A meander is one of a series of regular sinuous curves, loops, turns, or windings in the channel of a river, stream, or other watercourse. It is produced by a stream or river swinging from side to side as it flows across its floodplain or shifts its channel within a valley. A meander is produced by a stream or river as it erodes the sediments comprising an outer, concave bank and deposits this and other sediment downstream on an inner, convex bank, a point bar; the result of sediments being eroded from the outside concave bank and their deposition on an inside convex bank is the formation of a sinuous course as a channel migrates back and forth across the down-valley axis of a floodplain. The zone within which a meandering stream shifts its channel across either its floodplain or valley floor from time to time is known as a meander belt, it ranges from 15 to 18 times the width of the channel. Over time, meanders migrate downstream, sometimes in such a short time as to create civil engineering problems for local municipalities attempting to maintain stable roads and bridges.
The degree of meandering of the channel of a river, stream, or other watercourse is measured by its sinuosity. The sinuosity of a watercourse is the ratio of the length of the channel to the straight line down-valley distance. Streams or rivers with a single channel and sinuosities of 1.5 or more are defined as meandering streams or rivers. The term derives from the Meander River located in present-day Turkey and known to the Ancient Greeks as Μαίανδρος Maiandros, characterised by a convoluted path along the lower reach; as a result in Classical Greece the name of the river had become a common noun meaning anything convoluted and winding, such as decorative patterns or speech and ideas, as well as the geomorphological feature. Strabo said: ‘…its course is so exceedingly winding that everything winding is called meandering.’The Meander River is south of Izmir, east of the ancient Greek town of Miletus, now Milet, Turkey. It flows through a graben in the Menderes Massif, but has a flood plain much wider than the meander zone in its lower reach.
Its modern Turkish name is the Büyük Menderes River. When a fluid is introduced to an straight channel which bends, the sidewalls induce a pressure gradient that causes the fluid to alter course and follow the bend. From here, two opposing processes occur: secondary flow. For a river to meander, secondary flow must dominate. Irrotational flow: From Bernoulli's equations, high pressure results in low velocity. Therefore, in the absence of secondary flow we would expect low fluid velocity at the outside bend and high fluid velocity at the inside bend; this classic fluid mechanics result is irrotational vortex flow. In the context of meandering rivers, its effects are dominated by those of secondary flow. Secondary flow: A force balance exists between pressure forces pointing to the inside bend of the river and centrifugal forces pointing to the outside bend of the river. In the context of meandering rivers, a boundary layer exists within the thin layer of fluid that interacts with the river bed. Inside that layer and following standard boundary-layer theory, the velocity of the fluid is zero.
Centrifugal force, which depends on velocity, is therefore zero. Pressure force, remains unaffected by the boundary layer. Therefore, within the boundary layer, pressure force dominates and fluid moves along the bottom of the river from the outside bend to the inside bend; this initiates helicoidal flow: Along the river bed, fluid follows the curve of the channel but is forced toward the inside bend. The downstream velocity of the fluid is convectively transported to the outside bend, resulting in higher velocities at the outside bend; this secondary flow effect dominates over that of irrotational flow: In real meandering rivers, we observe higher downstream fluid velocities at the outside bends. The higher velocities at the outside bend result in higher shear stresses and therefore results in erosion, thus meander bends erode at the outside bend, causing the river to becoming sinuous. Deposition at the inside bend occur such that for most natural meandering rivers, the river width remains nearly constant as the river evolves.
Where the is not forced to bend by a natural obstacle, Coriolis force of the earth can cause a small imbalance in velocity distribution such that velocity on one bank is higher than on the other. This can trigger deposition of sediment on the other; the technical description of a meandering watercourse is termed meander geometry or meander planform geometry. It is characterized as an irregular waveform. Ideal waveforms, such as a sine wave, are one line thick, but in the case of a stream the width must be taken into consideration; the bankfull width is the distance across the bed at an average cross-section at the full-stream level estimated by the line of lowest vegetation. As a waveform the meandering stream follows the down-valley axis, a straight line fitted to the curve such that the sum of all the amplitudes measured from it is zero; this axis represents the overall direction of the stream. At any cross-section the flow is following the centerline of the bed. Two consecutive crossing points of sinuous and down-valley axes define a meander loop.
