Stephen II, Duke of Bavaria
Stephen II was Duke of Bavaria from 1347 until his death. He was the second son of Emperor Louis IV the Bavarian by his first wife Beatrice of Silesia and a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty. During the reign of Emperor Louis IV his son Stephen served as vogt of Alsace; the Emperor had acquired Brandenburg, Tyrol and Hainaut for his House but he had released the Upper Palatinate for the Palatinate branch of the Wittelsbach in 1329. When his father died in 1347, Stephen succeeded him as Duke of Bavaria and Count of Holland and Hainaut together with his five brothers. Louis IV had reunited Bavaria in 1340 but in 1349 the country was divided for the emperor's sons again into Upper Bavaria, Lower Bavaria-Landshut and Bavaria-Straubing. Stephen II ruled from 1349 to 1353 together with his brothers William I and Albert I in Holland and Lower Bavaria-Landshut, since 1353 only in Lower Bavaria-Landshut. After the temporary reconciliation of the Wittelsbach with Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, who had confirmed all Wittelsbach possessions, Stephen joined Charles' expedition to Italy in 1354.
But soon the Golden Bull of 1356 caused a new conflict since only the Palatinate branch of the Wittelsbach and his brother Louis VI the Roman as margrave of Brandenburg were invested with the electoral dignity. Stephen II was the last son of Emperor Louis IV, in 1362 absolved from excommunication; when Duke Meinhard, the son of his older brother Louis V the Brandenburger died in 1363, Stephen II succeeded in Upper Bavaria and invaded Tyrol. To strengthen his position against Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria he confederated with Bernabò Visconti. Stephen renounced Tyrol to the Habsburgs with the Peace of Schärding for a huge financial compensation after the death of Margarete Maultasch in 1369, his conflict with his brother Louis VI the Roman on the Bavarian heritage of Meinhard caused the loss of Brandenburg by the Wittelsbach dynasty since Louis made Charles IV his contracted heir. However Stephen accepted his brother Otto, the last Wittelsbach regent of Brandenburg, as his nominal co-regent when he returned to Bavaria in 1373.
Due to the loss of Brandenburg the Bavarian dukes received a financial compensation one more time. Stephen was succeeded by his three sons, he is buried in the Frauenkirche in Munich. He was married twice. First, 27 June 1328 to Elisabetta of Sicily, daughter of King Frederick III of Sicily and Eleanor of Anjou. Second, he was married 14 February 1359 to Margarete of Nuremberg, daughter of John II of Nuremberg and Elisabeth of Henneberg. All his children were from his first marriage, including three sons, who divided Bavaria among themselves in 1392 and one daughter: Stephen III of Bavaria-Ingolstadt. Frederick of Bavaria-Landshut. John II of Bavaria-Munich. Agnes, married c. 1356 King James I of Cyprus. Two of Stephen's sons and one grandson were married to daughters of his ally Bernabò Visconti. In 1447 Bavaria-Ingolstadt was united with Bavaria-Landshut, seized by Bavaria-Munich in 1503. Map of the Holy Roman Empire in 1347
Bernabò or Barnabò Visconti was an Italian soldier and statesman, Lord of Milan. He was born in the son of Stefano Visconti and Valentina Doria. From 1346 to 1349 he lived in exile. On 27 September 1350 Bernabò married Beatrice Regina della Scala, daughter of Mastino II, Lord of Verona and Taddea da Carrara, forged both a political and cultural alliance between the two cities, his intrigues and ambitions kept him at war continuously with Pope Urban V, the Florentines and Savoy. In 1354, at the death of Giovanni, he inherited the power of Milan, together with his brothers Matteo and Galeazzo. Bernabò received the eastern lands. Milan itself was to be ruled in turn by the three brothers; the vicious Matteo was murdered in 1355 at the order of his brothers, who divided his inheritance between them. In 1356, after having offended the emperor, he pushed back a first attack upon Milan by the imperial vicar Markward von Randeck, imprisoning him. In 1360 he was declared heretic by Innocent VI at Avignon and condemned by Emperor Charles IV.
The ensuing conflict ended with a dismaying defeat at San Ruffillo against the imperial troops under Galeotto I Malatesta. In 1362, after the death of his sister's husband, Ugolino Gonzaga, caused him to attack Mantua. Warring on several different fronts, in December of that year he sued for peace with the new pope, Urban V, through the mediation of King John II of France. However, because Barnabò neglected to return the papal city of Bologna and to present himself at Avignon, on 4 March 1363 he was excommunicated once more, together with his children, one of whom, was captured by the Papal commander Gil de Albornoz. With the peace signed on 13 March 1364, Visconti left the occupied Papal lands, in exchange for the raising of the ban upon a payment of 500,000 florins. In spring 1368 Visconti allied with Cansignorio della Scala of Verona, attacked Mantua, still ruled by Ugolino Gonzaga; the situation was settled in the year through an agreement between him and emperor. Two years he besieged Reggio, which he managed to acquire from Gonzaga in 1371.
