Albert Square, Manchester
Albert Square is a public square in the centre of Manchester, England. It is dominated by its largest building, the Grade I listed Manchester Town Hall, other smaller buildings from the same period surround it, many of which are listed. The square contains a number of monuments and statues, the largest of which is the Albert Memorial, the square, named after the Prince, was laid out to provide a space for the memorial in 1863–67. Work on the hall began in 1868 and was completed in 1877. The area in which the square is situated was once derelict land and an area of housing near the Town Yard. The squares creation arose out of a project by Manchester Corporations Monuments Committee to erect a memorial to Prince Albert who had died of typhoid in 1861. After initial proposals to create a library, museum or botanical gardens. It was originally planned to place the monument in front of the Royal Infirmary building at Piccadilly, however it was felt that its ornate Gothic design was not in keeping with the neoclassical infirmary.
In 1863, land was offered by the Corporation which was cleared to make way for a public space, the project won much public support, the Manchester Bricklayers Protection Society donated 50,000 bricks towards the monuments construction, as an expression of sympathy towards our beloved Queen. Clearing the site began in 1864, and required the demolition of over 100 buildings, including the Engravers Arms pub, a coffee roasting works, a smithy, the project was encouraged by the visit of the Prince and Princess of Wales to open the Albert Monument in 1869. It was decided to construct a new hall for Manchester. Following an architectural competition, Gothic designs for a building with a bell tower by Sir Alfred Waterhouse were selected. In the early 1970s, there was a plan to build a station under Albert Square and neighbouring St Peters Square. The project was cancelled and the station was not built. In April 1972, the area around Albert Square was designated a conservation area, the centre of Albert Square was originally laid out in the form of a traffic circle and a group of bus stops occupied the western part.
In 1987 the square was redesigned and the side in front of the town hall was pedestrianised. The square was laid with fan-shaped granite setts, York stone paving, Albert Squares largest monument is the Grade I listed Albert Memorial, commemorating the Prince Consort. It features a statue of Albert standing on a plinth and facing west
George Meikle Kemp
George Meikle Kemp was a Scottish carpenter/joiner and self-taught architect. He is best known as the designer of the Scott Monument in central Edinburgh, Kemp was born the son of a shepherd in Moorfoot, near Gladhouse Reservoir on the southern slopes of the Pentland Hills south of Edinburgh. The family moved shortly afterwards to Newhall near Carlops, around 14 miles west and he was educated at the school in Penicuik, and was inspired, at the age of ten, by a visit to Rosslyn Chapel and Roslin Castle. In 1809 he was apprenticed to Andrew Noble, a master wright in Redscarhead, during his four-year training he began his own study of the ancient architecture of the Scottish Borders, including Melrose Abbey. After a year working for a millwright in Galashiels, Kemp moved to Edinburgh, working as a carpenter, in 1817, Kemp moved to England, working in Lancashire and travelling, on foot, to draw Gothic architecture as far away as York Minster. He returned to Scotland, basing himself in Glasgow for four years, here he continued to study architecture, but could not find permanent employment, so instead set off for France.
He spent a year working there, viewing Gothic architecture in Bolougne and Paris, in Edinburgh, he attempted to set up as a carpenter and joiner, and meanwhile continued his own studies. He was introduced to the architect William Burn by his brother Thomas, Burn engaged Kemp as a competent draughtsman, entrusting him with drawings for Bowhill House, the Dukes seat in the Borders. Kemp produced a model of a proposed new house for the Duke at Dalkeith. Kemp exhibited his own drawings of Melrose Abbey at the Scottish Academy exhibition of 1830, in 1832 he married Elizabeth Bonnar, daughter of William Bonnar, an Edinburgh painter whom Kemp would have encountered in the Academy. Like Walter Scott, Kemp was a Freemason, being initiated in Lodge Edinburgh St Andrew, No.48, in the early 1830s Kemp was engaged to produce measured drawings of historic Scottish buildings for a proposed book on Scotlands cathedrals and other antiquities. Although the project was abandoned, Kemp completed a series of drawings of Glasgow Cathedral.