The meander is two consecutive loops pointing in opposite transverse directions. The distance of one meander alo
Sierra de Albarracín Comarca
Sierra de Albarracín Comarca is a comarca in the Province of Teruel, Aragon region, northeastern Spain. It is located in mountain ranges of the Sistema Ibérico; the Comarca de la Sierra de Albarracín is in an area known locally as Tierra de Albarracín corresponding to the ancient Señorío de Albarracín feudal manor. Its capital is Albarracín, a town surrounded by stony hills, declared Monumento Nacional in 1961; this mountainous comarca is named after the Sierra de Albarracín, the main mountain range in this area of the Sistema Ibérico of mountain ranges. The comarca includes other mountain ranges of the Sistema Ibérico foremost of which are the Montes Universales. Albarracín, Bronchales, Calomarde, Frías de Albarracín,Gea de Albarracín, Guadalaviar, Jabaloyas,Monterde de Albarracín, Moscardón, Noguera de Albarracín, Orihuela del Tremedal, Pozondón,Ródenas, Rubiales, Saldón,Terriente, Toril y Masegoso, Torres de Albarracín, Tramacastilla,Valdecuenca, El Vallecillo and Villar del Cobo. Albarracín Comarcas of Aragon Geography of the Province of Teruel Sistema Ibérico topics Comarca de la Sierra de Albarracín official page Sierra De Albarracín, Aragonese Government
Juan Núñez I de Lara
Juan Núñez I de Lara y León known as "el Gordo" or "the Fat", was a Spanish noble. He was the head of the House of Lara, Lord of Lerma, Dueñas, Tordehumos, Torrelobatón, la Mota, he was further known as Señor de Albarracín through his first marriage with Teresa Álvarez de Azagra. Juan was the son of Nuño González de Lara el Bueno, head of the House of Lara and his wife, Teresa Alfonso de León, the granddaughter of King Alfonso IX of Leon, his paternal grandparents were his wife, María Díaz de Haro y Azagra. He was the brother of Nuño González de Lara y León, lord of Estella-Lizarra and ricohombre of Castile, of Teresa Núñez de Lara y León who married Gil Gómez de Roa, of María Núñez de Lara y León who married Diego Gómez de Roa. Juan Núñez' exact date of birth is unknown. On 2 February 1266, was declared a vassal of the Señor de Albarracín. Together with his brother, Nuño González de Lara y León the brothers donated certain goods to Mayor Alfonso, the abbess of the Monasterio de Santa María y San Andrés A few months on 25 July 1266 together with his brother Nuño González, he was confirmed in a document affirming the commitment of certain nobles of Caleruega to their donations to the King, Alfonso X of Castile.
These donations were made for the purpose of acquiring the Monastery at Caleruega and confirming that other ricoshombres with interests in Caleruega accepted this claim over the monastery. Juan Núñez I de Lara accompanied King Louis IX of France and Theobald II of Navarre during the Eighth Crusade and was with them in Tunis, he participated in this crusade without the consent of Alfonso X, but was able to retain all of his lands and titles under his crown. During the revolts of the nobility of 1272–1273, in which Juan Núñez I supported the positions of his father and other rebel magnates against the infante Philip of Castile. Philip was the brother of Alfonso X of Castile. Juan Núñez tried to remain loyal to the king, who had at the beginning of the rebellion, given him a mission together with Gonzalo García Gudiel, the bishop of Cuenca, to persuade the infante Philip and other magnates to break their agreements with the Kingdom of Navarre. Following this unsuccessful attempt, Juan Núñez accompanied his father, Nuño González de Lara "el Bueno" when he and the rebellious magnates abandoned the Kingdom of Castile and Leon and sought refuge in the Nazarí Kingdom of Granada.
During his stay in Granada and throughout the actual revolt, he participated together with his father in peace negotiations between the Crown of Castile and the Kingdom of Granada and the nobles in rebellion. At the beginning of 1273, Juan Núñez I de Lara, who had up until now acted as a mediating force together with the bishop of Cuenca between his father and the King, abandoned the Castilian crown and embraced his role as a rebellious noble. In winter of 1273, at the city of Tudela, the infante Philip of Castile, Lope Díaz III de Haro, Álvar Díaz de Asturias, Nuño González de Lara "el Bueno" and his sons, Juan Núñez I de Lara, Nuño González de Lara y León amongst other magnates, gathered to pay homage and swear allegiance to Henry I of Navarre, it was here that Juan Núñez I offered the Navarese king a list of grievances that he and the other former Castilian nobles had against their former king, Alfonso X. The former Castillian nobles, in their succession, took new oaths to serve the Kingdom of Navarre as they had served the Muslim King of Granada.