The following war against the Este of Modena and Ferrara raised again Papal enmity against the Milanese, now on the part of Gregory XI. In 1370, he ordered the construction of the Trezzo Bridge the largest single-arch bridge in the world. In 1373, the pope sent two papal delegates to serve Bernabò and Galeazzo their excommunication papers. Bernabò, placed the two papal delegates under arrest and refused their release until they had eaten the parchment and silken cord which they had served him, he managed to resist, despite the outbreak of a plague in Milan, whose consequences he suppressed with frantic energy. In 1378 he allied with the Republic of Venice in its War of Chioggia against Genoa, his troops were however defeated in September 1379 in the Val Bisagno. Bernabò, whose despotism and taxes had enraged the Milanese — he is featured among the exempla of tyrants as victims of Fortune in Chaucer's Monk's Tale as "god of delit and scourge of Lumbardye" — was deposed by his nephew Gian Galeazzo Visconti in 1385.
Imprisoned in the castle of Trezzo, he was poisoned in December of that year. Bonino da Campione sculpted the equestrian statue of Bernabò Visconti for the church of San Giovanni in Conca around 1363, its positioning near the church's main altar was regarded as problematic by contemporaries and it was commented on by poet and intellectual Petrarch among others. The equestrian statue was reused – with changes and additions carried out by the same Bonino in 1385-86 – as Bernabò's funerary monument in the same church, it is now preserved in the Castello Sforzesco in Milan. An erratic small-size male head in marble now in the storerooms of Castello Sforzesco has been rediscovered and tentatively identified as a portrait of the elderly Bernabò; this work too has been attributed to Bonino da Campione. Bernabò was an ally of Stephen II, Duke of Bavaria: three of his daughters were married with Stephen's descendants, he had 17 legitimate children with his wife Beatrice Regina della Scala: Taddea Visconti, Duchess of Bavaria, married on 13 October 1364 Stephen III, Duke of Bavaria, by whom she had three children including Isabeau of Bavaria, Queen consort of King Charles VI of France Viridis Visconti, married Leopold III, Duke of Inner Austria, by whom she had six children.
Marco Visconti, married Elisabeth of Bavaria Rodolfo Visconti, Lord of Parma Ludovico Visconti, married Violante Visconti, widow of Lionel of Antwerp and Secondotto, Marquess of Montferrat. They had a son, who left descendants. Carlo Visconti, married Beatrice of Armagnac, daughter of John II, Count of Armagnac and Jeanne de Périgord, by whom he had four children. Valentina Visconti, married firstly in 1378, King Peter II of Cyprus, by whom she had one daughter who died in early infancy. Agnese Visconti, married in 1380 Francesco I Gonzaga, by whom she had one daughter. Agnes was executed for alleged adultery. Antonia Visconti, married Eberhard III, Co
Blutenburg Castle is an old ducal country seat in the west of Munich, Germany, on the banks of river Würm. The castle was built between two arms of the River Würm for Duke Albert III, Duke of Bavaria in 1438–39 as a hunting-lodge, replacing an older castle burned down in war; the origin of this castle is a moated castle of the 13th Century. The core of this castle was a residential tower, the remains of which were uncovered in 1981; the fortress was first mentioned in writing only in 1432. Albert's son, Duke Sigismund of Bavaria, ordered extensions of the castle beginning in 1488 and died here in 1501; the main building became derelict during the Thirty Years War, but was rebuilt in 1680–81. The castle is still surrounded by a ring wall with a gate tower; the defensive character of the castle, was with the reconstruction in 17th Century reduced. The plant was at that time no longer defensible. Sigismund of Bavaria ordered the construction of the palace chapel, a splendid masterpiece of late Gothic style which still has preserved its stained-glass windows, along with the altars with three paintings created in 1491 by Jan Polack.
The cycle of the statues of the apostles on the side walls was built around 1490/95. The executive master is controversial, why the statues are assigned to the "Master of the Blutenburg apostles." The apostles can not always be identified as the attributes were reversed or lost. Appendant to these figures the "Man of Sorrows" and the distinguished "Mother of God" were erected in the choir on crest consoles that match those of the apostles. Since 1983 the International Youth Library has been housed in Blutenburg Castle; the Blutenburg concerts are well known. In 2013 at the Blutenburg Castle there was erected the Sculpture of Agnes Bernauer with Albert III, Duke of Bavaria by Joseph Michael Neustifter; the memorial was funded by Ursula und Fritz Heimbüchler. Media related to Schloss Blutenburg at Wikimedia Commons Blutenburg Palace International Youth Library Schloss Blutenburg
Louis VII, Duke of Bavaria
Duke Louis VII of Bavaria was Duke of Bavaria-Ingolstadt from 1413 until 1443. He was a son of Taddea Visconti; as brother of Isabella of Bavaria-Ingolstadt, wife of Charles VI of France, he spent several years in France. When he succeeded his father in 1413 he ordered to build the New Castle of Ingolstadt, influenced by French Gothic. In 1408 Louis, William II, Duke of Bavaria-Straubing and John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy defeated the citizens of Liege who revolted against William's brother John of Bavaria, the bishop of Liège on the field of Othée. Hot-tempered Louis was not only in conflict with his former ally John the Fearless but fought several times against his cousin Henry XVI of Bavaria-Landshut who had united his enemies in the Parakeet Society of 1414 and the League of Constance of 1415; the death of John of Bavaria in 1425 caused a new conflict between Louis and his cousins Henry, Duke of Bavaria-Munich and William III, Duke of Bavaria-Munich. As a result, John's duchy Bavaria-Straubing was partitioned between the four dukes in 1429.