He included a drawing showing how the cathedral may have looked, had it been completed as intended, even preparing a model and costs for the works. In 1836, these proposals were publicised by a set up to investigate the restoration of the cathedral. Kemp was even accused of copying Grahams design, and was not vindicated until 1840, after the death of the poet and novelist Sir Walter Scott in September 1832, a movement to erect a major monument was begun almost immediately. Fundraising began after a meeting in Edinburgh in October 1832. Kemp prepared a design in the space of five days, and submitted it under the pseudonym John Morvo, Kemp had feared his lack of architectural qualifications and reputation would disqualify him. A total of 54 competition entries were submitted, of which the top three were to receive premiums of 50 guineas, english architects Thomas Rickman and Charles Fowler were placed first and second, John Morvos design won the third premium
The Scott Monument is a Victorian Gothic monument to Scottish author Sir Walter Scott. It is the largest monument to a writer in the world and it stands in Princes Street Gardens in Edinburgh, opposite the Jenners department store on Princes Street and near to Edinburgh Waverley Railway Station, which is named after Scotts Waverley novels. The tower is 200 feet 6 inches high, and has a series of viewing platforms reached by a series of spiral staircases giving panoramic views of central Edinburgh. The highest platform is reached by a total of 287 steps and it is built from Binny sandstone quarried near Ecclesmachan in West Lothian. Following Scotts death in 1832, a competition was held to design a monument to him, an unlikely entrant went under the pseudonym John Morvo, the name of the medieval architect of Melrose Abbey. Morvo was in fact George Meikle Kemp, forty-five-year-old joiner, John Steell was commissioned to design a monumental statue of Scott to rest in the space between the towers four columns.
Steells statue, made from white Carrara marble, shows Scott seated, resting from writing one of his works with a quill pen, the foundation stone was laid on 15 August 1840. Following permission by an Act of Parliament, construction began in 1841, the tower was completed in the autumn of 1844, with Kemps son placing the finial in August of the year. The total cost was just over £16,154, see In total there are 68 figurative statues on the monument of which 64 are visible from the ground. Four figures are placed above the viewing gallery and are only visible by telephoto or from the viewing gallery itself. In addition, eight kneeling Druid figures support the viewing gallery. There are 32 unfilled niches at higher level, sixteen heads of Scottish poets and writers appear on the lower faces, at the top of the lower pilasters. In total,93 persons are depicted, plus two dogs and a pig, represents a small figure In the early 1990s it was proposed that the stonework should be cleaned. There were views for and against cleaning and a scientific/geological investigation and it was decided not to clean the stone due to the damage it would sustain.
A restoration programme was undertaken involving replacing old repairs and damaged areas with Binny stone for which purpose the original quarry was re-opened, the fresh stonework contrasts with the smoke-darkened original. The overall cost of the restoration was £2.36 million and was funded by the Heritage Lottery Fund, Historic Scotland, the monument is now administered by the Culture and Sport division of the City of Edinburgh Council. The monument is featured prominently in the movie Cloud Atlas, as a location which the character Robert Frobisher frequents
Albert, Prince Consort
Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was the husband of Queen Victoria. He was born in the Saxon duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld to a family connected to many of Europes ruling monarchs, at the age of 20, he married his first cousin, Queen Victoria, they had nine children. He was heavily involved with the organisation of the Great Exhibition of 1851, the Queen came to depend more and more on his support and guidance. Albert died at the young age of 42, plunging the Queen into deep mourning for the rest of her life. Upon Queen Victorias death in 1901, their eldest son succeeded as Edward VII, Albert was born at Schloss Rosenau, near Coburg, the second son of Ernest III, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, and his first wife, Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. Alberts future wife, was earlier in the same year with the assistance of the same midwife. Albert was baptised into the Lutheran Evangelical Church on 19 September 1819 in the Marble Hall at Schloss Rosenau with water taken from the local river, in 1825, Alberts great-uncle, Frederick IV, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, died.
His death led to a realignment of Saxon duchies the following year and Alberts father became the first reigning duke of Saxe-Coburg and his elder brother, spent their youth in a close companionship marred by their parents turbulent marriage and eventual separation and divorce. After their mother was exiled from court in 1824, she married her lover, Alexander von Hanstein, Count of Polzig and she presumably never saw her children again, and died of cancer at the age of 30 in 1831. The brothers were educated privately at home by Christoph Florschütz and studied in Brussels, like many other German princes, Albert attended the University of Bonn, where he studied law, political economics and the history of art. He played music and excelled at sport, especially fencing and riding and his tutors at Bonn included the philosopher Fichte and the poet Schlegel. By 1836, the idea of marriage between Albert and his cousin, had arisen in the mind of their ambitious uncle Leopold, at this time, Victoria was the heiress presumptive to the British throne.
