The Nuremberg trials were a series of military tribunals held after World War II by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war. The trials were most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political, military and economic leadership of Nazi Germany, who planned, carried out, or otherwise participated in the Holocaust and other war crimes; the trials were held in Nuremberg and their decisions marked a turning point between classical and contemporary international law. The first and best known of the trials was that of the major war criminals before the International Military Tribunal, it was described as "the greatest trial in history" by Sir Norman Birkett, one of the British judges present throughout. Held between 20 November 1945 and 1 October 1946, the Tribunal was given the task of trying 24 of the most important political and military leaders of the Third Reich. Martin Bormann unknown to the Allies, died in May 1945 and was tried in absentia. Another defendant, Robert Ley, committed suicide within a week of the trial's commencement.
Adolf Hitler and Joseph Goebbels had both committed suicide in the spring of 1945 to avoid capture. Heinrich Himmler was captured before he could succeed. Heinrich Müller disappeared the day after Hitler's suicide, the most senior figure of the Nazi regime whose fate remains unknown. Reinhard Heydrich had been assassinated by Czech partisans in 1942. Josef Terboven killed himself with dynamite in Norway in 1945. Adolf Eichmann fled to Argentina to avoid capture but was apprehended by Israel's intelligence service and hanged after a trial in Jerusalem in 1962. Hermann Göring was sentenced to death but committed suicide by swallowing cyanide the night before his execution. Treated here is the first trial, conducted by the International Military Tribunal. Further trials of lesser war criminals were conducted under Control Council Law No. 10 at the U. S. Nuremberg Military Tribunal, which included the Doctors' trial and the Judges' Trial; the categorization of the crimes and the constitution of the court represented a juridical advance that would be followed afterward by the United Nations for the development of an international jurisprudence in matters of war crimes, crimes against humanity, wars of aggression, led to the creation of the International Criminal Court.
For the first time in international law, the Nuremberg indictments mention genocide A precedent for trying those accused of war crimes had been set at the end of World War I in the Leipzig War Crimes Trials held in May to July 1921 before the Reichsgericht in Leipzig, although these had been on a limited scale and regarded as ineffectual. At the beginning of 1940, the Polish government-in-exile asked the British and French governments to condemn the German invasion of their country; the British declined to do so. Bland because of Anglo-French reservations, it proclaimed the trio's "desire to make a formal and public protest to the conscience of the world against the action of the German government whom they must hold responsible for these crimes which cannot remain unpunished."Three-and-a-half years the stated intention to punish the Germans was much more trenchant. On 1 November 1943, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States published their "Declaration on German Atrocities in Occupied Europe", which gave a "full warning" that, when the Nazis were defeated, the Allies would "pursue them to the uttermost ends of the earth... in order that justice may be done....
The above declaration is without prejudice to the case of the major war criminals whose offences have no particular geographical location and who will be punished by a joint decision of the Government of the Allies." This intention by the Allies to dispense justice was reiterated at the Yalta Conference and at Potsdam in 1945. British War Cabinet documents, released on 2 January 2006, showed that as early as December 1944 the Cabinet had discussed their policy for the punishment of the leading Nazis if captured; the British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, had advocated a policy of summary execution in some circumstances, with the use of an Act of Attainder to circumvent legal obstacles, being dissuaded from this only by talks with US and Soviet leaders in the war. In late 1943, during the Tripartite Dinner Meeting at the Tehran Conference, the Soviet leader, Joseph Stalin, proposed executing 50,000–100,000 German staff officers. US President Franklin D. Roosevelt joked that 49,000 would do.
Churchill, believing them to be serious, denounced the idea of "the cold blooded execution of soldiers who fought for their country" and that he would rather be "taken out in the courtyard and shot" himself than partake in any such action. However, he stated that war criminals must pay for their crimes and that, in accordance with the Moscow Document which he himself had written, they should be tried at the places where the crimes were committed. Churchill was vigorously opposed to executions "for political purposes." According to the minutes of a meeting between Roosevelt and Stalin at Yalta, on 4 February 1945, at the Livadia Palace, President Roosevelt "said that he had been much struck by the extent of German destruction in
George Spence was a Scottish professional footballer who played at either half-back or inside-forward for various clubs in Scotland and England around the turn of the twentieth century. Spence was born in Rothesay on the Isle of Bute and started his football career on the Scottish mainland with St Mirren, before moving to England in 1897. After a brief spell at Derby County, Spence joined Gainsborough Trinity of the Football League Second Division in the summer of 1898, he spent one season with Gainsborough playing at inside-right, when he made 26 league appearances, scoring ten goals. Spence moved to Reading of the Southern League where he spent two seasons before returning to the Football League with Preston North End in May 1901, he spent the 1901 -- 02 season at Preston. At the end of the season, Preston finished in third place, nine points behind Middlesbrough in the runners-up position. Spence returned to Reading for a further season. In the 1903 close season, Spence moved to Southampton.
At the "Saints", Spence was used much as a utility player appearing in various positions either at half-back or as a forward, although he was played on the left. He made his debut for Southampton playing at left-half in a 3–0 victory at New Brompton on 12 September 1903. Described as "fast, clever and a glutton for work", Spence made a few appearances in the various forward positions over the next six months, but it was not until March 1904 that he became established in the side when he took over from Samuel Meston at left-half for the remainder of the season. At the end of the season, Spence helped the Saints retain the Southern League championship, before moving on to Hull City. Hull City were founded in June 1904 and were restricted to friendly matches, although they did enter the FA Cup in the preliminary round, where they were eliminated by Stockton after a replay, with Spence scoring twice, thus becoming Hull's "top-scorer" in competitive matches in the 1904–05 season. In 1905, Hull City were admitted to the expanded Football League Second Division.
