A monogram is a motif made by overlapping or combining two or more letters or other graphemes to form one symbol. Monograms are made by combining the initials of an individual or a company, used as recognizable symbols or logos. A series of uncombined initials is not a monogram. Monograms first appeared on coins, as early as 350BC; the earliest known examples are of the names of Greek cities which issued the coins the first two letters of the city's name. For example, the monogram of Achaea consisted of the letters alpha and chi joined together. Monograms have been used as signatures by artists and craftsmen on paintings and pieces of furniture when guilds enforced measures against unauthorized participation in the trade. A famous example of a monogram serving as an artist's signature is the "AD" used by Albrecht Dürer. Over the centuries, monograms of the name of Jesus Christ have been used as Christian symbols; the IX monogram consists of the initial Greek letters of the name "Jesus Christ," "I" for Ιησούς, "X" for Χριστος.
The "IHS" Christogram, denoting the first three letters of the Greek name of Jesus, is written as a cypher, but sometimes as a monogram. The most significant Christogram is the Chi Rho, formed from the first two letters of Χριστος. Signum manus refers to the medieval practice, current from the Merovingian period until the 14th century in the Frankish Empire and its successors, of signing a document or charter with a special type of monogram or royal cypher. Monograms of the names of monarchs are used as part of the insignia of public organizations in kingdoms, such as on police badges; this indicates a connection to the ruler. However, the royal cypher, so familiar on pillar boxes, is not technically a monogram, since the letters are not combined. Royal monograms appear on coins surmounted by a crown. Countries that have employed this device in the past include Bulgaria, Great Britain, Russia and many German states. Today, several Danish coins carry the monogram of Margrethe II, while the current Norwegian 1 Krone coin has the "H5" monogram of Harald V on the obverse.
The only countries using the Euro to have a royal monogram as their national identifying mark are Belgium and Monaco. In Thailand, royal monograms appear on the individual flag for each major royal family member. An individual's monogram is a fancy piece of art used for stationery, for adorning luggage, for embroidery on clothing, so forth; these monograms may have three letters. A basic 3-letter monogram has the initial of the individual's last name set larger, or with some special treatment in the center, while the first name initial appears to the left of it and the middle name initial appears to the right of it. There is a difference in how this is written for women. For example, if the individual's name is Mary Ann Jones, Jones is the surname the arrangement of letters would be thus: MJA, with the surname initial set larger in the center, the M for Mary to the left and the A for Ann to the right. Traditionally, individual monograms for men are based on the order of the name; the name Kyle George Martin would be written.
Married or engaged couples may use two-letter monograms of their entwined initials, for example on wedding invitations. Married couples may create three-letter monograms incorporating the initial of their shared surname. For example, the monogram MJA might be used for Alice Jones. However, monogramming etiquette for the married couple varies according to the item being monogrammed. Linens, for example list the woman's given initial first, followed by the couple's shared surname initial and the man's given initial. Monograms can be found on custom dress shirts where they can be located in a number of different positions; some personal monograms have become famous symbols in their own right and recognizable to many, such as J. R. R. Tolkien's monogram; some companies and organizations adopt a monogram for a logo with the letters of their acronym. For example, as well as having an official seal, the Texas Longhorns logo, the University of Texas at Austin uses a "UT" monogram; the New York Yankees baseball team uses a monogram on their ball cap insignia.
The Consolidated Edison logo, with a rounded "E" nested inside a "C," has been described as a "classic emblem."Many fashion companies have a monogram for a logo, including Louis Vuitton and Fendi. The connected "CC" company logo, created by Coco Chanel, is one of the most recognizable monograms internationally. Athletes have been known to brand merchandise with their monogram logo. A notable example of a royal monogram is the H7 monogram of King Haakon VII of Norway. While in exile during World War II, Haakon VII spearheaded the Norwegian resistance to the German occupation, H7 became a symbol used by the Norwegian populace to mark solidarity and loyalty to the King, adherence to the Norwegian resistance movement; the act of drawing or creating a H7 symbol in German-occupied Norway was punishable by imprisonment. During World War II in Poland, the "PW" monogram was used as a resistance symbol, known as The Anchor, or Kotwica due to its characteristic shape, its meaning varied, as the initials were useful for many different slogans, such as Poland Fights, Warsaw Uprising, Polish Army and others.