Her father, Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent, the son of King George III, had died when she was a baby. Her mother the Duchess of Kent, was the sister of both Alberts father—the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha—and King Leopold. Leopold arranged for his sister, Victorias mother, to invite the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, William IV, disapproved of any match with the Coburgs, and instead favoured the suit of Prince Alexander, second son of the Prince of Orange. Victoria was well aware of the matrimonial plans and critically appraised a parade of eligible princes. Alexander, on the hand, she described as very plain. Victoria wrote to her uncle Leopold to thank him for the prospect of great happiness you have contributed to give me and he possesses every quality that could be desired to render me perfectly happy
Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are arbitrary. Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres, or 2% of the Earths surface, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a population of about 740 million as of 2015. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast, Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire, during the period, marked the end of ancient history. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era, from the Age of Discovery onwards, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania.
The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to economic and social change in Western Europe. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the west and the Warsaw Pact in the east, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1955, the Council of Europe was formed following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill and it includes all states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, the EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The European Anthem is Ode to Joy and states celebrate peace, in classical Greek mythology, Europa is the name of either a Phoenician princess or of a queen of Crete. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, broad and ὤψ eye, broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it.
For the second part the divine attributes of grey-eyed Athena or ox-eyed Hera. The same naming motive according to cartographic convention appears in Greek Ανατολή, Martin Litchfield West stated that phonologically, the match between Europas name and any form of the Semitic word is very poor. Next to these there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning darkness. Most major world languages use words derived from Eurṓpē or Europa to refer to the continent, in some Turkic languages the originally Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa
Frieze of Parnassus
The Frieze of Parnassus is a large sculpted stone frieze encircling the podium, or base, of the Albert Memorial in London, England. The Albert Memorial was constructed in the 1860s in memory of Prince Albert, the frieze is named after Mount Parnassus, the favorite resting place in Ancient Greek mythology for the muses. It contains 169 life-size full-length sculptures, a mixture of low-relief and high-relief, of individual composers, poets, the total length of the frieze is approximately 64 metres. The frieze was intended to be the soul of the memorial, the memorial was not laid out precisely to directions of the compass, closely enough that the sides are referred to by direction. Musicians and poets were placed on the side, with painters on the east side, sculptors on the west side. Henry Hugh Armstead carved the figures on the south and east sides, the painters and poets, John Birnie Philip carved the figures on the west and north sides, the sculptors and architects, and arranged them in chronological order.
The carving was executed in situ, and was said by Scott to be one of the most laborious works of sculpture ever undertaken. The initial contracts, agreed around 1864, had specified that the work was to be completed in four years for £7,781 15s, the eventual cost, exceeded this by some £2,000 and the work was not finished until 1872. Many figures of visual artists decorate the Victoria and Albert Museum close to the Albert Memorial at the end of the Albertopolis complex. A mosaic frieze of more generalised figures from the arts runs round the circular Royal Albert Hall adjacent to the memorial, the Parnassus by Raphael, opposite the philosophers of The School of Athens in the Vatican Raphael Rooms, is an earlier group portrait of great artists. The painters represented in the frieze reflect to some extent, Alberts own taste for the Primitives of the late Middle Ages, although Duccio is absent. Botticelli and Vermeer were yet to be rediscovered, and El Greco and Goya, no English poet after John Milton was featured.