Despite the betrayal of many of his nobles, it was Alfonso's wish to pursue his goal of attaining the Fecha del Imperio. With this goal in mind, he allowed some of the members of the royal family resume negotiations with the rebel nobles. Amongst these mediators were the infantes Ferdinand de la Cerda and Manuel of Castile, the queen, Violant of Aragon, Archbishop of Toledo, Sancho de Aragón, son of James I of Aragon. After much negotiation, Alfonso X, advised by his brother Frederick of Castile and Simón Ruiz de los Cameros, the Castilian monarch accepted most of the demands of the exiled nobles, presenting the final agreement to Nuño González de Lara "el Bueno", who in 1273, met with the queen, Violant of Aragon in the city of Córdoba. At the end of that same year, the exiled nobles returned to the Kingdom of Castile. At the same time, Muhammed II al-Faqih, the Sultan of Granada, declared himself and his kingdom, a vassal of Alfonso X though the chronicles of King Alfonso X erroneously state that this announcement did not come until 1274.
In July 1273, Fernando Rodríguez de Castro, Simón Ruiz de los Cameros, Diego López V de Haro, the younger brother of Lope Díaz III de Haro were all confirmed as being entered back into the royal diplomas. It was not until early the following year, 1274, when Nuño González de Lara "el Bueno" and his children, amongst other nobles, were allowed back onto the rolls themselves. Juan Núñez' father, Nuño González reappeared on the royal rolls on 24 January 1247 and was reinstated to privileges not received since 14 July 1272. According to the chronicles of Alfonso X, he was reinstated in early 1274 when he was named the Adelantado Mayor de la Frontera de Andalucia. In 1273, Juan Núñez I de Lara formed part of the embassy sent by Alfonso X to Pope Gregory X. During this trip, the Castilian monarch attempted unsuccessfully to convince the Pope to support his claims to the Imperial Roman throne. Instead, the pope attempted to convince Alfonso X to drop this ambition, he was further present at the Cortes de Toledo of 1275, where he assisted his father and brother in their goals and where Alfonso X entrusted the government of his kingdom to his firstborn son, the infante Ferdinand de la Cerda.
The king announced his decision to travel to France and Germany where
Comarcas of Aragon
Here is a list of the administrative comarcas in the autonomous community of Aragon in Spain. They were delimited in 1999, with substantial changes over a proposed division. Comarcal council Comarcas of SpainSee lists of municipalities in Aragon by province: List of municipalities in Huesca List of municipalities in Teruel List of municipalities in Zaragoza Comarcas of Aragon and legal links about their creation. Comarcal division, basic data
Autonomous communities of Spain
In Spain, an autonomous community is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain. Spain is not a federation, but a decentralized unitary state. While sovereignty is vested in the nation as a whole, represented in the central institutions of government, the nation has, in variable degrees, devolved power to the communities, which, in turn, exercise their right to self-government within the limits set forth in the constitution and their autonomous statutes; each community has its own set of devolved powers. Some scholars have referred to the resulting system as a federal system in all but name, or a "federation without federalism". There are 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities that are collectively known as "autonomies"; the two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet exercised it.
This unique framework of territorial administration is known as the "State of Autonomies". The autonomous communities are governed according to the constitution and their own organic laws known as Statutes of Autonomy, which contain all the competences that they assume. Since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. Spain is a diverse country made up of several different regions with varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical and cultural traditions. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown in 1479 this was not a process of national homogenization or amalgamation; the constituent territories—be it crowns, principalities or dominions—retained much of their former institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories exhibited a variety of local customs, laws and currencies until the mid nineteenth century.
From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime. Leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries; this culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces, which served as transmission belts for policies developed in Madrid. However, unlike in other European countries such as France, where regional languages were spoken in rural areas or less developed regions, two important regional languages of Spain were spoken in some of the most industrialized areas, moreover, enjoyed higher levels of prosperity, in addition to having their own cultures and historical consciousness; these were Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism; therefore and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain. As such, Spanish history since the late 19th century has been shaped by a dialectical struggle between Spanish nationalism and peripheral nationalisms in Catalonia and the Basque Country, to a lesser degree in Galicia.
In a response to Catalan demands, limited autonomy was granted to Catalonia in 1914, only to be abolished in 1923. It was granted again in 1932 during the Second Spanish Republic, when the Generalitat, Catalonia's mediaeval institution of government, was restored; the constitution of 1931 envisaged a territorial division for all Spain in "autonomous regions", never attained—only Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia had approved "Statutes of Autonomy"—the process being thwarted by the Spanish Civil War that broke out in 1936, the victory of the rebel Nationalist forces under Francisco Franco. During General Franco's dictatorial regime, centralism was most forcefully enforced as a way of preserving the "unity of the Spanish nation". Peripheral nationalism, along with communism and atheism were regarded by his regime as the main threats, his attempts to fight separatism with heavy-handed but sporadic repression, his severe suppression of language and regional identities backfired: the demands for democracy became intertwined with demands for the recognition of a pluralistic vision of the Spanish nationhood.