Like the Norwegian example above, its use was punished by the Nazi occupation authorities. A Japanese rebus monogram is a monogram in a particular style, which spells a name via a reb
Calgary is a city in the Canadian province of Alberta. It is situated at the confluence of the Bow River and the Elbow River in the south of the province, in an area of foothills and prairie, about 80 km east of the front ranges of the Canadian Rockies; the city anchors the south end of what Statistics Canada defines as the "Calgary–Edmonton Corridor". The city had a population of 1,267,344 in 2018, making it Alberta's largest city and Canada's third-largest municipality. In 2016, Calgary had a metropolitan population of 1,392,609, making it the fourth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada; the economy of Calgary includes activity in the energy, financial services and television, transportation and logistics, manufacturing, aerospace and wellness, tourism sectors. The Calgary CMA is home to the second-highest number of corporate head offices in Canada among the country's 800 largest corporations. In 2015, Calgary had the highest number of millionaires per capita of any major city in Canada.
In 1988, Calgary became the first Canadian city to host the Winter Olympic Games. Calgary has been recognized for its high quality of life. In 2018, The Economist magazine ranked Calgary the fourth-most liveable city in the world in their Global Liveability Ranking. Calgary is classed as a Beta global city. Calgary was named after Calgary on the Isle of Scotland. In turn, the name originates from a compound of kald and gart, similar Old Norse words, meaning "cold" and "garden" used when named by the Vikings who inhabited the Inner Hebrides. Alternatively, the name might be Gaelic Cala ghearraidh, meaning "beach of the meadow", or Gaelic for either "clear running water" or "bay farm"; the indigenous peoples of Southern Alberta referred to the Calgary area as "elbow", in reference to the sharp bend made by the Bow River and the Elbow River. In some cases, the area was named after the reeds that grew along the riverbanks, which were used to fashion bows. In the Blackfoot language, the area was known as Mohkínstsis akápiyoyis, meaning "elbow many houses", reflecting its strong settler presence.
The shorter form of the Blackfoot name, Mohkínstsis meaning "elbow", has been the popular Indigenous term for the Calgary area. In the Nakoda language, the area is known as Wincheesh-pah or Wenchi Ispase, both meaning "elbow". In the Nehiyaw Language, the area was known as Otoskwanik meaning "house at the elbow" or Otoskwunee meaning "elbow". In the Tsuut'ina language, the area is known as Kootsisáw meaning "elbow". In the Slavey language, the area was known as Klincho-tinay-indihay meaning "many horse town", referring to the Calgary Stampede and the city's settler heritage. There have been several attempts to revive the indigenous names of Calgary. In response to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, local post-secondary institutions have adopted "official acknowledgements" of indigenous territory using the Blackfoot name of the City, Mohkínstsis. In 2017, the Stoney Nakoda sent an application to the Government of Alberta, to rename Calgary as Wichispa Oyade meaning "elbow town", however this has been challenged by the Piikani Blackfoot.
The Calgary area was inhabited by pre-Clovis people whose presence has been traced back at least 11,000 years. The area has been inhabited by the Niitsitapi, îyârhe Nakoda, the Tsuut'ina First Nations peoples and Métis Nation, Region 3; as Mayor Naheed Nenshi describes, "There have always been people here. In Biblical times there were people here. For generations beyond number, people have come here to this land, drawn here by the water, they come here to fish. He was the first recorded European to visit the area. John Glenn was the first documented European settler in the Calgary area, in 1873. In 1875, the site became a post of the North-West Mounted Police; the NWMP detachment was assigned to protect the western plains from US whisky traders, to protect the fur trade. Named Fort Brisebois, after NWMP officer Éphrem-A. Brisebois, it was renamed Fort Calgary in 1876 by Colonel James Macleod; when the Canadian Pacific Railway reached the area in 1883, a rail station was constructed, Calgary began to grow into an important commercial and agricultural centre.
