Albert Romolo Broccoli, nicknamed "Cubby", was an American film producer who made more than 40 motion pictures throughout his career. Most of the films were made in the United Kingdom and filmed at Pinewood Studios. Co-founder of Danjaq, LLC and Eon Productions, Broccoli is most notable as the producer of many of the James Bond films, he and Harry Saltzman saw the films develop from low-budget origins to large-budget, high-grossing extravaganzas, Broccoli's heirs continue to produce new Bond films. Broccoli was born in the borough of Queens, New York City, the younger of two children of immigrants from the Calabria region of Italy, Giovanni Broccoli and Kristina Vence, he acquired his nickname after his cousin, mobster Pat DiCicco, began calling him "Kabibble," after a similarly-named cartoon character. This was shortened to "Kubbie" and adopted by Broccoli as "Cubby." The family bought a farm in Smithtown, New York, on Long Island, near their relatives the DiCiccos. The family moved to Florida, on the death of his father Giovanni, Broccoli moved to live with his grandmother in Astoria, Queens, in New York City.
Having worked many jobs, including casket maker, Broccoli became involved in the film industry. He started at the bottom, working as a gofer on Howard Hughes' The Outlaw, which starred Jane Russell. Here he met his lifelong friend Howard Hughes for the first time, while Hughes was overseeing the movie's production after director Howard Hawks was fired. Broccoli rose to the level of assistant director by the time the U. S. entered World War II. Broccoli is alleged to have been involved in an altercation with comedian and Three Stooges creator Ted Healy outside the Trocadero nightclub, just before the latter's death in 1937. A source alleged that actor Wallace Beery and film producer Pat DiCicco beat Healy so badly that he fell into a coma and died. While there is no documentation in contemporaneous news reports that either Beery or DiCicco was present, Broccoli admitted that he was indeed involved in a fist fight with Healy at the Trocadero, he modified his story, stating that a intoxicated Healy had picked a fight with him, the two had scuffled shook hands and parted ways.
In other reports, Broccoli admitted to pushing Healy, but not striking him. There is disagreement over whether Healy died as a result of the brawl or due to his well-known alcoholism; because of the authorities' lack of interest in investigating Healy's death, an autopsy was not performed until after Healy's body had been embalmed, rendering the examiner's note that Healy's organs were "soaked in alcohol" useless in determining a cause of death. Following the autopsy, the Los Angeles county coroner reported that Healy died of acute toxic nephritis secondary to acute and chronic alcoholism. Police closed their investigation, as there was no indication in the report that his death was caused by physical assault. At the beginning of the 1950s, Broccoli moved once more, this time to London, where the British government provided subsidies to film productions made in the UK with British casts and crews. Together with Irving Allen, Broccoli formed Warwick Films that made a prolific and successful series of films for Columbia Pictures.
When Broccoli became interested in bringing Ian Fleming's James Bond character into features, he discovered that the rights belonged to the Canadian producer Harry Saltzman, who had long wanted to break into film, who had produced several stage plays and films with only modest success. When the two were introduced by a common friend, screenwriter Wolf Mankowitz, Saltzman refused to sell the rights, but agreed to partner with Broccoli and co-produce the films, which led to the creation of the production company EON Productions and its parent company Danjaq, LLC, named after their two wives' first names—Dana and Jacqueline. Saltzman and Broccoli produced the first Bond film, Dr. No, in 1962, their second, From Russia with Love, was a break-out success and from on the films grew in cost and ambition. With larger casts, more difficult stunts and special effects, a continued dependence on exotic locations, the franchise became a full-time job. Broccoli made one notable attempt at a non-Bond film, an adaptation of Ian Fleming's Chitty Chitty Bang Bang in 1968, due to legal wrangling over the rights to story elements, ceded producer credit on Thunderball to Kevin McClory.
Nonetheless, by the mid-1960s, Broccoli had put nearly all of his energies into the Bond series. Saltzman's interests continued to range apart from the series, including production of a loose trilogy of spy films based on Len Deighton's Harry Palmer, a character who operates in a parallel universe to Bond, with all the danger but none of the glamour and gadgets. Saltzman and Broccoli had differences over Saltzman's outside commitments. While Saltzman's departure brought the franchise a step closer to corporate control, Broccoli lost little independence or prestige in the bargain. From until his death, the racy credits sequence to every EON Bond film would begin with the words "Albert R. Broccoli Presents." Although from the 1970s onward the films became lighter in tone and looser in plot—and, at times, less successful with critics—the series distinguished itself in production values and continued to appeal to audiences. In 1966, Albert was in Japan with other producers scouting locations to film the next James Bond film You Only Live Twice.