When Franco died in 1975, Spain entered into a phase of transition towards democracy. The most difficult task of the newly democratically elected Cortes Generales in 1977 acting as a Constituent Assembly was to transition from a unitary centralized state into a decentralized state in a way that would satisfy the demands of the peripheral nationalists; the Prime Minister of Spain, Adolfo Suárez, met with Josep Tarradellas, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in exile. An agreement was made so that the Generalitat would be restored and limited competencies would be transferred while the constitution was still being written. Shortly after, the government allowed the creation of "assemblies of members of parliament" integrated by deputies and senators of the different territories of Spain, so that they could constitute "pre-autonomic regimes" for their regions as well; the Fathers of the Constitution had to strike a balance between the opposing views of Spain—on the one hand, the centralist view inherited from Franco's regime, on the other hand federalism and a pluralistic view of Spain as a "nation of nations".
Peter III of Aragon
Peter III of Aragon, known as Peter the Great, was King of Aragon, King of Valencia, Count of Barcelona from 1276 to his death. At the invitation of some rebels, he conquered the Kingdom of Sicily and became King of Sicily in 1282, pressing the claim of his wife, uniting the kingdom to the crown, he was one of the greatest of medieval Aragonese monarchs. Peter was the eldest son of his second wife Violant of Hungary. Among betrothals of his youth, he was betrothed to Eudoxia, the youngest daughter of Emperor Theodore II Laskaris of Nicaea, in or before 1260; this contract was dissolved, after Eudoxia's brother lost the imperial throne in 1261, Eudoxia was instead married to the Count of Tenda. On 13 June 1262, Peter married Constance and heir of Manfred of Sicily. During his youth and early adulthood, Peter gained a great deal of military experience in his father's wars of the Reconquista against the Moors. On James I's death in 1276, the lands of the Crown of Aragon were divided amongst his two sons.
The Kingdom of Aragon, the Kingdom of Valencia and the Catalan counties went to Peter III as being the eldest son. Peter the Great and Constance of Sicily, Queen of Aragon were crowned in Zaragoza in November 1276 by the archbishop of Tarragona. Peter's first act as king was to complete the pacification of his Valencian territory, an action, underway before his father's death. However, a revolt soon broke out in Catalonia, led by the viscount of Cardona and abetted by Roger-Bernard III of Foix, Arnold Roger I of Pallars Sobirà, Ermengol X of Urgell; the rebels had developed a hatred for Peter as a result of the severity of his dealings with them during the reign of his father. Now they opposed him for not summoning the Catalan corts, confirming its privileges after his ascension to the throne. At the same time, a succession crisis continued in the County of Urgell; when Count Álvaro died in 1268, the families of his two wives, Constance, a daughter of Pedro Moncada of Béarn, Cecilia, a daughter of Roger-Bernard II of Foix, began a long fight over the inheritance of his county.
Meanwhile, a good portion of the county had been repossessed by Peter's father, James I, was thus inherited by Peter in 1276. In 1278, Ermengol X, Álvaro's eldest son, succeeded in recovering most of his lost patrimony and came to an agreement with Peter whereby he recognised the latter as his suzerain. In 1280, Peter defeated the stewing rebellion led by Roger-Bernard III after besieging the rebels in Balaguer for a month. Most of the rebel leaders were imprisoned in Lleida until 1281, while Roger-Bernard was imprisoned until 1284; when Muhammad I al-Mustansir, the Hafsid Emir of Tunisia who had put himself under James the Conqueror, died in 1277, Tunisia threw off the yoke of Aragonese suzerainty. Peter first sent an expedition to Tunis in 1280 under Conrad de Llansa designed to re-establish his suzerainty. In 1281, he himself prepared to lead a fleet of 140 ships with 15,000 men to invade Tunisia on behalf of the governor of Constantine; the fleet landed at Alcoyll in 1282. It was these Aragonese troops that received a Sicilian embassy after the Vespers of 30 March asking Peter to take their throne from Charles of Anjou.