Over a century the Canadian Pacific Railway headquarters moved to Calgary from Montreal in 1996. Calgary was incorporated as a town in 1884, elected its first mayor, George Murdoch. In 1894, it was incorporated as "The City of Calgary" in what was the North-West Territories; the Calgary Police Service was established in 1885 and assumed municipal, local duties from the NWMP. The Calgary Fire of 1886 occurred on November 7, 1886. Fourteen buildings were destroyed with losses estimated at $103,200. Although no one was killed or injured, city officials drafted a law requiring all large downtown buildings to be built with Paskapoo sandstone, to prevent this from happening again. After the arrival of the railway, the Dominion Government started leasing grazing land at minimal cost; as a result of this policy, large ranching operations were established in the outlying country near Calgary. A transportation and distribution hub, Calgary became the centre of Canada's cattle marketing and meatpacking industries.
By the late 19th century, the Hud
Vancouver Island is in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. It is part of the Canadian province of British Columbia; the island is 460 kilometres in length, 100 kilometres in width at its widest point, 32,134 km2 in area. It is the largest island on the West Coast of the Americas; the southern part of Vancouver Island and some of the nearby Gulf Islands are the only parts of British Columbia or Western Canada to lie south of the 49th Parallel. This area has one of the warmest climates in Canada, since the mid-1990s has been mild enough in a few areas to grow subtropical Mediterranean crops such as olives and lemons. Vancouver Island had a population in 2016 of 775,347. Nearly half of that population live in the metropolitan area of Greater Victoria. Other notable cities and towns on Vancouver Island include Nanaimo, Port Alberni, Parksville and Campbell River. Victoria, the capital city of British Columbia, is located on the island, but the larger city of Vancouver is not – it is on the North American mainland, across the Strait of Georgia from Nanaimo.
Vancouver Island has been the homeland to many indigenous peoples for thousands of years. The island was explored by Spanish expeditions in the late 18th century, it was named Quadra's and Vancouver's Island in commemoration of the friendly negotiations held in 1792 by Spanish commander of the Nootka Sound settlement, Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra, by British naval captain George Vancouver, during the Nootka Crisis. Bodega y Quadra's name was dropped from the name, it is one of several North American locations named after George Vancouver, who explored the Pacific Northwest coast between 1791 and 1794. Vancouver Island is the world's 43rd largest island, Canada's 11th largest island, Canada's second most populous island after the Island of Montreal, it is the largest Pacific island anywhere east of New Zealand. Vancouver Island has been the homeland to many indigenous peoples for thousands of years; the groupings, by language, are the Kwakwaka'wakw, Nuu-chah-nulth, various Coast Salish peoples.
Kwakwaka'wakw territory includes northern and northwestern Vancouver Island and adjoining areas of the mainland, the Nuu-chah-nulth span most of the west coast, while the Coast Salish cover the southeastern Island and southernmost extremities along the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Their cultures are connected to the natural resources abundant in the area; the Kwakwaka'wakw today number about 5,500, who live in British Columbia on northern Vancouver Island and the mainland. They are known as Kwakiutl in English, from one of their tribes, but they prefer their autonym Kwakwaka'wakw, their indigenous language, part of the Wakashan family, is Kwak'wala. The name Kwakwaka'wakw means "speakers of Kwak'wala"; the language is now spoken by less than 5% of the population—about 250 people. Today 17 separate tribes make up the Kwakwaka'wakw; some Kwakwaka'wakw groups are now extinct. Kwak'wala is a Northern Wakashan language, a grouping shared with Haisla and Wuikyala. Kwakwaka'wakw centres of population on Vancouver Island include communities such as Fort Rupert, Alert Bay and Quatsino, The Kwakwaka'wakw tradition of the potlatch was banned by the federal government of Canada in 1885, but has been revived in recent decades.