Spence had the honour of scoring Hull's first goal in the Football League, in a 4–1 victory over Barnsley on 2 September 1905. Hull finished their first league season in fifth place, with Spence having scored twice from 19 appearances as an inside-forward. At the end of the season, Spence returned to Scotland and played out his career with Clyde and Cowdenbeath. SouthamptonSouthern League champions: 1903–04
John W. Ryan was an American designer. Ryan worked at toy company Mattel for 20 years, becoming the company's vice president of research and development. There he was responsible for the Barbie doll, Hot Wheels, Chatty Cathy, he was the sixth husband of actress Zsa Zsa Gabor. Ryan graduated from Yale University, after which he worked at aerospace company Raytheon as an engineer, working on the AIM-7 Sparrow and MIM-23 Hawk missiles. Mattel hired him for knowledge of materials. In 1956, Mattel co-owner Ruth Handler returned from a European vacation with a German-designed Bild Lilli doll, she and Ryan worked on producing a similar fashion doll for the American market. Ryan worked on the V-rroom! X-15 velocipede, named after the North American X-15 rocket-powered aircraft, patented the V-RROOM! Toy engines that simulated motorcycle engine sounds, he designed the mechanics of the Chatty Cathy dolls. Ryan's relationship with Mattel soured, in 1980 he sued Mattel for royalties. Ryan suffered a debilitating stroke in 1989.
St Ursula's Convent School is a Roman Catholic secondary school for girls, located in the Greenwich area of the Royal Borough of Greenwich in London, England. St Ursula's is a voluntary aided school, is part of the Ursuline Order within the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Southwark; the school is part of the Greenwich Local Authority, coordinates with Greenwich London Borough Council for admissions. The school offers BTECs as programmes of study for pupils. St Ursula's has additional resources for the specialism; the school is designated as a Teaching School. Margaret Moran, former Labour Party member of Parliament Adelaide Damoah St Ursula's Convent School official website
Pedal tones are special low notes in the harmonic series of cylindrical-bore brass instruments. A pedal tone has the pitch of its harmonic series' fundamental tone, its name comes from the foot pedal keyboard pedals of a pipe organ, which are used to play 16' and 32' sub-bass notes by pressing the pedals with the player's feet. Cylindrical brasses do not vibrate at this frequency. A closed cylinder vibrates at only the odd members of its harmonic series; this set of pitches is too sparse to be musically useful for brass instruments. The bell raises all pitches in the series, the mouthpiece limits the amount to which higher harmonics are raised; the resulting set of pitches is a new harmonic series altogether. This new series has all but one of its members present, instead of only the odd members; the member not present in the new series is the fundamental. The original fundamental is not raised all the way to the new fundamental pitch, the original third harmonic becomes the new second harmonic.
The new fundamental can be played, however, as a pedal tone. The higher resonances of the new series help the lips vibrate at the fundamental frequency and allow the pitch to sound; the resulting tone relies on overtones for its perception, but in the hands of a skilled player, pedal tones can be controlled and can sound characteristic to the instrument. Pedal tones are called for in advanced brass repertoire in that of the trombone and the bass trombone. Although not overly much used, pedal tones can be played on a didgeridoo. Nave, C. R. Brass acoustics, accessed 2007-07-04 Wolfe, Joe. Acoustics of brass instruments: an introduction, accessed 2007-07-04
Peter Dvorský is a Slovak operatic tenor. Possessing a lyrical voice with a soft, elastic tone, warm and melodious timbre, Dvorský's repertoire concentrates on roles from the Italian and Slavic repertories. Dvorský was born in Horná Ves Czechoslovakia, now Slovakia. Dvorský has four brothers, three of whom are successful opera singers: Jaroslav Dvorský, Miroslav Dvorský and Pavol Dvorský, his other brother, Vendelín Dvorský, is an economist. Dvorský studied under Ida Černecká at the Bratislava State Conservatory. There he enjoyed his first successes at the Slovak National Theatre, making his professional opera debut there in 1972 as Lensky in Tchaikovsky's Eugene Onegin, he won the national singing contest named after Mikuláš Schneider-Trnavský at Trnava in 1973, in 1974 he won the first prize at the international Tchaikovsky Competition in Moscow. In 1975, he won first place in the singing contest at the Geneva International Music Competition which led to a yearlong apprenticeship under Renata Carosia and Giuseppe Lugga at La Scala in Milan.
In the following years, he achieved international fame. He debuted at the Vienna State Opera, where he was successful and popular, in 1976, at the New York Metropolitan Opera in 1977, one year at La Scala, Milan. Dvorský was esteemed by Luciano Pavarotti, who referred to him several times as, "my legitimate successor". In these years he became one of the leading tenors worldwide, he received several distinctions, among others being a national artist and state prize-winner of the former Czechoslovakia. Since 2006, Dvorský has been the head of the opera house in Košice of the opera house of the Slovak National theater in Bratislava. Interview with Peter Dvorský, October 14, 1984