a law first adopted in the duchy of Munich in 1487. After Bavaria was reunited, the Munich law was adopted across the entirety of Bavaria on 23 April 1516; as Germany unified, Bavaria pushed for adoption of this law on a national basis. According to the 1516 Bavarian law, the only ingredients that could be used in the production of beer were water and hops; the text does not mention yeast as an ingredient. The 1516 Bavarian law set the price of beer, limited the profits made by innkeepers, made confiscation the penalty for making impure beer; the text of the 1516 Bavarian law is as follows:We hereby proclaim and decree, by Authority of our Province, that henceforth in the Duchy of Bavaria, in the country as well as in the cities and marketplaces, the following rules apply to the sale of beer: From Michaelmas to Georgi, the price for one Mass or one Kopf, is not to exceed one Pfennig Munich value, From Georgi to Michaelmas, the Mass shall not be sold for more than two Pfennig of the same value, the Kopf not more than three Heller.
If this not be adhered to, the punishment stated below shall be administered. Should any person brew, or otherwise have, other beer than March beer, it is not to be sold any higher than one Pfennig per Mass. Furthermore, we wish to emphasize that in future in all cities, market-towns and in the country, the only ingredients used for the brewing of beer must be Barley and Water. Whosoever knowingly disregards or transgresses upon this ordinance, shall be punished by the Court authorities' confiscating such barrels of beer, without fail. Should, however, an innkeeper in the country, city or market-towns buy two or three pails of beer and sell it again to the common peasantry, he alone shall be permitted to charge one Heller more for the Mass or the Kopf, than mentioned above. Furthermore, should there arise a scarcity and subsequent price increase of the barley, WE, the Bavarian Duchy, shall have the right to order curtailments for the good of all concerned; the Bavarian order of 1516 was introduced in part to prevent price competition with bakers for wheat and rye.
The restriction of grains to barley was meant to ensure the availability of affordable bread, as wheat and rye were reserved for use by bakers. The rule may have had a protectionist role, as beers from Northern Germany contained additives that were not present in Bavarian beer. Religious conservatism may have played a role in adoption of the rule in Bavaria, to suppress the use of plants that were used in pagan rituals, such as gruit, belladonna, or wormwood; the rule excluded problematic methods of preserving beer, such as soot, stinging nettle and henbane. While some sources refer to the Bavarian law of 1516 as the first law regulating food safety, this is inaccurate, as earlier food safety regulations can be traced back as far as ancient Rome; some sources claim that the law has been unchanged since its adoption, but as early as the mid-1500s Bavaria began to allow ingredients such as coriander, bay leaf, wheat. Yeast was added to modern versions of the law after the discovery of its role in fermentation.
The Reinheitsgebot remains the most famous law that regulates the brewing of beer, continues to influence brewing not only in Germany, but around the world. The restriction on ingredients led to the extinction of many brewing traditions and local beer specialties, such as North German spiced beer and cherry beer. Only a few regional beer varieties, such as Kölner Kölsch, Gosler Gose, Düsseldorfer Altbier, survived its implementation. However, modern versions of the law have contained significant exceptions for different types of beer, for export beers, for different regions; the basic law now declares that only malted grains, hops and yeast are permitted. In response to the growth of craft breweries globally, some commentators, German brewers, German politicians have argued that the Reinheitsgebot has slowed Germany's adoption of beer trends popular in the rest of the world, such as Belgian lambics and American craft styles. In late 2015, Bavarian brewers voted in favor of a revision to the beer laws to allow other natural ingredients.
The earliest documented mention of beer by a German nobleman is the granting of a brewing licence by Emperor Otto II to the church at Liege, awarded in 974. A variety of other beer regulations existed in Germany during the late Middle Ages, including in Nuremberg in 1293, Erfurt in 1351, Weißensee in 1434; the Bavarian order of 1516 formed the basis of rules that spread throughout Germany. Bavaria insisted on its application throughout Germany as a precondition of German unification in 1871; the move encountered strong resistance from brewers outside Bavaria, imperial law of 1873 taxed the use of other ingredients when used by Northern German brewers. It was not until 1906 that the law was applied
Carlsberg A/S is a global brewer. Founded in 1847 by J. C. Jacobsen, the company's headquarters is located in Denmark. Since Jacobsen's death in 1887, the majority owner of the company has been the Carlsberg Foundation; the company's flagship brand is Carlsberg. It brews Tuborg, Somersby cider, Russia's best-selling beer Baltika, Belgian Grimbergen abbey beers, more than 500 local beers; the company employs around 41,000 people located in Western Europe, Eastern Europe and Asia. Carlsberg was founded by J. C. Jacobsen, a philanthropist and avid art collector. With his fortune he amassed an art collection, housed in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek in central Copenhagen; the first brew was finished on 10 November 1847, the export of Carlsberg beer began in 1868 with the export of one barrel to Edinburgh, Scotland. Some of the company's original logos include an elephant, after which some of its lagers are named, the swastika, the use of, discontinued in the 1930s because of its association with political parties in neighboring Germany.
Jacobsen's son Carl opened a brewery in 1882 named Ny Carlsberg forcing him to rename his brewery Gamle Carlsberg. The companies were merged and run under Carl's direction in 1906 and remained so until his death in 1914. Jacobsen set up the Carlsberg Laboratory in 1875, which worked on scientific problems related to brewing, it featured a Department of Physiology. The species of yeast used to make pale lager, Saccharomyces carlsbergensis, was isolated by Emil Christian Hansen at the laboratory in 1883 and bears its name; the Carlsberg Laboratory developed the concept of pH and made advances in protein chemistry. In 1972, the Carlsberg Research Centre was established and the Carlsberg Laboratory is an independent unit of the Centre. In 1876, J. C. Jacobsen established the Carlsberg Foundation, run by trustees from the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, which managed the Carlsberg Laboratory as well as supporting scientific research within the fields of natural sciences, philosophy, the humanities and social sciences in Denmark.