The Nuu-chah-nulth are indigenous peoples in Canada. Their traditional home is on the west coast of Vancouver Island. In pre-contact and early post-contact times, the number of nations was much greater, but as in the rest of the region and other consequences of contact resulted in the disappearance of some groups, the absorption of others into neighbouring groups, they were among the first Pacific peoples north of California to come into contact with Europeans, as the Spanish and British attempted to secure control of Pacific Northwest and the trade in otter pelts, with Nootka Sound becoming a focus of these rivalries. The Nuu-chah-nulth speak a Southern Wakashan language and are related to the Makah of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington State and Ditidaht; the Coast Salish are the largest of the southern groups. They are a loose grouping of many tribes with languages. On Vancouver Island, Coast Salish peoples territory traditionally spans from the northern limit of the Gulf of Georgia on the inside of Vancouver Island and covering most of southern Vancouver Island.
Distinct nations within the Coast Salish peoples on Vancouver Island include the Chemainus, the Comox of the Comox Valley area, the Cowichan of the Cowichan Valley, the Esquimalt, the Saanich of the Saanich Peninsula, the Songhees of the Victoria area and Snuneymuxw in the Nanaimo area. Europeans began to explore the island in 1774, when rumours of Russian fur traders caused Spain to send a number of expeditions to assert its long-held claims to the Pacific Northwest; the first expedition was that of the Santiago, under the command of Juan José Pérez Hernández. In 1775, a second Spanish expedition under the Spanish Peruvian captain Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra was sent. By 1776 Spanish exploration had reached Bucareli Bay including the mouth of the Columbia River between Oregon and Washington, Sitka Sound. Vancouver Island came to the attention of Britain after the third voyage of Captain James Cook, who spent a month during 1778 at Nootka Sound, on the island's western coast. Cook claimed it for Great Britain.
The island's rich fur-trading potential led the fur trader John Meares to set up a single-building trading post near the native village of Yuquot, at the entrance to Nootka Sound. The building was removed by the end of 1788; the island was further explored by Spain in 1789 with Esteban José Martínez, who est
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll, was the sixth child and fourth daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. In her public life, she was a strong proponent of the arts and higher education and of the feminist cause, her early life was spent moving among the various royal residences in the company of her family. When her father, the prince consort, died on 14 December 1861, the court went into a long period of mourning, to which with time Louise became unsympathetic. Louise was an able sculptor and artist, several of her sculptures remain today, she was a supporter of the feminist movement, corresponding with Josephine Butler, visiting Elizabeth Garrett. Before her marriage, from 1866 to 1871, Louise served as an unofficial secretary to her mother, the Queen; the question of Louise's marriage was discussed in the late 1860s. Suitors from the royal houses of Prussia and Denmark were suggested, but Victoria did not want her to marry a foreign prince, therefore suggested a high-ranking member of the British aristocracy.
Despite opposition from members of the royal family, Louise fell in love with John, Marquess of Lorne, the heir of the Duke of Argyll. Victoria consented to the marriage, which took place on 21 March 1871. Despite a happy beginning, the two drifted apart because of their childlessness and the queen's constraints on their activities. In 1878, Lorne was appointed Governor General of Canada, a post he held 1878–1884. Louise was viceregal consort, her names were used to name many features in Canada. Following Victoria's death in 1901, Louise entered the social circle established by her brother, the new king, Edward VII. Louise's marriage survived thanks to long periods of separation. After the end of the First World War in 1918, at the age of 70, she began to retire from public life, undertaking few public duties outside Kensington Palace, where she died at the age of 91. Louise was born on 18 March 1848 at London, she was the fourth daughter and sixth child of the reigning British monarch, Queen Victoria, her husband, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
Her birth coincided with revolutions which swept across Europe, prompting the queen to remark that Louise would turn out to be "something peculiar". The queen's labour with Louise was the first to be aided with chloroform. Albert and Victoria chose the names Louisa Caroline Alberta, she was baptized on 13 May 1848 in Buckingham Palace's private chapel by John Bird Sumner, the Archbishop of Canterbury. Though she was christened Louisa at the service, she was invariably known as Louise throughout her life, her godparents were Duke Gustav of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. During the ceremony, the Duchess of Gloucester, one of the few children of King George III, still alive, forgot where she was, got up in the middle of the service and knelt at the queen's feet, much to the queen's horror. Like her siblings, Louise was brought up with the strict programme of education devised by her father, Prince Albert, his friend and confidant, Baron Stockmar; the young children were taught practical tasks, such as cooking, household tasks and carpentry.