Louis was imprisoned in 1443 by his own son, Louis VIII, who had allied with Henry XVI. Louis died in 1447 as Henry’s prisoner. Since Louis VIII had died two years before, the duchy of Bavaria-Ingolstadt passed to Henry. Louis married twice, his first wife was Anne de Bourbon-La Marche, a daughter of John I, Count of La Marche, whom he married on 1 October 1402. She was the widow of Jean de Count of Montpensier, she died in 1408. They had two sons: Louis VIII of Johann who died in early infancy. In 1413, he married secondly Catherine of Alençon, the daughter of Peter II of Alençon and Marie Chamaillart, Viscountess of Beaumont-au- Maine, they had a son: an unnamed daughter. Both children died young. By various mistresses, Louis fathered several illegitimate children. Adams, Tracy; the Life and Afterlife of Isabeau of Bavaria. The Johns Hopkins University Press
Bavaria-Straubing denotes the scattered territorial inheritance in the Wittelsbach house of Bavaria that were governed by independent dukes of Bavaria-Straubing between 1353 and 1432. In 1349, after Emperor Louis IV's death, his sons divided Bavaria once again: Lower Bavaria passed to Stephan II, William and Albert. In 1353, Lower Bavaria was further partitioned into Bavaria-Landshut and Bavaria-Straubing: William and Albert received a part of the Lower Bavarian inheritance, with a capital in Straubing and rights to Hainaut and Holland, thus the dukes of Bavaria-Straubing were counts of Hainaut, counts of Holland, of Zeeland. In 1425, with the death of Duke John III, the Straubing dukes became extinct in the male line, his possessions were partitioned between the Dukes of Bavaria-Munich, Bavaria-Landshut and Bavaria-Ingolstadt in 1429 under arbitration of the emperor. His niece Jacqueline became Countess of Hainaut in her own right. Jointly held by William I and Albert I 1347-1388 Albert I "of Holland" 1388-1404 Albert II 1389-1397 jointly held with Albert I William II 1404-1417 John III 1418-1425 disputed with Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut 1417-1432After the succession struggle between Jacqueline and her uncle John, Bavaria-Straubing was divided between Bavaria-Ingolstadt, Bavaria-Landshut, Bavaria-Munich
Sigismund, Duke of Bavaria
For other nobles of the same name, please see Sigismund Sigismund of Bavaria was a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty. He ruled as Duke of Bavaria-Munich from 1460 to 1467, as Duke of Bavaria-Dachau until his death. Sigismund was the third son of Albert III of Bavaria with Princess Anna of Brunswick-Grubenhagen-Einbeck his second wife. Sigismund was Duke of Bavaria-Munich from 1460 to 1467, until 1463 together with his brother John IV. In 1467, he resigned in favor of his younger brother Albert IV and kept only the new duchy of Bavaria-Dachau as his domain until his death. In 1468, the foundation stone of the Frauenkirche in Munich was laid by Sigismund, he ordered to enlarge Blutenburg Castle, to construct its chapel, to build the church St. Wolfgang in Pipping nearby in 1488; the redesign of the ducal court Alter Hof was initiated by Sigismund as well who lived there for a time towards the end of the 15th Century and was a patron of the revival of Gothic arts in Bavaria. Sigismund died on February 1, 1501 at Blutenburg Castle and was buried at the Frauenkirche in Munich
Stefano Visconti was a member of the House of Visconti that ruled Milan from the 14th to the 15th century. He was the son of Matteo I Visconti. In 1318 he married Valentina Doria, daughter of Bernabò Doria from Sassello and of Eliena Fieschi, with whom he had three children: Matteo II, Galeazzo II and Bernabò, who shared the rule in Milan after his death. Stefano died in the night of July 4, 1327, after a banquet he gave Louis the Bavarian, shortly after he was crowned King of Italy, his contemporaries linked his death to an attempted poisoning of the King, leading to the imprisonment of three of Stefanos' four brothers, Galeazzo and Luchino, as well as of his nephew, the future Lord of Milan, Azzo Visconti, in the fortress of Monza: This event marked a crisis of the relations between the Holy Roman Empire and the Visconti. The magnificent tomb of Stefano and his wife Valentina, carved in 1359 by Bonino da Campione, is located in the Basilica Sant'Eustorgio in Milan