Because of a conflict with his son Carl, Jacobsen's brewery was left to the Foundation upon his death in 1887. The first overseas license for brewing was given to the Photos Photiades Breweries, in 1966 Carlsberg beer was brewed for the first time outside Denmark at the Photiades breweries in Cyprus; the first brewery to be built outside Denmark was in Blantyre, Malawi in 1968. Carlsberg merged with Tuborg breweries in 1970 forming the United Breweries AS, merged with Tetley in 1992. Carlsberg became the sole owner of Carlsberg-Tetley in 1997. In 2008 Carlsberg Group, together with Heineken, bought Scottish & Newcastle, the largest brewer in the UK, for £7.8bn. In 2013 the company joined leading alcohol producers as part of a producers' commitments to reducing harmful drinking. In November 2014, Carlsberg agreed to take over Greece's third largest brewery, the Olympic Brewery, adding to its operations in the country and transforming the firm into the second biggest market player in Greece; the old brewery in Copenhagen is open for tours.
The Carlsberg Group divides their operations into three market areas: Northern and Western Europe, Eastern Europe and Asia. Baltic Beverages Holding is owned by Carlsberg, it was a joint venture between Carlsberg and Scottish & Newcastle in Russia. The company is a significant operator in the brewing industry in Russia, the Baltic countries and Uzbekistan, it has a majority interest in OAO Baltika Breweries, the largest brewery in the Russian Federation and Eastern Europe. The Uzbek government claimed. Lower courts claimed that Carlsberg illegally produced 1.6 million litres of beer from 2008 to 2010. For these reasons, in March 2012, Carlsberg suspended production at its Uzbek plant and asked its employees to take an unpaid leave. In late 2012, the Uzbek Court declined Carlsberg's tax appeal. Production resumed in April 2013; the brewery produces 1.3 million litres of beer under three local brands Sarbast Original, Sarbast Extra, Sarbast Special, plus the international brand Tuborg Green. Carlsberg acquired the Aldaris Brewery in Riga, Latvia, in 2008.
The brewery was founded in 1865, produces Aldaris brand beers. Carlsberg Polska is the Polish subsidiary of the Carlsberg Group. Carlsberg acquired 100% control of the Okocim Group, which included the Okocim Brewery, in 2004; the subsidiary owns four brewing plants and employs a staff of 1,250. It is the third largest brewing company in Poland with a 14.4% market share. Brands include Harnaś, Okocim, Piast and Carlsberg. Carlsberg Sweden is based in Stockholm, owns the Falcon Brewery in Falkenberg, the Ramlösa mineral water bottling facility in Helsingborg. Carnegie Porter, a 5.5% abv Baltic porter, along with the Pripps and Falcon brand lagers, are brewed in Falkenberg. Norway brands include: Arendals, Frydenlund, Nordlands and Tou. Other European brands include: Birrificio Angelo Poretti, Feldschlösschen, Jacobsen, Kronenbourg, Super Bock and Tetley. A result of the take over of Scottish & Newcastle, Carlsberg controls the San Miguel brand in the UK; the Carlsberg group brands are distributed by St. Killian Import Co. based in Everett, importing Carlsberg beer directly from Denmark.
Brands that are imported include: Carlsberg Beer, Carlsberg Elephant, Kronenbourg 1664, Tetley's English Ale, Okocim. Carls
Pilsner Urquell, is a Czech lager brewed by the Pilsner Urquell Brewery in Plzeň, Czech Republic. Pilsner Urquell is the world’s first blond or pale lager, its popularity meant it was much copied, many of these copies are named pils, pilsner or pilsener, it is hopped with Saaz hops, named after a town in West Bohemia, a noble hop variety, a key element in its flavour profile, as is the use of soft water and fire-brewing. It is available in 355 ml and 500 ml aluminium cans and green or brown bottles. All draught Pilsner Urquell is packaged in kegs and dispensed under carbon dioxide pressure but small quantities are available unpasteurised and conditioned in cask in the Czech Republic and in limited amounts in Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States, Sweden and Austria. Pilsner Urquell is exported in bottles and cans to North America and other regions. Pilsner Urquell was the first pale lager, the pilsner name is used in copies: pilsner, it is characterised by its golden colour and clarity, was immensely successful: nine out of ten beers produced and consumed in the world are pale lagers based on Pilsner Urquell.
The name, which can be translated into English as "the original source at Pilsen", was adopted as a trademark in 1898. Before 1840, the standard beer in Bohemia was warm fermented and characterized by a dark colour and inconsistent quality. Plzeň burghers had not found this satisfying and the Plzeň city council ordered 36 casks to be dumped, they invested in a new, state-of-the art brewery, the Bürgerbrauerei, commissioned Josef Groll, a Bavarian brewer, to develop a better beer. On 5 October 1842, Groll had an new mash ready and on 11 November 1842, the new beer was first served at the feast of Saint Martin markets. Bürgerbrauerei registered Pilsner Bier B B brand in 1859. In 1898, they registered Original Pilsner Bier 1842, Plzeňský pramen, Prapramen, Měšťanské Plzeňské, Plzeňský pravý zdroj and Pilsner Urquell and Plzeňský Prazdroj which are in use today. Pilsner Urquell is today brewed in two breweries, it was brewed between 2011 in Tychy in Poland. Beer in the Czech Republic List of oldest companies Official website Pilsner Urquell Official website Plzensky Prazdroj Beer production chart – an interactive scheme of the Pilsner Urquell production Your Next Beer – Pilsner Urquell – a podcast about this beer, touches on taste and history