From her early years, Louise was a talented and intelligent child, her artistic talents were recognised. On his visit to Osborne House in 1863, Hallam Tennyson, the son of the poet Alfred, Lord Tennyson, remarked that Louise could "draw beautifully"; because of her royal rank, an artistic career was not considered. However, the queen first allowed her to attend art school under the tutelage of the sculptor Mary Thornycroft, allowed her to study at the National Art Training School, now The Royal College of Art. South Kensington. Louise became an able dancer, Victoria wrote, after a dance, that Louise "danced the sword dance with more verve and accuracy than any of her sisters", her wit and intelligence made her a favourite with her father, with her inquisitive nature earning her the nickname "Little Miss Why" from other members of the royal family. Louise's father, Prince Albert, died at Windsor on 14 December 1861; the queen was devastated, ordered her household to move from Windsor to Osborne House on the Isle of Wight.
The atmosphere of the royal court became gloomy and morbid in the wake of the prince's death, entertainments became dry and dull. Louise became dissatisfied with her mother's prolonged mourning. For her seventeenth birthday in 1865, Louise requested the ballroom to be opened for a debutante dance, the like of which had not been performed since Prince Albert's death, her request was refused, her boredom with the mundane routine of travelling between the different royal residences at set times irritated her mother, who considered Louise to be indiscreet and argumentative. The queen comforted herself by rigidly continuing with Prince Albert's plans for their children. Princess Alice was married to Prince Louis, the future Grand Duke of Hesse, at Osborne on 1 June 1862. In 1863, the Prince of Wales, married Princess Alexandra of Denmark; the queen made it a tradition that the eldest unmarried daughter would become her unofficial secretary, a position which Louise filled in 1866, despite the queen's concern that she was indiscreet.
Louise, proved to be good at the job: Victoria wrote shortly afterwards: "She is a clever de
109 Street, Edmonton
109 Street is an arterial road in central Edmonton, Canada. It takes travelers out of Downtown to the south to Old Strathcona, to the north to the Kingsway area, it passes several Edmonton landmarks including the Garneau Theatre, Alberta Legislature Building, MacEwan University, RCMP "K" Division Headquarters, Kingsway Mall. It is a one-way street, from 97 Avenue to Saskatchewan Drive, to cross the North Saskatchewan River on the narrow High Level Bridge. Before Edmonton's amalgamation with Strathcona in 1912, the Edmonton portion was known as 9th Street while the Strathcona portion was known as 5th Street W. 109 Street between Whyte Avenue and Kingsway is part of the original alignment of Highway 2 through Edmonton, the designation was moved to Whitemud Drive in the 1980s. List of neighbourhoods 109 Street runs through, in order from south to north: Pleasantview Parkallen Allendale McKernan Queen Alexandra Garneau Downtown Oliver Queen Mary Park Central McDougall This is a list of major intersections, starting at the south end of 109 Street.
The entire route is in Edmonton. List of streets in Edmonton Transportation in Edmonton
North Saskatchewan River valley parks system
The North Saskatchewan River valley parks system is a continuous collection of urban parks in the North Saskatchewan River valley of Edmonton, Alberta. The parks range from waterside to cliff side to cliff top locations bordering the North Saskatchewan River. Edmonton's river valley comprises over 20 major parks and attractions and forms the largest expanses of urban parkland in Canada; the public river valley parks provide a unique urban escape area with park styles ranging from serviced urban parks to campsite-like facilities with few amenities. At 7,400 ha in size and 48 km in length, the river valley parks system includes 22 ravines, which have a combined total length of 103 km, it includes 11 lakes. Most of the city has walking trail connections; these trails are part of the 309 km Waskahegan walking trail. Several golf courses, both public and private, are located in the river valley; the long summer daylight hours of this northern city provide for extended play well into the evening. Golf courses and the park system become a winter recreation area during this season.