In 1266, the French Charles I of Anjou, king of Naples with the approval of Pope Clement IV, invaded the Kingdom of Sicily, governed by the house of Hohenstaufen, the house of Peter III's wife, Constance of Sicily, oldest daughter of Manfred I of Sicily and rightful heir to the throne of Sicily after the deaths of her father and cousin Conradin fighting against Charles' invading forces. This made Peter III the heir of Manfred of Sicily in right of his wife; the Italian physician John of Procida acted on behalf of Peter in Sicily. John had fled to Aragon after Charles' success at Tagliacozzo. John travelled to Sicily to stir up the discontents in favour of Peter and thence to Constantinople to procure the support of Michael VIII Palaeologus. Michael refused to aid the Aragonese king without papal approval, so John voyaged to Rome and there gained the consent of Pope Nicholas III, who feared the ascent of Charles in the Mezzogiorno. John returned to Barcelona but the pope died, to be replaced by Simon de Brion, a Frenchman and a staunch ally of Charles and the Anjou dynasty.
This set the stage for the upcoming conflict. Constance thus claimed to her father's throne, supported by her husband, but the claim was fruitless, as Charles was supported by the Papacy and his power remained stronger; the election of a new Pope Nicholas III in 1277 gave the king of Aragon a glimpse of hope, but Nicholas somehow died in 1280 and a pro-French Pope Martin IV dissipated hopes. Peter had begun making strategic alliances with his neighbouring monarchs. Peter made his brother James II of Majorca sign the treaty of Perpignan in 1279, in which he recognized the Kingdom of Majorca as a feudal kingdom of Peter III. Peter by February 1283 had taken most of the Calabrian coastline. Charles feeling desperate, sent letters to Peter demanding they resolve the conflict by personal combat. King Peter accepted and Charles returned to France to arrange the du
Province of Teruel
Teruel is a province of Aragon, in the northeast of Spain. The capital is Teruel, it is bordered by the provinces of Tarragona, Castellón, Cuenca and Zaragoza. The area of the province is 14,809 km², its population is 134,572, of whom about a quarter live in the capital, its population density is 9.36/km². It contains 236 municipalities; the main language throughout the province is Spanish, although Catalan is spoken in the comarca of Matarranya. This province is located in the mountainous Sistema Ibérico area; the main ranges in the province of Teruel are Sierra de la Virgen, Sierra de Santa Cruz, Sierra de Cucalón, Sierra de San Just, Sierra Carrascosa, Sierra Menera, Sierra Palomera, Sierra de Javalambre, Sierra de Gúdar, Sierra de Albarracín and the Montes Universales, among others. Most of the Teruel Province has undergone massive depopulation since the middle of the 20th century; this situation is shared with other areas in Spain with those near the Iberian mountain range and with other areas in Aragón.
The exodus from the rural mountain areas in Teruel rose after General Franco's Plan de Estabilización in 1959. The population declined steeply as people migrated towards the industrial areas and the large cities in Spain, leaving behind their small villages where living conditions were harsh, with cold winters and basic facilities; as a consequence there are many ghost towns in different parts of the province. A great number of surviving towns in Teruel province have only a residual population, reviving somewhat during the summer when a few city-dwellers spend their holidays there. Other causes of the strong emigration have been the low productivity of traditional agricultural practices, like sheep and goat farming, the closing of mines, like the large Sierra Menera mine near Ojos Negros, as well as the lifestyle changes that swept over rural Spain during the second half of the 20th century; the "Teruel Exists" movement began at the turn of the 21st century. It is a platform of provincial authorities and sympathizers seeking to reverse the long-standing neglect of this province.
The following Comarcas of Aragon are located in Teruel Province: Bajo Martín Jiloca Cuencas Mineras Andorra-Sierra de Arcos Bajo Aragón Comunidad de Teruel Maestrazgo Sierra de Albarracín Comarca Gúdar-Javalambre Matarranya Luis Buñuel, film director from Calanda Gaspar Sanz, music composer from Calanda Antón García Abril, music composer Pablo Serrano, sculptor from Crivillén Luis Milla, retired footballer who played for CD Teruel, FC Barcelona and R. Madrid David Civera, light music singer Federico Jiménez Losantos, author and radio host Manuel Pizarro Moreno, businessman and jurist La Vaquilla del Ángel List of Aragonese comarcas List of municipalities in Teruel Lower Aragon Sistema Ibérico Teruel.org Teruel Info. - Caciquismo & desarrollismo – N. B; this text-only website is in Japanese. Content not clear. Teruel Digital Directory in dmoz.org Fundación Amantes de Teruel Estado de los embalses de Teruel Teruel.com - Tourism Deteruel.com — Comunidad virtual de Teruel El número de ancianos españoles aumenta un 20% en 13 años