Other figures commemorated elsewhere on the Albert Memorial, on the canopy mosaics, at least three of the sides have a central, pre-eminent figure seated on a throne, with Homer for the poets, Raphael for the painters, and Michelangelo for the sculptors. So Scott replaced his own statue with Pugins, and placed himself as a relief head, authentic period detail is seen in much of the clothing, the details of facial hair and accessories, including scrolls, books and palettes. The figures are posed, either in isolation or in groups, history of the design and construction of the podium figures Critical commentary and evaluation of the depictions of the poets and painters
An obelisk is a tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape or pyramidion at the top. These were originally called tekhenu by their builders, the Ancient Egyptians, the Greeks who saw them used the Greek obeliskos to describe them, and this word passed into Latin and ultimately English. Ancient obelisks are monolithic, that is, they consist of a single stone, though this technological capacity exists today, most modern obelisks are made of several stones, like the Washington Monument, are buildings. The term stele is used for other monumental, upright. Obelisks were prominent in the architecture of the ancient Egyptians, who placed them in pairs at the entrance of temples. The word obelisk as used in English today is of Greek rather than Egyptian origin because Herodotus, a number of ancient Egyptian obelisks are known to have survived, plus the Unfinished Obelisk found partly hewn from its quarry at Aswan. These obelisks are now dispersed around the world, and fewer than half of them remain in Egypt, the earliest temple obelisk still in its original position is the 68-foot 120-metric-ton red granite Obelisk of Senusret I of the XIIth Dynasty at Al-Matariyyah in modern Heliopolis.
The obelisk symbolized the sun god Ra, and during the religious reformation of Akhenaten was said to be a petrified ray of the Aten. It was thought that the god existed within the structure, Benben was the mound that arose from the primordial waters Nu upon which the creator god Atum settled in the creation story of the Heliopolitan creation myth form of Ancient Egyptian religion. The Benben stone is the top stone of the Egyptian pyramid and it is related to the Obelisk. The pyramid and obelisk might have inspired by previously overlooked astronomical phenomena connected with sunrise and sunset. The Ancient Romans were strongly influenced by the form, to the extent that there are now more than twice as many obelisks standing in Rome as remain in Egypt. All fell after the Roman period except for the Vatican obelisk and were re-erected in different locations. The largest standing and tallest Egyptian obelisk is the Lateran Obelisk in the square at the west side of the Lateran Basilica in Rome at 105.6 feet tall, not all the Egyptian obelisks in the Roman Empire were set up at Rome.
Herod the Great imitated his Roman patrons and set up a red granite Egyptian obelisk in the hippodrome of his new city Caesarea in northern Judea and this one is about 40 feet tall and weighs about 100 metric tons. It was discovered by archaeologists and has been re-erected at its former site and this one stood 95 feet tall and weighing 380 metric tons. Its lower half reputedly once stood in Istanbul but is now lost, the Istanbul obelisk is 65 feet tall. Rome is the capital of the world
The term Engineering is derived from the Latin ingenium, meaning cleverness and ingeniare, meaning to contrive, devise. Engineering has existed since ancient times as humans devised fundamental inventions such as the wedge, wheel, each of these inventions is essentially consistent with the modern definition of engineering. The term engineering is derived from the engineer, which itself dates back to 1390 when an engineer originally referred to a constructor of military engines. In this context, now obsolete, a referred to a military machine. Notable examples of the obsolete usage which have survived to the present day are military engineering corps, the word engine itself is of even older origin, ultimately deriving from the Latin ingenium, meaning innate quality, especially mental power, hence a clever invention. The earliest civil engineer known by name is Imhotep, as one of the officials of the Pharaoh, Djosèr, he probably designed and supervised the construction of the Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara in Egypt around 2630–2611 BC.
Ancient Greece developed machines in both civilian and military domains, the Antikythera mechanism, the first known mechanical computer, and the mechanical inventions of Archimedes are examples of early mechanical engineering. In the Middle Ages, the trebuchet was developed, the first steam engine was built in 1698 by Thomas Savery. The development of this gave rise to the Industrial Revolution in the coming decades. With the rise of engineering as a profession in the 18th century, similarly, in addition to military and civil engineering, the fields known as the mechanic arts became incorporated into engineering. The inventions of Thomas Newcomen and the Scottish engineer James Watt gave rise to mechanical engineering. The development of specialized machines and machine tools during the revolution led to the rapid growth of mechanical engineering both in its birthplace Britain and abroad. John Smeaton was the first self-proclaimed civil engineer and is regarded as the father of civil engineering.