Cross-country skiing and skating are popular during the long winter. Four downhill ski slopes are located in the river valley as well, two within the city and two outside; the City of Edmonton has named five parks in its river valley parks system in honour of each of "The Famous Five". The largest share of the protected areas in the river valley is occupied by various municipal parks. Located on both sides of the North Saskatchewan River, moving from west to east along the river, are: Terwillegar Park - south bank Oleskiw River Valley Park - north bank Whitemud Park - south bank Sir Wilfrid Laurier Park - north bank Buena Vista Park - north bank William Hawrelak Park - south bank McKinnon Ravine Park - north bank Government House Park - north bank Emily Murphy Park - south bank Victoria Park - north bank Kinsmen Park - south bank Queen Elizabeth Park - south bank Nellie McClung Park - south bank Irene Parlby Park - north bank Rossdale Park - north bank Louise McKinney Park - north bank Henrietta Muir Edwards Park / Rafters Landing - south bank Mill Creek Ravine Park - south bank Gallagher Park - south bank Riverdale Park - north bank Allan Stein Park - north bank Forest Heights Park - south bank Dawson Park - north bank Kinnaird Park and Ravine - north bank Capilano Park - south bank Gold Bar Park - south bank Floden Park - north bank Tiger Goldstick Park - south bank Rundle Park - north bank Hermitage Park - north bankThe City operates several public facilities in the river valley: Fort Edmonton Park Edmonton Valley Zoo Muttart Conservatory John Janzen Nature Centre Riverside Golf Course Victoria Golf Course Rundle Park Golf CourseThe provincial government owns the following sites in the river valley: Strathcona Science Provincial Park Alberta Legislature Building and grounds Royal Alberta Museum and Government HouseHiking and multi-use trails run throughout these parks and connect to other trails through the city and outside as well forming an integrated system.
The river valley parks in particular are part of the Trans Canada trail systems. Edmonton's river valley park system is home to porcupines, coyotes, muskrats and beavers. Edmonton's streets and parklands are home to one of the largest remaining concentrations of healthy American Elm trees in the world, unaffected by Dutch Elm disease, which has wiped out vast numbers of such trees in eastern North America. Jack Pine, Lodgepole Pine, White Spruce, White Birch, Green Ash, various poplars and willows, Manitoba Maple are abundant. Introduced tree species include Blue Spruce, Norway Maple, Red Oak, Sugar Maple, Common Horse-chestnut, McIntosh Apple, Evans Cherry. Three walnut species -- Butternut, Manchurian Walnut and Black Walnut—have survived in Edmonton; the idea of uniting the parks of the river valley into one parks system dates back to at least the 1970s. In 1974, Alberta Premier Peter Lougheed announced the creation of the Capital City Recreation Park, consisting of a 14.5-kilometre stretch of parks from the Legislature grounds east to the Beverly Bridge at an estimated cost of $30–35 million.
