Albert Speer

Albert Speer was the Minister of Armaments and War Production in Nazi Germany during most of World War II. A close ally of Adolf Hitler, he was convicted at the Nuremberg trials and sentenced to 20 years in prison. An architect by training, Speer joined the Nazi Party in 1931, his architectural skills made him prominent within the Party, he became a member of Hitler's inner circle. Hitler instructed him to design and construct structures including the Reich Chancellery and the Nazi party rally grounds in Nuremberg. In 1937, Hitler appointed Speer as General Building Inspector for Berlin. In this capacity he was responsible for the Central Department for Resettlement that evicted Jewish tenants from their homes in Berlin. In February 1942, Speer was appointed as Reich Minister of War Production. Using doctored statistics, he promoted himself as having performed an "armaments miracle", credited with keeping Germany in the war. In 1944, Speer established a task force to increase production of fighter aircraft.

It became instrumental in the exploitation of slave labor for the benefit of the German war effort. After the war, Speer was among the 24 "major war criminals" arrested and charged with the crimes of the Nazi regime at the Nuremberg trials, he was found guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity, principally for the use of slave labor, narrowly avoiding a death sentence. Having served his full term, Speer was released in 1966, he used his writings from the time of imprisonment as the basis for two autobiographical books, Inside the Third Reich and Spandau: The Secret Diaries. Speer's books were a success. Speer died of a stroke in 1981. Little remains of his personal architectural work. Through his autobiographies and interviews, Speer constructed an image of himself as a man who regretted having failed to discover the monstrous crimes of the Third Reich, he continued to deny explicit knowledge of, responsibility for, the Holocaust. This image dominated his historiography in the decades following the war, giving rise to the "Speer Myth".

The first theme of the myth posits that after his appointment as Minister of Armaments he revolutionized the German war machine. The second theme is. Beginning in the 1980s, the myth began to fall apart; the armaments miracle was attributed to Nazi propaganda. Adam Tooze wrote in The Wages of Destruction that the idea that Speer was an apolitical technocrat was "absurd". Martin Kitchen, writing in Speer: Hitler's Architect, stated that much of the increase in Germany's arms production was down to systems instituted by Speer's predecessor and furthermore Speer was intimately involved in the "Final Solution". Speer was born into an upper-middle-class family, he was the second of three sons of Albert Friedrich Speer. In 1918, the family moved to a home they had in Heidelberg. Henry T. King, deputy prosecutor at the Nuremberg trials who wrote a book about Speer said, "Love and warmth were lacking in the household of Speer's youth." His brothers and Hermann, bullied him throughout his childhood. Speer was active in sports, mountaineering.

He studied architecture. Speer began his architectural studies at the University of Karlsruhe instead of a more acclaimed institution because the hyperinflation crisis of 1923 limited his parents' income. In 1924 when the crisis had abated, he transferred to the "much more reputable" Technical University of Munich. In 1925 he transferred again, this time to the Technical University of Berlin where he studied under Heinrich Tessenow, whom Speer admired. After passing his exams in 1927, Speer became Tessenow's assistant, a high honor for a man of 22; as such, Speer taught some of his classes while continuing his own postgraduate studies. In Munich Speer began a close friendship spanning over 50 years, with Rudolf Wolters, who studied under Tessenow. In mid-1922, Speer began courting Margarete Weber, the daughter of a successful craftsman who employed 50 workers; the relationship was frowned upon by Speer's class-conscious mother, who felt the Webers were inferior. Despite this opposition, the two married in Berlin on August 28, 1928.

The couple would have six children together, but Albert Speer grew distant from his family after 1933. He remained so after his release from imprisonment in 1966, despite their efforts to forge closer bonds. In January 1931, Speer applied for Nazi Party membership, on March 1, 1931, he became member number 474,481; the same year, with stipends shrinking amid the Depression, Speer surrendered his position as Tessenow's assistant and moved to Mannheim, hoping to make a living as an architect. After he failed to do so, his father gave him a part-time job as manager of his properties. In July 1932, the Speers visited Berlin to help out the Party before the Reichstag elections. While they were there his friend, Nazi Party official Karl Hanke recommended the young architect to Joseph Goebbels to help renovate the Party's Berlin headquarters; when the commission was completed, Speer returned to Mannheim and remained there as Hitler took office in January 1933. The organizers of the 1933 Nuremberg Rally asked Speer to submit designs for the rally, bringing him into contact with Hitler for the first time.

Neither the organizers nor Rudolf Hess were willing to decide whether to approve the plans, Hess sent

1993 Hockey East Men's Ice Hockey Tournament

The 1993 Hockey East Men's Ice Hockey Tournament was the 9th Tournament in the history of the conference. It was played between March 12 and March 20, 1993. Quarterfinal games were played at home team campus sites, while the final four games were played at the Boston Garden in Boston, the home venue of the NHL's Boston Bruins. By winning the tournament, Maine received the Hockey East's automatic bid to the 1993 NCAA Division I Men's Ice Hockey Tournament; the tournament featured three rounds of play. In the first round, the first and eighth seeds, the second and seventh seeds, the third seed and sixth seeds, the fourth seed and fifth seeds played a two-game series where the team that scored the most total goals was declared the winner and advanced to the semifinals. In the semifinals, the highest and lowest seeds and second highest and second lowest seeds play a single-elimination game, with the winners advancing to the championship game and the losers meeting in a third-place game; the tournament champion receives an automatic bid to the 1993 NCAA Division I Men's Ice Hockey Tournament.

Note: GP = Games Played.

Alice Coke, Countess of Leicester

Alice Emily Coke, Countess of Leicester, styled The Honourable Alice White from 1873 to 1879 and Viscountess Coke from 1879 to 1909, was an Anglo-Irish aristocrat active in the British Red Cross during the First World War. She was the daughter of Sir Luke White, who succeeded as 2nd Baron Annaly in 1873, she married Viscount Coke on 26 August 1879. He succeeded his father as 3rd Earl of Leicester in 1909; the couple had five children, including 4th Earl of Leicester. She was a prominent figure in Norfolk, becoming a Justice of the Peace in 1922, she was president of the Norfolk Branch of the British Red Cross Society during the War, was in consequence appointed Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 1920 civilian war honours. She died at Holkham Hall on 24 April 1936