He was an English civil engineer responsible for the design of bridges, harbours and he was a capable mechanical engineer and an eminent physicist. Smeaton designed the third Eddystone Lighthouse where he pioneered the use of hydraulic lime and his lighthouse remained in use until 1877 and was dismantled and partially rebuilt at Plymouth Hoe where it is known as Smeatons Tower. The United States census of 1850 listed the occupation of engineer for the first time with a count of 2,000, there were fewer than 50 engineering graduates in the U. S. before 1865. In 1870 there were a dozen U. S. mechanical engineering graduates, in 1890 there were 6,000 engineers in civil, mining and electrical. There was no chair of applied mechanism and applied mechanics established at Cambridge until 1875, the theoretical work of James Maxwell and Heinrich Hertz in the late 19th century gave rise to the field of electronics
Matthew Noble was a leading British portrait sculptor. Noble was born in Hackness, near Scarborough, as the son of a stonemason and he left Yorkshire for London when quite young, there he studied under John Francis. Exhibiting regularly at the Royal Academy from 1845 until his death, although prolific Noble was never in perfect health. He died at the age of 58 and is buried in Brompton Cemetery, London, on the west side of the entrance path from the north. His uncompleted works were finished by his assistant, J. Edwards, located at the Dr. Bhau Daji Lad Museum, Mumbai. Currently located in the grounds of the Dr. Bhau Daji Lad Museum, Mumbai
Sir Thomas Brock KCB RA was an English sculptor, and medallist, whose works include the monument to Queen Victoria in front of Buckingham Palace. Brock was born in Worcester, attended the School of Design there, in 1866 he became a pupil of the sculptor John Henry Foley. After Foleys death in 1874, Brock finished some of his commissions and it was his completion of Foleys statue of Prince Albert for the Albert Memorial which first brought Brock to prominence. His group The Moment of Peril was followed by The Genius of Poetry, at the Carlsberg Brewery in Copenhagen and other imaginative works that mark his development. According to legend, at the unveiling of the memorial in May 1911, George V was so moved by the excellence of the memorial that he called for a sword, Brock was elected an associate of the Royal Academy in 1883 and full member in 1891. He married in 1869, and had eight children, statue of Richard Baxter, 17th century English Puritan church leader and divine scholar. Originally in the Bull Ring, Kidderminster but moved to its present site, the Black Prince, Leeds City Square,1901.
Equestrian bronze A Moment of Peril now in the collection of Tate Britain, statue of Robert Raikes, Victoria Embankment Garden, London. Statue of Sir Rowland Hill, inventor of the Penny Black and bas-relief on the Sir Henry Bartle Frere Memorial, Whitehall Gardens, London. Monument to Henry Philpott, Bishop of Worcester, Design of Queen Victorias veiled or widowed head on British coinage and medals. Statue of Sir John Everett Millais, outside Tate Britain, represented standing holding a palette and a paintbrush. Originally erected on the east side of the gallery in 1905, statue of Queen Victoria, India,1906 Victoria Memorial, unveiled 1911, completed 1924 Equestrian statue of Edward VII, Macquarie Street, Sydney. Brock was chosen for the commission in 1915, but the work was not finished and delivered until 1921, unveiled in New Delhi, India,1922, it was removed in 1967, sold in 1968 and re-erected in Queens Park in Toronto, Canada in 1969. Bust of Henry W. Longfellow, Grand Pre, Nova Scotia, statue of Queen Victoria on the grounds of the Belfast City Hall.
Memorial to the victims of the sinking of the RMS Titanic, statue of Sir Henry Irving on Charing Cross Road, London. Figures of Navigation and Gunnery at the Admiralty Arch, New Haven, Yale University Press,1983. Exhibition catalogue, The Fine Art Society,148 New Bond Street London Wl.30 September –30 October 1968, John, ed. Thomas Brock, forgotten sculptor of the Victoria Memorial. Body Doubles, Sculpture in Britain, 1877–1905, New Haven, Yale University Press,2004
John Henry Foley
John Henry Foley RA, often referred to as JH Foley, was an Irish sculptor, working in London. He is best known for his statues of Daniel OConnell in Dublin, Foley was born 24 May 1818, at 6 Montgomery Street, Dublin, in what was the citys artists quarter. The street has since been renamed Foley Street in his honour and his father was a glass-blower and his step-grandfather Benjamin Schrowder was a sculptor. At the age of thirteen he began to study drawing and modelling at the Royal Dublin Society, in 1835 he was admitted as a student in the schools of the Royal Academy in London. He exhibited there for the first time in 1839, and came to fame in 1844 with his Youth at a Stream, thereafter commissions provided a steady career for the rest of his life. In 1849 he was made an associate, and in 1858 a full member of the Royal Academy, in 1864 he was chosen to sculpt one of the four large stone groups, each representing a continent, at the corners of George Gilbert Scotts Albert Memorial in Kensington Gardens.
