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Albertus Magnus

Albertus Magnus known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a German Catholic Dominican friar and bishop. Canonised as a Catholic saint, he was known during his lifetime as Doctor universalis and Doctor expertus and, late in his life, the sobriquet Magnus was appended to his name. Scholars such as James A. Weisheipl and Joachim R. Söder have referred to him as the greatest German philosopher and theologian of the Middle Ages; the Catholic Church distinguishes him as one of the 36 Doctors of the Church. It seems that Albert was born sometime before 1200, given well-attested evidence that he was aged over 80 on his death in 1280. Two sources say that Albert was about 87 on his death, which has led 1193 to be given as the date of Albert's birth, but this information has not enough evidence. Albert was born in Lauingen, since he called himself'Albert of Lauingen', but this might be a family name. Most his family was of ministerial class. Albert was educated principally at the University of Padua, where he received instruction in Aristotle's writings.

A late account by Rudolph de Novamagia refers to Albertus' encounter with the Blessed Virgin Mary, who convinced him to enter Holy Orders. In 1223 he became a member of the Dominican Order, studied theology at Bologna and elsewhere. Selected to fill the position of lecturer at Cologne, where the Dominicans had a house, he taught for several years there, as well as in Regensburg, Freiburg and Hildesheim. During his first tenure as lecturer at Cologne, Albert wrote his Summa de bono after discussion with Philip the Chancellor concerning the transcendental properties of being. In 1245, Albert became master of theology under Gueric of Saint-Quentin, the first German Dominican to achieve this distinction. Following this turn of events, Albert was able to teach theology at the University of Paris as a full-time professor, holding the seat of the Chair of Theology at the College of St. James. During this time Thomas Aquinas began to study under Albertus. Albert was the first to comment on all of the writings of Aristotle, thus making them accessible to wider academic debate.

The study of Aristotle brought him to study and comment on the teachings of Muslim academics, notably Avicenna and Averroes, this would bring him into the heart of academic debate. In 1254 Albert was made provincial of the Dominican Order, fulfilled the duties of the office with great care and efficiency. During his tenure he publicly defended the Dominicans against attacks by the secular and regular faculty of the University of Paris, commented on John the Evangelist, answered what he perceived as errors of the Islamic philosopher Averroes. In 1259 Albert took part in the General Chapter of the Dominicans at Valenciennes together with Thomas Aquinas, masters Bonushomo Britto and Peter establishing a ratio studiorum or program of studies for the Dominicans that featured the study of philosophy as an innovation for those not sufficiently trained to study theology; this innovation initiated the tradition of Dominican scholastic philosophy put into practice, for example, in 1265 at the Order's studium provinciale at the convent of Santa Sabina in Rome, out of which would develop the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, the "Angelicum".

In 1260 Pope Alexander IV made him bishop of Regensburg, an office from which he resigned after three years. During the exercise of his duties he enhanced his reputation for humility by refusing to ride a horse, in accord with the dictates of the Order, instead traversing his huge diocese on foot; this earned him the affectionate sobriquet "boots the bishop" from his parishioners. In 1263 Pope Urban IV relieved him of the duties of bishop and asked him to preach the eighth Crusade in German-speaking countries. After this, he was known for acting as a mediator between conflicting parties. In Cologne he is not only known for being the founder of Germany's oldest university there, but for "the big verdict" of 1258, which brought an end to the conflict between the citizens of Cologne and the archbishop. Among the last of his labors was the defense of the orthodoxy of his former pupil, Thomas Aquinas, whose death in 1274 grieved Albert. Albert was a scientist, astrologer, spiritual writer and diplomat.

Under the auspices of Humbert of Romans, Albert molded the curriculum of studies for all Dominican students, introduced Aristotle to the classroom and probed the work of Neoplatonists, such as Plotinus. Indeed, it was the thirty years of work done by Aquinas and himself that allowed for the inclusion of Aristotelian study in the curriculum of Dominican schools. After suffering a collapse of health in 1278, he died on November 15, 1280, in the Dominican convent in Cologne, Germany. Since November 15, 1954, his relics are in a Roman sarcophagus in the crypt of the Dominican St. Andreas Church in Cologne. Although his body was discovered to be incorrupt at the first exhumation three years after his death, at the exhumation in 1483 only a skeleton remained. Albert was beatified in 1622, he was canonized and proclaimed a Doctor of the Church on December 16, 1931, by Pope Pius XI and the patron saint of natural scientists in 1941. St. Albert's feast day is November 15. Albert's writings collected in 1899 went to thirty-eight volumes.

These displayed his prolific habits and encyclopedic knowledge of topics such as logi

1929–30 Ottawa Senators season

The 1929–30 Ottawa Senators season was the club's 13th season in the NHL, 45th overall. The Senators finished third in the Canadian Division, making the playoffs, losing in the first round to the New York Rangers, it would be the original Senators last playoff appearance. The Senators made a modification to their jerseys; the club had last. According to Frank Ahearn, the Senators lost $CDN 32,000 on the season; as told to King Clancy, this was the prime reason for the trade of Clancy before the next season. It was part of a pattern of Ottawa selling players off to cover losses; the Senators would continue to have some financial difficulties, due to poor attendance against US-based teams, the Senators moved 2 home games to Atlantic City against the New York Americans and New York Rangers, along with two to Detroit, a game to Boston. Hec Kilrea would lead the club with 36 goals and 58 points, while King Clancy would add 40 points from the blue line. Joe Lamb would provide toughness, leading the NHL with 119 penalty minutes, would have a good offensive season, finishing with 29 goals and 49 points.