The River Valley Alliance is a grouping of municipal governments in the Edmonton region that have committed to expanding the River Valley Parks System outside of Edmonton's city limits. The plan calls for a 18,000-acre zone to be called the Capital Region Valley Park stretched over 88 kilometres running from Devon to Fort Saskatchewan. In January 2008, the City of Edmonton paid a record C$7 million to buy a parcel of land to fill in a gap in the otherwise continuous chain of parks; the city further promised to spend C$20 million of pedestrian bridges and trails, but said that the as yet unnamed park would be left in an undeveloped state. Urban parks in Canada
Ancient Greek architecture
The architecture of ancient Greece is the architecture produced by the Greek-speaking people whose culture flourished on the Greek mainland, the Peloponnese, the Aegean Islands, in colonies in Anatolia and Italy for a period from about 900 BC until the 1st century AD, with the earliest remaining architectural works dating from around 600 BC. Ancient Greek architecture is best known from its temples, many of which are found throughout the region, the parthenon is a prime example of this as ruins but many intact; the second important type of building that survives all over the Hellenic world is the open-air theatre, with the earliest dating from around 525-480 BC. Other architectural forms that are still in evidence are the processional gateway, the public square surrounded by storied colonnade, the town council building, the public monument, the monumental tomb and the stadium. Ancient Greek architecture is distinguished by its formalised characteristics, both of structure and decoration; this is so in the case of temples where each building appears to have been conceived as a sculptural entity within the landscape, most raised on high ground so that the elegance of its proportions and the effects of light on its surfaces might be viewed from all angles.
Nikolaus Pevsner refers to "the plastic shape of the temple... placed before us with a physical presence more intense, more alive than that of any building". The formal vocabulary of ancient Greek architecture, in particular the division of architectural style into three defined orders: the Doric Order, the Ionic Order and the Corinthian Order, was to have profound effect on Western architecture of periods; the architecture of ancient Rome grew out of that of Greece and maintained its influence in Italy unbroken until the present day. From the Renaissance, revivals of Classicism have kept alive not only the precise forms and ordered details of Greek architecture, but its concept of architectural beauty based on balance and proportion; the successive styles of Neoclassical architecture and Greek Revival architecture followed and adapted Ancient Greek styles closely. The mainland and islands of Greece are rocky, with indented coastline, rugged mountain ranges with few substantial forests; the most available building material is stone.
Limestone was available and worked. There is an abundance of high quality white marble both on the mainland and islands Paros and Naxos; this finely grained material was a major contributing factor to precision of detail, both architectural and sculptural, that adorned ancient Greek architecture. Deposits of high quality potter's clay were found throughout Greece and the Islands, with major deposits near Athens, it was used not only for pottery vessels, but roof tiles and architectural decoration. The climate of Greece is maritime, with both the coldness of winter and the heat of summer tempered by sea breezes; this led to a lifestyle. Hence temples were placed on hilltops, their exteriors designed as a visual focus of gatherings and processions, while theatres were an enhancement of a occurring sloping site where people could sit, rather than a containing structure. Colonnades encircling buildings, or surrounding courtyards provided shelter from the sun and from sudden winter storms; the light of Greece may be another important factor in the development of the particular character of ancient Greek architecture.
The light is extremely bright, with both the sky and the sea vividly blue. The clear light and sharp shadows give a precision to the details of landscape, pale rocky outcrops and seashore; this clarity is alternated with periods of haze. In this characteristic environment, the ancient Greek architects constructed buildings that were marked by precision of detail; the gleaming marble surfaces were smooth, fluted, or ornately sculpted to reflect the sun, cast graded shadows and change in colour with the ever-changing light of day. Historians divide ancient Greek civilization into two eras, the Hellenic period, the Hellenistic period. During the earlier Hellenic period, substantial works of architecture began to appear around 600 BC. During the period, Greek culture spread as a result of Alexander's conquest of other lands, as a result of the rise of the Roman Empire, which adopted much of Greek culture. Before the Hellenic era, two major cultures had dominated the region: the Minoan, the Mycenaean.
Minoan is the name given by modern historians to the culture of the people of ancient Crete, known for its elaborate and richly decorated palaces, for its pottery painted with floral and marine motifs. The Mycenaean culture, which flourished on the Peloponnesus, was quite different in character, its people built citadels and tombs rather than palaces, decorated their pottery with bands of marching soldiers rather than octopus and seaweed. Both these civilizations came to an end around 1100 BC, that of Crete because of volcanic devastation, that of Mycenae because of an invasion by the Dorian people who lived on the Greek mainland. Following these events, there was a period; this period is thus referred to as a Dark Age. The art history of the Hellenic era is subdivided into four periods: the Protogeometric, the Geometric, the Archaic and the Classical with sculpture being further divided into Sever