His design for Asia was approved in December of that year, Foley exhibited at the Royal Academy between 1839 and 1861. Further works were shown posthumously in 1875 and his address is given in the catalogues as 57, George St. Euston Square, London until 1845, and 19, Osnaburgh Street from 1847. Foley died at Hampstead, north London on 27 August 1874 and he left his models to the Royal Dublin Society, where he had his early artistic education, and a large part of his property to the Artists Benevolent Fund. He did not see the Albert Memorial completed before his death, a statue of Foley himself, on the front of the Victoria and Albert Museum, depicts him as a rather gaunt figure with a moustache, wearing a floppy cap. Foleys articled pupil and studio assistant Francis John Williamson became a sculptor in his own right. They included those of Lord Carlisle, Lord Dunkellin and Field Marshal Gough in the Phoenix Park, the statue of Lord Dunkellin was decapitated and dumped in the river as one of the first acts of the short-lived Galway Soviet of 1922.
See Works at Wikimedia Commons His most notable include, In London and Caractacus, for the Mansion House. The Elder Brother from Comus, his diploma work, the Muse of Painting, a monument to James Ward, R. A. at Kensal Green Cemetery. John Hampden, John Selden and Charles Barry, for the Palace of Westminster, John Stuart Mill, for the Thames embankment. Sir Joshua Reynolds, in marble, Tate Gallery collection, the symbolical group Asia, and the statue of the prince himself, for the Albert Memorial in Kensington Gardens. In Ireland, Oliver Goldsmith and Edmund Burke, outside Trinity College, Field Marshal Gough, formerly in the Phoenix Park, now at Chillingham Castle. Model shown in Dublin in 1872, statue inaugurated January 1876, sir Dominic Corrigan, in marble, at the Graves Hall at the Royal College of Surgeons, Dublin
Order of the Garter
The Most Noble Order of the Garter, founded in 1348, is the highest order of chivalry and the third most prestigious honour in England and the United Kingdom. It is dedicated to the image and arms of Saint George and it is awarded at the Sovereigns pleasure as a personal gift on recipients from the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms. Membership of the Order is limited to the Sovereign, the Prince of Wales, the order includes supernumerary knights and ladies. New appointments to the Order of the Garter are always announced on St Georges Day, the orders emblem is a garter with the motto Honi soit qui mal y pense in gold lettering. Members of the wear it on ceremonial occasions. King Edward III founded the Order of the Garter around the time of his claim to the French throne, the list includes Sir Sanchet DAbrichecourt, who died on 20 October 1345. Other dates from 1344 to 1351 have been proposed, the Kings wardrobe account shows Garter habits first issued in the autumn of 1348. Also, its original statutes required that member of the Order already be a knight.
The earliest written mention of the Order is found in Tirant lo Blanch and it was first published in 1490. This book devotes a chapter to the description of the origin of the Order of the Garter, at the time of its foundation, the Order consisted of King Edward III, together with 25 Founder Knights, listed in ascending order of stall number in St.1431. Various legends account for the origin of the Order, the most popular legend involves the Countess of Salisbury, whose garter is said to have slipped from her leg while she was dancing at a court ball at Calais. When the surrounding courtiers sniggered, the king picked it up and returned it to her, Honi soit qui mal y pense, King Edward supposedly recalled the event in the 14th century when he founded the Order. This story is recounted in a letter to the Annual Register in 1774, The motto in fact refers to Edwards claim to the French throne, the use of the garter as an emblem may have derived from straps used to fasten armour. Medieval scholars have pointed to a connection between the Order of the Garter and the Middle English poem, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, in Gawain, a girdle, very similar in its erotic undertones to the garter, plays a prominent role.
A rough version of the Orders motto appears in the text and it translates from Old French as Accursed be a cowardly and covetous heart. While the author of that poem remains disputed, there seems to be a connection between two of the top candidates and the Order of the Garter. Scholar J. P. Oakden has suggested that it is related to John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, more importantly. Another competing theory is that the work was written for Enguerrand de Coucy, the Sire de Coucy was married to King Edward IIIs daughter and was given admittance to the Order of the Garter on their wedding day