Alec Connell would once again be steady in the Senators net, winning 21 games, earning three shutouts and be among the league leaders in GAA at 2.55. Note: W = Wins, L = Losses, T = Ties, GF = Goals For, GA = Goals Against, Pts = Points Teams that qualified for the playoffs are highlighted in bold. A – Played in Atlantic City, New Jersey; the Senators went against the Rangers and lost 6 goals to 3, or 3–6. ScoringGoaltending ScoringGoaltending Source: "Hockey Transactions Search Results". Prosportstransactions.com. Retrieved 2009-05-19. 1929–30 NHL season McFarlane, Brian. Clancy: The King's Story. ECW Press. ISBN 1-55022-332-1. "1929–30 Ottawa Senators Games". Hockey-reference.com. Retrieved 2009-05-06. SHRP Sports The Internet Hockey Database National Hockey League Guide & Record Book 2007

41st Ohio Infantry

The 41st Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry was an infantry regiment in the Union Army during the American Civil War. The 41st served in the Western Theatre for the entire war, under such well-known generals as Grant and Sherman, it fought in many battles over the course of four years. It earned a reputation among the hardscrabble Western units for its spit and polish, was held as an example of good soldiering; the Medal of Honor was newly established at the start of the Civil War, over 1,500 Federal troops were awarded it during the conflict. Two of them were in the 41st. Much of the success of the 41st OVI was due to the abilities of its initial commander, William Babcock Hazen. Hazen, a graduate of West Point, was a professional soldier in the Regular Army before the war. Though the volunteers felt he was too harsh and dictatorial, once battle was joined, their opinions rose along with their success. Hazen had grown up in northeastern Ohio near Hiram, returned to that area in fall of 1861 to raise a volunteer regiment.

The regiment organized at Camp Wood in Cleveland with much of August through October spent organizing and drilling. On October 29, 1861, the regiment mustered into service for a term of three years. In November 1861, the regiment moved to Louisville, Kentucky on to Camp Wickliffe to join its brigade. Once arrived, it was organized as part of the 15th Brigade, 4th Division, Army of the Ohio, under Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell. Shortly after arriving, some of the men carried out a scouting expedition into western Virginia. In January 1862, the regiment was armed by the State of Ohio. Prior to this, the men were using whatever weapons they may have brought from home or acquired on their own; the official issue weapons were a great disappointment to the men, however, as they were provided with "Greenwood Rifles". While the weapons were functional and would serve the men in battle, they felt they were unreliable and inaccurate; because of this, the men sought to replace these weapons. Early in 1862, General Grant and General Buell were advancing south through Kentucky toward Nashville, with Grant on the western side of the Tennessee River, Buell on the eastern side.

Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnston's Army of Tennessee was moving to oppose this advance, Johnson chose to strike before the two Union armies could join together. He chose to attack Grant's formations on the western bank, near Pittsburg Landing and a small chapel called Shiloh Church. Johnson began his attack just before dawn on April 6, 1862; the 41st Ohio was with Buell's army on the eastern bank of the river. Prior to the battle, Colonel Hazen had been promoted to command of the 19th Brigade in the Army of the Ohio, of which the 41st OVI was one of three regiments. Of these three regiments, the 41st was the smallest, having been reduced to 371 active duty men through sickness and incapacitation during their months of training and marching. Above Hazen in the chain of command was Brigadier General William "Bull" Nelson, in charge of the 4th Division, in the vanguard of the advance toward the action at Pittsburg Landing. For most of April 6, the division was stopped eight miles away from the river crossing to Pittsburg Landing, waiting for promised local guides who could help them find their way through the swampy ground in front of them.

Though some could hear the battle raging, at that time they could not tell if it was a major engagement or a skirmish. In the afternoon of April 6, a local pro-Union resident was found to guide the division forward, the advance started; the difficult march through a narrow track in the swamp caused the division to become strung out and separated. At 5 p.m. the lead elements arrived at the crossing point on the east bank of the river. Across the river chaos ensued, with 10,000 to 15,000 disorganized Union troops milling about seeking a way to escape the Confederate attack, in the process of smashing the Federal lines on the west bank. Desperate to begin moving his men across the river, Nelson commandeered any floating craft he could and pressed them into service, shuttling men of the 4th Division to the west bank. Despite his best efforts, however, by the time Johnson and his Confederates launched their final attacks around 6 p.m. only about 500 men of the division had made it across. The rest, still working their way out of the swamp, began to stack up on the eastern bank, waiting for transport.

Among the stranded troops were the 41st. After nightfall, under the light of torches and bonfires, the shuttling of troops across the river continued. To make matters worse for the demoralized Federal troops, rain began to fall; the 41st crossed the river in the night and moved to take up its assigned position not far from the river, to the right of the 4th Division. Not long after finding their place, the troops began to prepare for a pre-dawn counterattack against the Confederates. At 5 a.m. the troops stepped off. Due to inexperience and rough ground, the troops had to pause to adjust their alignment, they crossed over Dill's Creek, began to come across corpses from the previous day's fighting. They advanced cautiously through the underbrush to the edge of Cloud Field, near a set of ancient Indian mounds; the division soon came upon Confederate pickets, drove them back, at about 6 a.m. began to come under artillery fire. The division halted. Hazen'