Frank Odoi, one of Africa's foremost cartoonists, was born in the mining town of Tarkwa in Western Ghana in 1948. He was the only boy amongst seven sisters, he lost his father at an early age and was raised by his mother. He was married to Monicah Asami, who changed her name to Caroline Odoi, they had three daughters Francesca Ajua Odoi and Francine Ashardey Odoi. After completing elementary school, Frank tried to join the military but was rejected because he was underage. So he enrolled at The Ghanatta School of Fine Arts and Design and found work at the Medical School in Ghana where he worked as an assistant medical artist. In the late 1970s, Odoi emigrated to Kenya where he joined up with the doyen of Kenyan cartoonists, Terry Hirst, became a contributor to Hirst's illustrated humour magazine Joe; as Hirst recalls, "Frank had seen a copy of Joe magazine in Ghana, just turned up in Nairobi to join us. We put him up for a while, he worked for Joe enthusiastically." Odoi inherited Terry’s position at the Daily Nation newspaper as editorial cartoonist but he continued working on other publications in collaboration with other Kenyan cartoonists such as Paul Kelemba and Kham.
Amongst the publications they collaborated on were Sukumawiki, Men Only and African Illustrated. Frank worked on educational books and comics and spent three years as an illustrator at the International Centre For Insect Physiology and Ecology, a job he described as challenging: "Can you imagine an Artist working in the middle of all those Scientists!!! That was challenging, but I did it for three years! After all, someone has to do it." Frank’s work has appeared in various international publications such as the Ugandan Monitor, New Vision of Uganda, Daily Graphic of Ghana, Dejembe Dapanda, Helsingin Sanomat and the BBC’s Focus on Africa magazine. He has held exhibitions in East Africa, West Africa and Europe, but the work Frank is most famous for is the Akokhan series. This comic series is about the centuries-long rivalry between Akokhan and his evil nemesis, Tonkazan. A fan of Western comic-book superheroes as a child, Frank wanted a superhero whose powers came from "unexplainable" sources unlike Western superheroes who "derived their powers from scientific... and thus explainable sources."
So he created Akokhan, an African superhero based on African folklore whose power sources are unexplainable. "Call it magic, but when you breath life into fantasy, it stops being magic… bringing fantasy and African roots-religion together gave me Akokhan." The first book collection of Akokhan was published in Finnish in Finland in 2007 and an English version was launched in Nairobi by Kenway Publications. Another of Frank's famous works is the Golgoti series which appeared in newspapers in Ghana and East Africa; this series is about a white explorer who comes to Africa, but this time the story is narrated from the black man’s perspective. Book versions of the Golgoti comic series have been published in England. Frank Odoi was a member of World Comics Finland and chairperson of the East African association of Cartoonists, he received the cartoonist of the year award in Kenya in 1985, 1986, 2004 and the cartoonist of the year award in Ghana in 2005. He was a director of Four Dimension Innovative, a media company based in Nairobi, where he helped develop and launch the XYZ Show, a daring satirical puppet show similar to the British 1980's show Spitting Image and France's Les Guignols.
Frank died on 21 April 2012 when a matatu he was riding in veered off the road and crashed into a ditch, killing the cartoonist and another passenger
Mines and Collieries Act 1842 known as the Mines Act 1842, was an act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The Act forbade women and girls of any age to work underground and introduced a minimum age of ten for boys employed in underground work, it was a response to the working conditions of children revealed in the Children's Employment Commission 1842 report. The Commission was headed by Anthony Ashley-Cooper, Member of Parliament, styled Baron Ashley at the time, a courtesy title, would succeed his father as the 7th Earl of Shaftesbury in 1852. At the beginning of the 19th century methods of coal extraction were primitive and the workforce, men and children, laboured in dangerous conditions. In 1841 about 216,000 people were employed in the mines. Women and children worked underground for 12 hours a day for smaller wages than men; the public became aware of conditions in the country's collieries in 1838 after an accident at Huskar Colliery in Silkstone, near Barnsley. A stream overflowed into the ventilation drift after violent thunderstorms causing the death of 26 children.
The disaster came to the attention of Queen Victoria. In 1840 Lord Ashley headed the royal commission of inquiry, which investigated the conditions of workers in the coal mines. Commissioners visited collieries and mining communities gathering information sometimes against the mine owners' wishes; the report, illustrated by engraved illustrations and the personal accounts of mineworkers was published in May 1842. Victorian society was shocked to discover that children as young as five or six worked as trappers and shutting ventilation doors down the mine, before becoming hurriers and pulling coal tubs and corfs. Lord Ashley deliberately appealed to Victorian prudery, focussing on girls and women wearing trousers and working bare-breasted in the presence of boys and men, which "made girls unsuitable for marriage and unfit to be mothers"; such an affront to Victorian morality ensured. Lord Londonderry, a coal-mine owner, opposed the Bill in the House of Lords and pushed through amendments that watered it down.
The bill passed the House of Lords at its third reading on 1 August 1842. No females could be employed underground No child under 10 years old was to be employed underground Parish apprentices between the ages of 10 and 18 could continue to work in the mines "House of Lords, 1842", Historic Hansard, Parliament of the United Kingdom, retrieved 31 January 2020 Davies, The Pit Brow Women of the Wigan Coalfield, Tempus, ISBN 0-7524-3912-X